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Diffuse tensor imaging

Fusun Citak-Er, Zeynep Firat, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Ugur Ture, Esin Ozturk-Isik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of multi-parametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative features in the machine learning-based grading of gliomas with a multi-region-of-interests approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients who were newly diagnosed as having a glioma were included in this study. The patients were scanned prior to any therapy using a standard brain tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol that included T1 and T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, diffusion tensor, MR perfusion and MR spectroscopic imaging...
June 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Junpeng Liu, Jiajia Zhu, Fei Yuan, Xuejun Zhang, Quan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic or classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic painful condition characterized by intermittent pain attacks. Enough evidence demonstrates classical TN is related to neurovascular compression (NVC) at the trigeminal root entry zone (REZ), but white matter change secondary to TN are not totally known. METHODS: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and diffusion tensor imaging were performed on 29 patients with right TN and 35 healthy individuals...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Liu Yang, Kewei Chen, Rong Chen, Ying Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a preclinical phase that can last for decades prior to clinical dementia onset. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the last preclinical AD stage prior to the development of amnestic mild cognitive decline (aMCI) and AD dementia (d-AD). The analysis of brain structural networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has identified the so-called 'rich club', a set of cortical regions highly connected to each other, with other regions referred to as peripheral. It has been reported that rich club architecture is affected by regional atrophy and connectivity, which are reduced in patients with aMCI and d-AD...
2018: Theranostics
Saïd Boujraf
Background: A color mapping of fiber tract orientation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be prominent in clinical practice. The goal of this paper is to perform a comparative study of visualized diffusion anisotropy in the human brain anatomical entities using three different color-mapping techniques based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and DTI. Methods: The first technique is based on calculating a color map from DWIs measured in three perpendicular directions...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Sona Saksena, Mahdi Alizadeh, Devon M Middleton, Chris J Conklin, Laura Krisa, Adam Flanders, M J Mulcahey, Feroze B Mohamed, Scott H Faro
Study design: Retrospective study. Objectives: To perform quantitative DTI measurements of the entire cervical and thoracic spinal cord (SC) in typically developing (TD) pediatric subjects with incidental findings of syringomyelia or hydromyelia on conventional MRI and in a TD population without any abnormalities. Setting: USA. Methods: 26 TD recruited as part of large SC DTI study, four of these had incidental findings...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Natalia Kowalczyk, Feng Shi, Mikolaj Magnuski, Maciek Skorko, Pawel Dobrowolski, Bartosz Kossowski, Artur Marchewka, Maksymilian Bielecki, Malgorzata Kossut, Aneta Brzezicka
Experienced video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognition when compared to non-players. However, very little is known about the relation between video game experience and structural brain plasticity. To address this issue, a direct comparison of the white matter brain structure in RTS (real time strategy) video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) was performed. We hypothesized that RTS experience can enhance connectivity within and between occipital and parietal regions, as these regions are likely to be involved in the spatial and visual abilities that are trained while playing RTS games...
June 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Niels Bergsland, Ferdinand Schweser, Michael G Dwyer, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ralph H B Benedict, Robert Zivadinov
Thalamic white matter (WM) injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains relatively poorly understood. Combining multiple imaging modalities, sensitive to different tissue properties, may aid in further characterizing thalamic damage. Forty-five MS patients and 17 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC) were scanned with 3T MRI to obtain quantitative measures of diffusivity and magnetic susceptibility. Participants underwent cognitive evaluation with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis battery...
June 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Elizabeth Silbermann, Lindsey Wooliscroft, Dennis Bourdette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trials using agents directed at neuroprotection and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) are needed. As optic neuritis (ON) is common in people with MS and the pathology of ON is similar to other MS lesions in the brain, measurements of the anterior visual system are frequently utilized in neuroprotection and remyelination trials. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the measurements is vital when interpreting the results of this research. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques such as visual evoked potentials (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are well established in MS and are thought to measure axonal integrity and myelination...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Isaac M Adanyeguh, Vincent Perlbarg, Pierre-Gilles Henry, Daisy Rinaldi, Elodie Petit, Romain Valabregue, Alexis Brice, Alexandra Durr, Fanny Mochel
Objective: As gene-based therapies may soon arise for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), there is a critical need to identify biomarkers of disease progression with effect sizes greater than clinical scores, enabling trials with smaller sample sizes. Methods: We enrolled a unique cohort of patients with SCA1 ( n  = 15), SCA2 ( n  = 12), SCA3 ( n  = 20) and SCA7 ( n  = 10) and 24 healthy controls of similar age, sex and body mass index. We collected longitudinal clinical and imaging data at baseline and follow-up (mean interval of 24 months)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Cristina Rosazza, Francesco Deleo, Ludovico D'Incerti, Luigi Antelmi, Giovanni Tringali, Giuseppe Didato, Maria G Bruzzone, Flavio Villani, Francesco Ghielmetti
Objective: Mechanisms of motor plasticity are critical to maintain motor functions after cerebral damage. This study explores the mechanisms of motor reorganization occurring before and after surgery in four patients with drug-refractory epilepsy candidate to disconnective surgery. Methods: We studied four patients with early damage, who underwent tailored hemispheric surgery in adulthood, removing the cortical motor areas and disconnecting the corticospinal tract (CST) from the affected hemisphere. Motor functions were assessed clinically, with functional MRI (fMRI) tasks of arm and leg movement and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) before and after surgery with assessments of up to 3 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sung H Jang, Jung W Kwon, Sang S Yeo
Purpose: The vestibulospinal tract (VST) is involved in balance control and gait function. No research has identified the VST in the human brain. In the current study, we attempted to identify the medial and lateral VST in the human brain, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Materials and Methods: We recruited 40 healthy volunteers for this study. For reconstruction of the medial VST, a seed region of interest (ROI) was placed on the medial vestibular nuclei in the pons and target ROI on the posteromedial medulla...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Timothée Jacquesson, William Hula, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
The human inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) is a ventral, temporo-occipital association tract. Though described in early neuroanatomical works, its existence was later questioned. Application of in vivo tractography to the neuroanatomical study of the ILF has generally confirmed its existence, however, consensus is lacking regarding its subdivision, laterality and connectivity. Further, there is a paucity of detailed neuroanatomic data pertaining to the exact anatomy of the ILF. Generalized Q-Sampling imaging (GQI) is a non-tensor tractographic modality permitting high resolution imaging of white-matter structures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Fulvia Palesi, Andrea De Rinaldis, Paolo Vitali, Gloria Castellazzi, Letizia Casiraghi, Giancarlo Germani, Sara Bernini, Nicoletta Anzalone, Matteo Cotta Ramusino, Federica M Denaro, Elena Sinforiani, Alfredo Costa, Giovanni Magenes, Egidio D'Angelo, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Giuseppe Micieli
Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) together represent the majority of dementia cases. Since their neuropsychological profiles often overlap and white matter lesions are observed in elderly subjects including AD, differentiating between VaD and AD can be difficult. Characterization of these different forms of dementia would benefit by identification of quantitative imaging biomarkers specifically sensitive to AD or VaD. Parameters of microstructural abnormalities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been reported to be helpful in differentiating between dementias, but only few studies have used them to compare AD and VaD with a voxelwise approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Melanie Lucas, Mark E Wagshul, Meltem Izzetoglu, Roee Holtzer
Objectives: Using multi-modal neuroimaging methods the current study was designed to examine the relationship between white matter microstructural integrity (WMI) and changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) during active walking in older adults. Consistent with neural inefficiency, we hypothesized that worse WMI would be associated with a greater increase in PFC HbO2 from single- to dual-task walking in the context of worse or similar gait performance. Method: 55 cognitively-healthy older adults (mean age=74...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Andra Sorina Boldea, Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Anne Lund Krarup, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Georg Dimcevski, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Background and aims In functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin central nervous system hyperexcitability is generally believed to play an important role in pain pathogenesis. However, this theory has recently been challenged. Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, the aim was to characterize any microstructural reorganization of the pain neuromatrix in FCP patients. Methods 13 FCP patients and 20 matched healthy controls were studied in a 3T MR scanner. Inclusion criteria were relevant chest pain, normal coronary angiogram and normal upper gastrointestinal evaluation...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Ming-Chou Ho, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Seh-Huang Chao, Ching-Tzu Fang, Yi-Chun Liu, Jun-Cheng Weng
Obesity is one of the most challenging problems in human health and is recognized as an important risk factor for many chronic diseases. It remains unclear how the neural systems (e.g., the mesolimbic "reward" and the prefrontal "control" neural systems) are correlated with patients' executive function (EF), conceptualized as the integration of "cool" EF and "hot" EF. "Cool" EF refers to relatively abstract, non-affective operations such as inhibitory control and mental flexibility...
2018: PeerJ
Georgios Nikolakaros, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja, Tuula Ilonen
Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kristin J Redmond, Meghan Hildreth, Haris I Sair, Stephanie Terezakis, Todd McNutt, Lawrence Kleinberg, Kenneth J Cohen, Moody Wharam, Alena Horska, E Mark Mahone
PURPOSE: Brain radiation is associated with functional deficits in children. The purpose of this study was to examine white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and associations with region-specific radiation dose and neuropsychological functioning in children treated with cranial irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 20 patients and 55 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the present study. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline and 6, 15, and 27 months after treatment...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Bilgehan Solmaz, Mustafa Görkem Özyurt, Demir Berk Ata, Fulya Akçimen, Mohammed Shabsog, Kemal Sıtkı Türker, Hakkı Dalçik, Oktay Algin, Ayşe Nazlı Başak, Merve Özgür, Safiye Çavdar
Mirror movements are unintended movements occurring on one side of the body that mirror the contralateral voluntary ones. It has been proposed that mirror movements occur due to abnormal decussation of the corticospinal pathways. Using detailed multidisciplinary approach, we aimed to enlighten the detailed mechanism underlying the mirror movements in a case subject who is diagnosed with mirror movements of the hands and we compared the findings with the unaffected control subjects. To evaluate the characteristics of mirror movements, we used several techniques including whole exome sequencing, computed tomography, diffusion tensor imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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