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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867868/innovative-solutions-in-bariatric-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Tomasz Kozlowski, Krzysztof Kozakiewicz, Jacek Dadan, Piotr Mysliwiec
Nowadays all over the world the rising plague of obesity can be observed. The obesity was recognized as "an epidemic of XXI century" in 1997 by World Health Organization. The change of eating habits, active lifestyle or pharmacological curation are often insufficient to fight against obesity. Nowadays, there are not any guidelines about gold standard for curing obese patients is bariatric surgery. At the moment, two types of bariatric procedures: laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, are most commonly used...
October 2016: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769660/rates-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-after-bypass-operation-for-super-morbid-obesity-an-overlooked-phenomenon
#3
Michael G White, Marc A Ward, Megan K Applewhite, Harry Wong, Vivek Prachand, Peter Angelos, Edwin L Kaplan, Raymon H Grogan
BACKGROUND: With over 110,000 bariatric operations performed in the United States annually, it is important to understand the biochemical abnormalities causing endocrine dysfunction associated with these procedures. Here we compare 2 malabsorptive procedures, duodenal switch and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, to determine the role malabsorption plays in secondary hyperparathyroidism in this population. METHODS: Data from all super-obese patients undergoing duodenal switch or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between August 2002 and October 2005 were prospectively collected...
October 18, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447791/intestinal-failure-new-definition-and-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Kappus, Sarah Diamond, Ryan T Hurt, Robert Martindale
Intestinal failure (IF) is a state in which the nutritional demands of the body are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface. It is a long-recognized complication associated with short bowel syndrome, which results in malabsorption after significant resection of the intestine for many reasons or functional dysmotility. Etiologies have included Crohn's disease, vascular complications, and the effects of radiation enteritis, as well as the effects of intestinal obstruction, dysmotility, or congenital defects...
September 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080707/long-term-leukopenia-in-a-lung-transplanted-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis-treated-with-zoledronic-acid-a-case-report
#5
A Karahasanovic, A-L Thorsteinsson, N H Bjarnason, P Eiken
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a serious autosomal recessive genetic disorder associated with chronic lung disease, malabsorption, malnutrition, pancreatic insufficiency and premature respiratory failure. Recent advances in medical science and technology have increased the lifespan of patients with CF, albeit with long-term consequences of the disease, such as osteoporosis, becoming of increasing significance. The medical treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CF or after organ transplantation is still being explored, and no clear guidelines regarding the best choice of bisphosphonate exist...
August 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26933948/evaluation-of-patient-quality-of-life-and-satisfaction-with-home-enteral-feeding-and-oral-nutrition-support-services-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Sahrish Sonia Faruquie, Elizabeth Kumiko Parker, Peter Talbot
Objective The aims of the present study, in home enteral nutrition (HEN) patients, were to assess patient satisfaction with the service and quality of life (QOL) scores, and to compare QOL scores in HEN patients with general Australian population values.Methods Self-administered voluntary questionnaires for the present cross-sectional study were mailed out to 322 eligible participants registered with HEN for >5 months. The questionnaires used included a patient satisfaction survey and a validated QOL questionnaire...
March 3, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26745624/refeeding-syndrome-an-important-complication-following-obesity-surgery
#7
Sonja Chiappetta, Jürgen Stein
BACKGROUND: Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is an important and well-known complication in malnourished patients, but the incidence of RFS after obesity surgery is unknown and the awareness of RFS in obese patients as a postsurgical complication must be raised. We present a case of RFS subsequent to biliopancreatic diversion in a morbidly obese patient. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old female patient with a BMI of 41.5 kg/m2 was transferred to our hospital due to Wernicke's Encephalopathy in a global malabsorptive syndrome after biliopancreatic diversion...
2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26718896/factors-associated-with-development-of-gastrointestinal-problems-in-patients-with-scleroderma-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Brian Younho Hong, Raymond Giang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Maggie Larche, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Up to 90% of people with scleroderma have gastrointestinal (GI) problems such as constipation, bloating, diarrhea, and malabsorption. These problems significantly impair quality of life. Our objective was to determine the risk factors for gastrointestinal issues in people with scleroderma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of observational studies that report GI problems in patients with scleroderma along with the associated risk factors. We were interested in any GI problem and any risk factor as long as the study included patients diagnosed with scleroderma according to the 1980 or 2013 American College of Rheumatology guideline...
2015: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26711312/-recommendations-for-the-measurement-of-blood-25-oh-vitamin-d
#9
Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Georges Deschenes, Denis Fouque, Lionel Groussin, Pascal Guggenbuhl, Guillaume Jean, Agnès Linglart, Thierry Thomas
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) serum concentration should not be measured to everybody but recommendations for this measurement in several clinical situations are available from numerous guidelines and expert positions. It can be proposed to measure 25OHD in diseases where a target range of 25OHD concentrations associated with better outcomes is defined with a sufficient level of evidence, and when this target concentration is difficult to reach without previous measurement (or may be exceeded in case of too large doses are provided)...
January 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506381/the-spectrum-of-differences-between-childhood-and-adulthood-celiac-disease
#10
REVIEW
Rachele Ciccocioppo, Peter Kruzliak, Giuseppina C Cangemi, Miroslav Pohanka, Elena Betti, Eugenia Lauret, Luis Rodrigo
An old saying states that ''children are not little adults" and this certainly holds true for celiac disease, as there are many peculiar aspects regarding its epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentations, associated diseases, and response to treatment in pediatric compared to adult populations, to such an extent that it merits a description of its own. In fact, contrary to the past when it was thought that celiac disease was a disorder predominantly affecting childhood and characterized by a malabsorption syndrome, nowadays it is well recognized that it affects also adult and elderly people with an impressive variability of clinical presentation...
October 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26328039/h-pylori%C3%A2-associated-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-even-in-celiac-disease-patients-strongly-evidence-based-but-weakly-reflected-in-practice
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, David Aldulaimi, Helen Livett, Kamran Rostami
Inflammation can lead to malabsorption of important micronutrients such as iron. Malabsorption and nutritional deficiency can be caused by a variety of pathological and environmental factors causing a range of other symptoms commonly caused by both H. pylori infection and coeliac disease (CD). National guidelines suggest the routine taking of duodenal biopsies to exclude CD when investigating patients for iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Studies suggest that in absence of positive antibodies, IDA is rarely caused by CD...
2015: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26271184/gastrointestinal-traits-individualizing-therapy-for-obesity-with-drugs-and-devices
#12
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Andres Acosta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aims of this article were to review the discrepancy between numbers of people requiring weight loss treatment and results and to assess the potential effects of pharmacologic treatments (recently approved for obesity) and endoscopically deployed devices on quantitative GI traits in development for obesity treatment. METHODS: We conducted a review of relevant literature to achieve our objectives. RESULTS: The 2013 guidelines increased the number of adults recommended for weight loss treatment by 20...
January 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26195487/a-novel-high-throughput-method-for-supported-liquid-extraction-of-retinol-and-alpha-tocopherol-from-human-serum-and-simultaneous-quantitation-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Edward Hinchliffe, James Rudge, Paul Reed
BACKGROUND: Measurement of vitamin A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in UK clinical laboratories is currently performed exclusively by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. We investigated whether retinol and alpha-tocopherol could be measured simultaneously by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. METHODS: Serum samples (100 μL) were extracted using Isolute + Supported Liquid Extraction plates. Chromatography was performed on a Phenomenex Kinetex Biphenyl 2...
July 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26031975/quantifying-bile-acid-malabsorption-helps-predict-response-and-tailor-sequestrant-therapy
#14
Oluwafikunayo Orekoya, John McLaughlin, Eugenia Leitao, Wendy Johns, Simon Lal, Peter Paine
Although recognised as a cause of chronic diarrhoea for over forty years, diagnostic tests and treatments for bile acid malabsorption (BAM) remain controversial. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the lack of evidence in the field, and called for further research. This retrospective study explores the BAM subtype and severity, the use and response to bile acid sequestrants (BAS) and the prevalence of abnormal colonic histology. 264 selenium-75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated taurine (SeHCAT)-tested patient records were reviewed and the severity and subtype of BAM, presence of colonic histopathology and response to BAS were recorded...
June 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25925926/refractory-celiac-disease-epidemiology-and-clinical-manifestations
#15
REVIEW
Georgia Malamut, Christophe Cellier
A small subset of celiac disease (CD) patients becomes refractory to a gluten-free diet with persistent malabsorption and intestinal villous atrophy. This is a rare (probably less than 2% of adult CD patients), but serious disorder, with a high risk of progression to an overt T-cell lymphoma. Diagnosis of this condition defined as refractory CD (RCD) is made after exclusion of other small bowel diseases with villous atrophy. RCD has been subdivided into two subgroups according to the normal (RCDI) or abnormal phenotype of intraepithelial lymphocytes (RCDII)...
2015: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25913530/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-prevalence-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhoea
#16
REVIEW
S A Slattery, O Niaz, Q Aziz, A C Ford, A D Farmer
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a widespread disorder with a marked socioeconomic burden. Previous studies support the proposal that a subset of patients with features compatible with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) have bile acid malabsorption (BAM). AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BAM in patients meeting the accepted criteria for IBS-D. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to March 2015...
July 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25872537/celiac-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Christian Lodberg Hvas, Michael Dam Jensen, Maria Christina Reimer, Lene Buhl Riis, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Hanne Skovbjerg, Ane Teisner, Signe Wildt
This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins, which are found in wheat, rye, and barley. The disease prevalence is 0.5-1.0%, but CD remains under-diagnosed. The diagnosis relies on the demonstration of lymphocyte infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies...
April 2015: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25872536/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-unexplained-anemia-with-iron-deficiency-without-overt-bleeding
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Martin Eivindson, Bent Ascanius Jacobsen, Nanna Martin Jensen, Søren Peter Jørgensen, Stig Borbjerg Laursen, Morten Rasmussen, Torben Nathan
A general overview is given of the causes of anemia with iron deficiency as well as the pathogenesis of anemia and the para-clinical diagnosis of anemia. Anemia with iron deficiency but without overt GI bleeding is associated with a risk of malignant disease of the gastrointestinal tract; upper gastrointestinal cancer is 1/7 as common as colon cancer. Benign gastrointestinal causes of anemia are iron malabsorption (atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, chronic inflammation, and bariatric surgery) and chronic blood loss due to gastrointestinal ulcerations...
April 2015: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25822444/romanian-guidelines-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#19
REVIEW
Cristian Gheorghe, Andrada Seicean, Adrian Saftoiu, Marcel Tantau, Eugen Dumitru, Mariana Jinga, Lucian Negreanu, Bogdan Mateescu, Liana Gheorghe, Mihai Ciocirlan, Cristina Cijevschi, Gabriel Constantinescu, Simona Dima, Mircea Diculescu
In assessing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), its diverse etiologies and the heterogeneous population affected should be considered. Diagnosing this condition remains a challenge in clinical practice especially for mild-to-moderate EPI, with the support of the time-consuming breath test or the coefficient of fat absorption. The fecal elastase-1 test, less precise for the diagnosis, cannot be useful for assessing treatment efficacy. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the mainstay of treatment, whereby enteric-coated mini-microspheres are taken with every meal, in progressive doses based on an individual's weight and clinical symptoms...
March 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25756278/vitamin-b12-deficiency-in-the-elderly-is-it-worth-screening
#20
REVIEW
C W Wong
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among the elderly. Elderly people are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency because of the high prevalence of atrophic gastritis-associated food-cobalamin (vitamin B12) malabsorption, and the increasing prevalence of pernicious anaemia with advancing age. The deficiency most often goes unrecognised because the clinical manifestations are highly variable, often subtle and non-specific, but if left undiagnosed the consequences can be serious. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency, however, is not straightforward as laboratory tests have certain limitations...
April 2015: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
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