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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776863/vitamin-d-in-burn-injured-patients
#1
REVIEW
Megan A Rech, Daniel Colon Hidalgo, Jennifer Larson, Sarah Zavala, Michael Mosier
Recently, many studies have demonstrated pleotropic effects of vitamin D, including immune modulation and cardiovascular system activity. Sufficient vitamin D concentrations and supplementation of vitamin D may be of benefit in burn-injured patients. Low 25(OH)D has been observed in nearly all pediatric and most adult burn patients. Vitamin D has primarily been studied in pediatric burn patients, focusing on bone marker measurements and the incidence of fractures. The preferred vitamin D dose, formulation, and route of administration remain unknown, and there is limited data on the impact of vitamin D status on clinical outcomes...
May 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776828/septic-acute-kidney-injury-patients-in-emergency-department-the-risk-factors-and-its-correlation-to-serum-lactate
#2
Yin-Chou Hsu, Chih-Wei Hsu
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in septic patients, imposing a heavy burden of illness in terms of morbidity and mortality. Serum lactate is a widely used marker predicting the severity of sepsis. A paucity of research has investigated septic AKI in emergency departments (EDs) and its correlation with initial serum lactate level. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for septic AKI and clarifying the link between initial serum lactate level and septic AKI in ED patients...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760995/intravital-imaging-of-a-pulmonary-endothelial-surface-layer-in-a-murine-sepsis-model
#3
Inwon Park, Kibaek Choe, Howon Seo, Yoonha Hwang, Eunjoo Song, Jinhyo Ahn, You Hwan Jo, Pilhan Kim
Direct intravital imaging of an endothelial surface layer (ESL) in pulmonary microcirculation could be a valuable approach to investigate the role of a vascular endothelial barrier in various pathological conditions. Despite its importance as a marker of endothelial cell damage and impairment of the vascular system, in vivo visualization of ESL has remained a challenging technical issue. In this work, we implemented a pulmonary microcirculation imaging system integrated to a custom-design video-rate laser scanning confocal microscopy platform...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760586/atorvastatin-and-diacerein-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-disease-tolerance-in-rats-with-sepsis
#4
K L C da Silva, A P Camacho, F C Mittestainer, B M Carvalho, A Santos, D Guadagnini, A G Oliveira, M J A Saad
Background: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. At the onset of this condition, there is an over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to organ failure and death. The excess production of pro-inflammatory mediators also impairs insulin signaling, which may be a pathophysiological tissue marker of proinflammatory cytokine action before organ failure. Statins and diacerein have pleiotropic effects, such as the blockage of inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that these drugs may be an attractive therapeutic or prophylactic strategy against sepsis...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758998/high-levels-of-soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-like-transcript-tlt-1-are-associated-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
Jessica Morales-Ortíz, Matthew T Rondina, Samuel M Brown, Colin Grissom, A Valance Washington
We have previously demonstrated that elevated levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-like transcript 1 (sTLT-1) modulate sepsis-induced inflammation and positively correlate with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Here, we evaluate the clinical implications of plasma sTLT-1 in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is common in sepsis patients. Soluble TLT-1 levels in the plasma of ARDS patients (n = 20) were determined by slot blot analysis and were compared with clinical parameters to identify significant associations...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756414/arterial-to-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-tension-difference-co-2-gap-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-adverse-outcomes-in-emergency-department-patients-presenting-with-suspected-sepsis
#6
Amith Shetty, Sebastian Sparenberg, Kristian Adams, Selwyn Selvedran, Benjamin Tang, Kim Hanna, Jonathan Iredell
OBJECTIVE: The arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference (CO2 gap) correlates with physiologic dead space. The prognostic value of increased CO2 gap in trauma and respiratory distress patients is documented. Transpulmonary arteriovenous shunting is identified as a predictor of mortality in non-pulmonary sepsis. We set out to investigate the prognostic value of the CO2 gap in a pilot study of patients with suspected sepsis from non-respiratory causes. METHODS: Patients presenting to tertiary Australian ED with suspected sepsis (n = 215) underwent near-simultaneous end-tidal carbon dioxide and partial pressure of carbon dioxide measurements...
May 13, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#7
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755348/the-fibrin-cleavage-product-b%C3%AE-15-42-channels-endothelial-and-tubular-regeneration-in-the-post-acute-course-during-murine-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Dania Fischer, Christopher Seifen, Patrick Baer, Michaela Jung, Christina Mertens, Bertram Scheller, Kai Zacharowski, Rainer Hofmann, Thorsten J Maier, Anja Urbschat
Early and adequate restoration of endothelial and tubular renal function is a substantial step during regeneration after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, occurring, e.g., in kidney transplantation, renal surgery, and sepsis. While tubular epithelial cell injury has long been of central importance, recent perception includes the renal vascular endothelium. In this regard, the fibrin cleavage product fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 mitigate IR injury by stabilizing interendothelial junctions through its affinity to VE-cadherin...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753820/association-of-pre-operative-cell-counts-with-outcomes-after-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#9
Shannon Jones, Courtney McCracken, Bahaaldin Alsoufi, William T Mahle, Matthew E Oster
BACKGROUND: We examined the association of pre-operative cell count abnormalities, which have been shown to be associated with outcomes in adult cardiac patients, with morbidity and mortality following surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 4865 children undergoing cardiac surgery from 2004- 2014. Our exposures of interest were presence of pre-operative lymphopenia (lymphocyte count ≤ 3000 cells/μL), thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x103 / μL), and neutrophilia (neutrophil count ≥ 7000 cells/ μL)...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745277/predictors-of-one-year-all-cause-mortality-and-infection-related-mortality-in-patients-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia
#10
Arne Nørgaard Eskesen, Margrethe Astrup Belle, Anita Blomfeldt
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a common infection associated with significant short-term mortality. Little is known about long-term prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine one-year all-cause mortality and infection-related mortality and associated predictors. METHODS: Data from 303 consecutive patients with SAB were prospectively collected from March 2011 to February 2014. All patients were followed one year or until death. RESULTS: One-year all-cause- and infection-related mortality were 36...
May 10, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743444/protective-effects-of-rutin-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-heart-injury-in-mice
#11
Liu Xianchu, Zheng Lan, Liu Ming, Mo Yanzhi
Rutin has a wide range of beneficial health properties in the amelioration of multi-organ injury owing to its various biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rutin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced heart injury and clarify its potential cardioprotective mechanism. The mouse model of heart injury was intraperitoneal infection with LPS, and rutin was orally administered for 8 consecutive days. One day after LPS injection, heart histopathology, cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac fibrosis related genes were determined to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of rutin...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739408/-care-and-prevent-rationale-for-investigating-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-aa-amyloidosis-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-london
#12
M Harris, R Brathwaite, Catherine R McGowan, D Ciccarone, G Gilchrist, M McCusker, K O'Brien, J Dunn, J Scott, V Hope
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). International data indicate up to one third of PWID have experienced an SSTI within the past month. Complications include sepsis, endocarditis and amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. AA amyloidosis is a serious sequela of chronic SSTI among PWID. Though there is a paucity of literature reporting on AA amyloidosis among PWID, what has been published suggests there is likely a causal relationship between AA amyloidosis and injecting-related SSTI...
May 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736609/chemoprophylaxis-during-transrectal-prostate-needle-biopsy-critical-analysis-through-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Ahmed M Elshal, Ahmed M Atwa, Ahmed R El-Nahas, Mohamed A El-Ghar, Asaad Gaber, Essam Elsawy, Abdelwahab Hashem, Yasser Farag, Hashim Farg, Ali Elsorougy, Mohamed Fouda, Hossam Nabeeh, Ahmed Mosbah
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of three chemoprophylaxis approaches in prevention of post-transrectal biopsy infectious complications (TBICs). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 3 days 500 mg B.I.D 3 days starting the night prior to biopsy (standard prophylaxis), augmented prophylaxis using ciprofloxacin and single preprocedure shot of 160 mg gentamicin IM (augmented prophylaxis) and rectal swab culture-based prophylaxis (targeted prophylaxis)...
May 7, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731716/protective-effect-of-casperome-%C3%A2-an-orally-bioavailable-frankincense-extract-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-systemic-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Konstantin Loeser, Semjon Seemann, Stefanie König, Isabell Lenhardt, Mona Abdel-Tawab, Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz, Amelie Lupp
Introduction: Despite recent advances in critical care, sepsis remains a crucial cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of great importance. Since ancient times, frankincense is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the present study intends to evaluate if Casperome® (Casp), an orally bioavailable soy lecithin-based formulation of standardized frankincense extract, is able to ameliorate systemic effects and organ damages induced by severe systemic inflammation using a murine model of sepsis, i...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727310/rectal-culture-and-sensitivity-analysis-for-reducing-sepsis-risk-after-fiducial-marker-placement
#15
William M Mendenhall, Gail Sarto, Curtis M Bryant, Christopher G Morris, Christopher R Williams, Joseph A Costa, Mark Bandyk, Bradford S Hoppe, Randal H Henderson, R Charles Nichols, Nancy P Mendenhall
PURPOSE: Placement of fiducial markers for prostate radiotherapy (RT) is associated with a 2% to 3% risk of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) that may progress to sepsis necessitating hospitalization. These bacterial UTIs are primarily due to flouroquinolone (FQ) resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). The incidence of this complication has increased in recent years. The purpose of this study is to determine whether rectal culture and sensitivity (C&S) to identify FQ resistant E...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717520/alterations-in-hypothalamic-synaptophysin-and-death-markers-may-be-associated-with-vasopressin-impairment-in-sepsis-survivor-rats
#16
N N Santos-Junior, C H Catalão, L H Costa, B B Rossignoli, R C Dos-Santos, D Malvar, A S Mecawi, M J Rocha
The impairment in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion during sepsis is described in clinical and experimental studies and has been associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and diminished activation of hypothalamic neurons. Few studies have, however, assessed these abnormalities in sepsis survivors. Here we performed two sets of experiments on Wistar rats that had been subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or nonmanipulated (naive) as control. In the first set, tissues and blood were collected from survivor rats 10 days after CLP to quantify hypothalamic Bcl-2, cleaved caspase- 3 and synaptophysin content, and bacterial load...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716698/estimating-the-prevalence-of-elevated-plasma-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-level-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-and-its-association-with-outcomes
#17
Anandaroop Lahiri, Anoop George Alex, Paul V George
OBJECTIVES: The principal objective of this study was to estimate the plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in a cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) across their entire spectrum, and to correlate them with outcomes. METHODS: 87 patients with acute coronary syndromes were included in the study. Apart from the routine work up and management, all patients underwent determination of plasma NGAL and serum high sensitivity C reactive protein (HSCRP) levels at admission...
March 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#18
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706135/de-novo-subgaleal-abscess-a-rare-presentation-of-melioidosis-a-case-report
#19
Chamara Dalugama, Asanka Tennegedara, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an emerging infection in the tropics caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Poorly controlled diabetes is a known risk factor. Melioidosis has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from a localized abscess to pneumonia to disseminated sepsis with multiorgan failure. Pyrexia of unknown origin is a common presentation. Abscesses in unusual anatomical locations are well known to be associated with melioidosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 64-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhalese man with prolonged fever and constitutional symptoms with a neglected swelling over the back of the scalp who was found to have an abscess in the subgaleal space of the scalp during surgical drainage...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705804/removal-of-procalcitonin-and-selected-cytokines-during-continuous-veno-venous-hemodialysis-using-high-cutoff-hemofilters-in-patients-with-sepsis-and-acute-kidney-injury
#20
Grzegorz Kade, Sławomir Literacki, Agnieszka Rzeszotarska, Stanisław Niemczyk, Arkadiusz Lubas
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) using high cutoff (HCO) hemofilters on the removal of procalcitonin (PCT), and other inflammatory markers in the treatment of patients during septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with septic shock and AKI were included in the study. Before and after the 24-h HCO-CVVHD, PCT, native C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-12, interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-α) in serum and effluent were assessed...
April 27, 2018: Blood Purification
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