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chronic diarrhea guidelines

Peng Luo, Shuo Li, Yitai Chen, Yuwen Luo, Yun Li, Kai Wang, Yuxia Huang, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor recommended by clinical guideline, is always being used in combination with at least one long-acting bronchodilator in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are few evidences about whether the combination of roflumilast and long-acting bronchodilators is safer and more effective in patients with moderate-to-very severe stable COPD. In our study, we investigate the effect and safety of roflumilast combined with long-acting bronchodilators on moderate-to-severe stable COPD patients...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Franco Scaldaferri, Viviana Gerardi, Francesca Mangiola, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Alfredo Papa, Jovana Stojanovic, Andrea Poscia, Giovanni Cammarota, Antonio Gasbarrini
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease, whose etiology is still unclear. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic factors, immune response and the "forgotten organ", Gut Microbiota. Several studies have been conducted to assess the role of antibiotics and probiotics as additional or alternative therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative strain isolated in 1917 by Alfred Nissle and it is the active component of microbial drug Mutaflor(®) (Ardeypharm GmbH, Herdecke, Germany and EcN, Cadigroup, In Italy) used in many gastrointestinal disorder including diarrhea, uncomplicated diverticular disease and UC...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Joanna R Wares, Barry Lawson, Douglas Shemin, Erika M C D'Agata
Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD) are among the most vulnerable to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines to reduce transmission of MDRO in the out-patient dialysis unit are targeted at patients considered to be high-risk for transmitting these organisms: those with infected skin wounds not contained by a dressing, or those with fecal incontinence or uncontrolled diarrhea. Here, we hypothesize that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of MDRO...
2016: PloS One
Jan Wehkamp, Martin Götz, Klaus Herrlinger, Wolfgang Steurer, Eduard F Stange
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases are common in Europe, with prevalences as high as 1 in 198 persons (ulcerative colitis) and 1 in 310 persons (Crohn's disease). METHODS: This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a search in PubMed and in German and European guidelines and Cochrane reviews of controlled trials. RESULTS: Typically, the main clinical features of inflammatory bowel diseases are diarrhea, abdominal pain, and, in the case of ulcerative colitis, peranal bleeding...
February 5, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Jonathan Cordova, Ankur Chugh, Edgardo D Rivera Rivera, Sona Young
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic gastrointestinal disease consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both disease processes can share similar clinical symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematochezia, and weight loss; CD can also be complicated by penetrating and fistulizing disease. Perianal skin tags, perianal abscesses, recto-cutaneous fistulae, and rectal stenosis are among the phenotypic characteristics of perianal CD. Current treatment strategies are focused on the surgical drainage of abscesses and the closure of fistulous tracts as well as controlling intestinal inflammation with the use of immunomodulators (6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate) and biologics (infliximab and adalimumab)...
February 2016: Pediatric Annals
Claudia Seifarth, Martin E Kreis, Jörn Gröne
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) as one of the major entities of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases can affect all segments of the gastrointestinal tract but occurs most often in the small bowel, the terminal ileum, the colon, and the rectum. Typical symptoms include tiredness, lower abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea, which are initially treated by conservative measures. Most patients will eventually develop complications such as fistulas, abscesses, or strictures. Surgery is often unavoidable in these cases...
August 2015: Viszeralmedizin
Nick W Liu, Kashyap Shatagopam, M Francesca Monn, Hristos Z Kaimakliotis, Clint Cary, Ronald S Boris, Matthew J Mellon, Timothy A Masterson, Richard S Foster, Thomas A Gardner, Richard Bihrle, Michael G House, Michael O Koch
INTRODUCTION: This study seeks to evaluate the incidence and associated risk factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a single institution׳s bladder cancer database including all patients who underwent RC between 2010 and 2013. CDI was diagnosed by detection of Clostridium difficile toxin B gene using polymerase chain reaction-based stool assay in patients with clinically significant diarrhea within 90 days of the index operation...
December 2015: Urologic Oncology
Khalil Ur Rehman, Muhammad Omar Qureshi, Nasir Khokhar, Farzana Shafqat, Mohammad Salih
OBJECTIVE: To document the quality of colonoscopy practice and the pattern of colonic disease including polyp detection rate at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May 2013 to June 2014. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study recorded demographics of patients, indications and quality indices of 505 colonoscopies performed during the study period...
July 2015: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Oluwafikunayo Orekoya, John McLaughlin, Eugenia Leitao, Wendy Johns, Simon Lal, Peter Paine
Although recognised as a cause of chronic diarrhoea for over forty years, diagnostic tests and treatments for bile acid malabsorption (BAM) remain controversial. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the lack of evidence in the field, and called for further research. This retrospective study explores the BAM subtype and severity, the use and response to bile acid sequestrants (BAS) and the prevalence of abnormal colonic histology. 264 selenium-75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated taurine (SeHCAT)-tested patient records were reviewed and the severity and subtype of BAM, presence of colonic histopathology and response to BAS were recorded...
June 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Dong Wang, Shao-Qin Zheng, Xian-Cai Chen, Shi-Wen Jiang, Hai-Bin Chen
OBJECT: Nutritional support is highly recommended for reducing the risk of nosocomial infections, such as pneumonitis, in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Currently, there is no consensus for the preferred route of feeding. The authors compared the risks of pneumonitis and other important outcomes associated with small intestinal and gastric feeding in patients with severe TBI. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
November 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Cristian Gheorghe, Andrada Seicean, Adrian Saftoiu, Marcel Tantau, Eugen Dumitru, Mariana Jinga, Lucian Negreanu, Bogdan Mateescu, Liana Gheorghe, Mihai Ciocirlan, Cristina Cijevschi, Gabriel Constantinescu, Simona Dima, Mircea Diculescu
In assessing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), its diverse etiologies and the heterogeneous population affected should be considered. Diagnosing this condition remains a challenge in clinical practice especially for mild-to-moderate EPI, with the support of the time-consuming breath test or the coefficient of fat absorption. The fecal elastase-1 test, less precise for the diagnosis, cannot be useful for assessing treatment efficacy. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the mainstay of treatment, whereby enteric-coated mini-microspheres are taken with every meal, in progressive doses based on an individual's weight and clinical symptoms...
March 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
D E Aust, H Bläker
Celiac disease is a relatively common immunological systemic disease triggered by the protein gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Classical symptoms like chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss and growth retardation are nowadays relatively uncommon. Diagnostic workup includes serological tests for IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2-IgA) and total IgA and histology of duodenal biopsies. Histomorphological classification should be done according to the modified Marsh-Oberhuber classification...
March 2015: Der Pathologe
Imran Aziz, Saqib Mumtaz, Hassan Bholah, Fahmid U Chowdhury, David S Sanders, Alexander C Ford
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some studies have found that patients with idiopathic bile acid diarrhea (BAD) present with symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). However, these studies either were retrospective, did not define D-IBS according to current criteria, or included patients with chronic functional diarrhea. We performed a prospective study of the prevalence of idiopathic BAD in consecutive patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria for D-IBS. METHODS: We analyzed data from 118 consecutive adult patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for D-IBS (mean age, 41...
September 2015: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Louis Kuritzky, Guillermo Umpierrez, Jean Marie Ekoé, Leonardo Mancillas-Adame, Laura Fernández Landó
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasingly common endocrine disorder that is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and tissue compartment abnormalities, including macrovascular and microvascular complications. More than 90% of patients with T2D will be diagnosed and treated in the primary care setting. One of the relatively recent additions to the increasing array of approved antidiabetic medications is the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class. Mechanisms of action for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists include: 1) stimulation of insulin secretion through β-cells, though only when glucose levels are elevated (hence, minimizing risk for hypoglycemia); 2) blunting of glucagon secretion; 3) increased satiety; and 4) decreased rate of release of gastric contents into the small intestine, thereby reducing glycemic load...
October 2014: Postgraduate Medicine
Deenaz Zaidi, Eytan Wine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Travelers' diarrhea, affecting millions of travelers every year globally, continues to be a leading cause of morbidity despite advances in vaccination, prevention, and treatment. Complications of travelers' diarrhea often present to gastroenterologists and some patients followed by gastroenterologists are at higher risk of developing travelers' diarrhea. This review will provide an update on recent progress made in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of travelers' diarrhea...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Si-Le Chen, Shi-Rong Cai, Liang Deng, Xin-Hua Zhang, Te-Dong Luo, Jian-Jun Peng, Jian-Bo Xu, Wen-Feng Li, Chuang-Qi Chen, Jin-Ping Ma, Yu-Long He
Constipation is a common childhood complaint. In 90% to 95% of children, constipation is functional, which means that there is no objective evidence of an underlying pathological condition. Polyethylene glycol (PEG or macrogol) solution is an osmotic laxative agent that is absorbed in only trace amounts from the gastrointestinal tract and routinely used to treat chronic constipation in adults. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis of PEG-based laxatives compared with lactulose, milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide), oral liquid paraffin (mineral oil), or acacia fiber, psyllium fiber, and fructose in children...
October 2014: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aju Daniel, Alwyn Rapose
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is a serious reemerging pathogen in Europe and North America. C. difficile infection (CDI) has been of concern over the last decade in view of its significant morbidity and mortality, as well as the high health care costs involved with each case. Although multiple risk factors are known to be associated with CDI, a number of patients develop severe infection even in the absence of known risk factors. CDI is diagnosed by the detection of the toxin A/B in stools by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 2015: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Irina Blumenstein, Yogesh M Shastri, Jürgen Stein
Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome...
July 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Lekha Saha
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects 9%-23% of the population across the world. The percentage of patients seeking health care related to IBS approaches 12% in primary care practices and is by far the largest subgroup seen in gastroenterology clinics. It has been well documented that these patients exhibit a poorer quality of life and utilize the health care system to a greater degree than patients without this diagnosis. The pathophysiology of IBS is not clear...
June 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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