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antibiotic selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323799/a-prospective-randomized-trial-to-assess-oral-versus-intravenous-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-wound-infection-after-extremity-fractures-poviv-study
#1
William T Obremskey, Andrew H Schmidt, Robert V OʼToole, Jennifer DeSanto, Saam Morshed, Paul Tornetta, Clinton K Murray, Clifford B Jones, Daniel O Scharfstein, Tara J Taylor, Anthony R Carlini, Renan C Castillo
Patients surgically treated for infection after extremity fractures are typically discharged with a 6- to 12-week antibiotic regimen. Intravenous (IV) antibiotics are associated with significant cost and potential complications of deep vein thrombosis, line clotting, and sepsis. Many of the pathogens that cause musculoskeletal infection have both oral (PO) and IV antibiotic options with adequate bioavailability and antibacterial effect, yet IV antibiotics remain the standard of care absent evidence that PO options are clinically as efficacious...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323406/affinity-selection-mass-spectrometry-identifies-a-novel-antibacterial-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#2
Scott S Walker, David Degen, Elliott Nickbarg, Donna Carr, Aileen Soriano, Mihir Baran Mandal, Ronald E Painter, Payal R Sheth, Li Xiao, Xinwei Sher, Nicholas Murgolo, Jing Su, David B Olsen, Richard H Ebright, Katherine Young
The growing prevalence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a significant global threat to human health. Rifampicin, an RNA polymerase-targeting agent, is an important part of the antibacterial armamentarium; however the emergence of resistance requires that it be used against only certain infections and usually in combination with another antibiotic. While rifampicin has significant clinical limitations, it does show that bacterial RNA polymerase can be an effective target for antibacterial intervention...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319394/a-network-of-conformational-transitions-in-the-apo-form-of-ndm-1-enzyme-revealed-by-md-simulation-and-a-markov-state-model
#3
Kaifu Gao, Yunjie Zhao
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a novel β-Lactamase enzyme that confers enteric bacteria with nearly complete resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics, so raises a formidable and global threat to human health. However, the binding mechanism between apo-NDM-1 and antibiotics as well as related conformational changes remains poorly understood, which largely hinders the overcoming of its antibiotic resistance. In our study, long-time conventional molecular dynamics simulation and Markov state models were applied to reveal both dynamical and conformational landscape of apo-NDM-1: the MD simulation demonstrates that the loop L3, which is responsible for antibiotic binding, is the most flexible and undergoes dramatic conformational changes; moreover, the Markov state model built from the simulation maps four metastable states including open, semi-open and closed conformations of the loop L3 as well as frequent transitions between the states...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319176/insight-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-temporin-sha-a-new-broad-spectrum-antiparasitic-and-antibacterial-agent
#4
Zahid Raja, Sonia André, Feten Abbassi, Vincent Humblot, Olivier Lequin, Tahar Bouceba, Isabelle Correia, Sandra Casale, Thierry Foulon, Denis Sereno, Bruno Oury, Ali Ladram
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drugs to kill resistant pathogens. In contrast to bacteria, protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, were little studied. Therefore, the antiparasitic mechanism of AMPs is still unclear. In this study, we sought to get further insight into this mechanism by focusing our attention on temporin-SHa (SHa), a small broad-spectrum AMP previously shown to be active against Leishmania infantum. To improve activity, we designed analogs of SHa and compared the antibacterial and antiparasitic mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317803/an-unusual-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-in-a-mycobacterium-cosmeticum-strain-isolated-from-the-chesapeake-bay
#5
Vajini Atukorale, Nicholas Boire, Kim Dionne, Stefan Riedel, Nicole Parrish
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium cosmeticum, first described in 2004, was recovered from a patient undergoing a cosmetic procedure. Subsequently, this species was associated with an outbreak in a nail salon. In all cases, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Recently, however, we recovered a strain of M. cosmeticum from the Chesapeake Bay, resistant to 11 of 14 antimicrobials. The objective of this work was to present our findings on the resistance and susceptibility of this isolate to various antibiotics...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317140/comparison-of-the-effects-of-cefazolin-and-ceftriaxone-on-canine-chondrocyte-culture
#6
P Siengdee, W Pradit, T Euppayo, S Chomdej, K Nganvongpanit
Cephalosporins (CEFs) are antibiotics frequently used to treat bone infections and septic arthritis. The effects of CEFs on chondrocytes have not been studied until now. Cefazolin (cef1) and ceftriaxone (cef3), first-and third-generation CEFs, were selected to investigate their direct effects on normal and osteoarthritic (OA) primary canine chondrocytes, which were either nonstimulated or stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In our results, treatment with CEFs increased the negative effects on both conditioned normal and OA chondrocytes, especially when applied to IL-1β-stimulated cells (inflammatory stimulus)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316096/biochemical-characterization-and-structural-insight-into-aliphatic-%C3%AE-amino-acid-adenylation-enzymes-idnl1-and-cmis6
#7
Jolanta Cieślak, Akimasa Miyanaga, Ryoma Takaku, Makoto Takaishi, Keita Amagai, Fumitaka Kudo, Tadashi Eguchi
Macrolactam antibiotics such as incednine and cremimycin possess an aliphatic β-amino acid as a starter unit of their polyketide chain. In the biosynthesis of incednine and cremimycin, unique stand-alone adenylation enzymes IdnL1 and CmiS6 select and activate the proper aliphatic β-amino acid as a starter unit. In this study, we describe the enzymatic characterization and the structural basis of substrate specificity of IdnL1 and CmiS6. Functional analysis revealed that IdnL1 and CmiS6 recognize 3-aminobutanoic acid and 3-aminononanoic acid, respectively...
March 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316051/pathogenic-multiple-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-serotypes-in-recreational-waters-of-mumbai-india-a-potential-public-health-risk
#8
Aayushi Maloo, Abhay B Fulke, Najmuddin Mulani, Soniya Sukumaran, Anirudh Ram
Globally, coastal waters have emerged into a pool of antibiotic resistance genes and multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms, and pathogenicity of these resistant microorganisms in terms of serotypes and virulence genes has made the environment vulnerable. The current study underscores the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant pathogenic serotypes and pathotypes of Escherichia coli, the predominant faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), in surface water and sediment samples of famous recreational beaches (Juhu, Versova, Mahim, Dadar, and Girgaon) of Mumbai...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314920/-new-antibiotics-standstill-or-progress
#9
J Rademacher, T Welte
The development of resistance to antibiotics has been ignored for a long time. But nowadays, increasing resistance is an important topic. For a decade no new antibiotics had been developed and it is not possible to quickly close this gap of new resistance and no new drugs. This work presents six new antibiotics (ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, solithromycin, tedizolid, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam). In part, only expert opinions are given due to lack of study results.The two 5th generation cephalosporins ceftaroline and ceftobiprole have beside their equivalent efficacy to ceftriaxone (ceftaroline) and cefipim (ceftobiprole) high activity against MRSA...
March 17, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314728/competitive-exclusion-reduces-transmission-and-excretion-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-broilers
#10
Daniela Ceccarelli, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Bregtje Smid, Kees T Veldman, Gert Jan Boender, Egil A J Fischer, Dik J Mevius, Jeanet A van der Goot
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC) are enzymes able to hydrolyze a large variety of β-lactam antibiotics, including 3(rd) generation cephalosporins and monobactams. Broilers and broiler meat products can be highly contaminated with ESBL and pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli, also known as extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC)-resistant E. coli, and can be a source for human infections. As few data are available on interventions to reduce ESC-resistant E...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314124/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-lakes-from-middle-and-lower-reaches-of-the-yangtze-river-china-effect-of-land-use-and-sediment-characteristics
#11
Yuyi Yang, Wenzhi Liu, Chen Xu, Buqing Wei, Jun Wang
Freshwater lakes provided an ideal media for the accumulation and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), because they were susceptible to anthropogenic impacts. Land reclamation and urbanization exerted severe anthropogenic impacts on lakes from middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China over the past decades. In this study, 15 lakes in the region were selected to understand the level and variability of ARGs. Proportion of different land use types was applied to display the land reclamation and urbanization around each lake...
March 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306630/nonoperative-management-of-appendicitis-in-children
#12
Joseph J López, Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature investigating nonoperative management of uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis and highlight recent data establishing its safety and efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of nonoperative treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, defined as perforated appendicitis with or without formed abscess or phlegmon...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#13
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303214/evidence-based-management-and-controversies-in-blunt-splenic-trauma
#14
REVIEW
D C Olthof, C H van der Vlies, J C Goslings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study aims to describe the evidence-based management and controversies in blunt splenic trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: A shift from operative management to non-operative management (NOM) has occurred over the past decades where NOM has now become the standard of care in haemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injury. Splenic artery embolisation (SAE) is generally believed to increase the success rate of NOM. Not all the available evidence is that optimistic about SAE however...
2017: Current Trauma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302461/data-quality-in-institutional-arthroplasty-registries-description-of-a-model-of-validation-and-report-of-preliminary-results
#15
Maria P Bautista, Guillermo A Bonilla, Klaus W Mieth, Adolfo M Llinás, Fernanda Rodríguez, Laura L Cárdenas
BACKGROUND: Arthroplasty registries are a relevant source of information for research and quality improvement in patient care and its value depends on the quality of the recorded data. The purpose of this study is to describe a model of validation and present the findings of validation of an Institutional Arthroplasty Registry (IAR). METHODS: Information from 209 primary arthroplasties and revision surgeries of the hip, knee, and shoulder recorded in the IAR between March and September 2015 were analyzed in the following domains...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302376/emerging-trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-implications-for-emergency-medicine
#16
Ali Pourmand, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Gregory Jasani, Larissa May
BACKGROUND: Many bacteria are demonstrating increasing levels of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. While this has implications for the healthcare system as a whole, many patients infected with these resistant organisms will initially present to the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current trends in infections caused by the most clinically relevant resistant organisms encountered in emergency medicine. METHODS: Bacteria were selected based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and PubMed database...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301954/the-role-of-bacillithiol-in-gram-positive-firmicutes
#17
Pete Chandrangsu, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann, John D Helmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Since the discovery and structural characterization of bacillithiol (BSH), the biochemical functions of BSH-biosynthesis enzymes (BshA/B/C) and BSH-dependent detoxification enzymes (FosB, Bst, GlxA/B) have been explored in Bacillus and Staphylococcus species. It was shown that BSH plays an important role in detoxification of reactive oxygen and electrophilic species, alkylating agents, toxins and antibiotics. Recent Advances: More recently, new functions of BSH were discovered in metal homeostasis (Zn buffering, FeS-cluster and copper homeostasis) and virulence control in Staphylococcus aureus...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300769/aptamers-biomedical-interest-and-applications
#18
EDITORIAL
Cristina Romero-López, Alfredo Berzal-Herranz
Aptamers are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides specialized in the specific and efficient binding to a target molecule. They are obtained by in vitro selection or evolution processes. It was in 1990 that two independent research groups described the bases of a new in vitro technology for the identification of RNA molecules able to specifically bind to a target [1,2]. Tuerk and Gold established the principals of the in vitro selection process that was named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), which is based on iterative cycles of binding, partitioning, and amplification of oligonucleotides from a pool of variant sequences [2]...
March 16, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299702/optical-and-electrochemical-aptasensors-for-sensitive-detection-of-streptomycin-in-blood-serum-and-milk
#19
Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
Detection and quantitation of antibiotic residues in blood serum and foodstuffs are in great demand. We have developed aptasensors for detection of streptomycin using electrochemical and optical methods. In the first method, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of streptomycin, based on combination of exonuclease I (Exo I), complementary strand of aptamer (CS), arch shaped structure of aptamer (Apt)-CS conjugate, and gold electrode. The designed electrochemical aptasensor exhibited high selectivity toward streptomycin with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 11...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299694/electrochemical-quartz-crystal-nanobalance-eqcn-based-biosensor-for-sensitive-detection-of-antibiotic-residues-in-milk
#20
Sunil Bhand, Geetesh K Mishra
An electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), which provides real-time analysis of dynamic surface events, is a valuable tool for analyzing biomolecular interactions. EQCN biosensors are based on mass-sensitive measurements that can detect small mass changes caused by chemical binding to small piezoelectric crystals. Among the various biosensors, the piezoelectric biosensor is considered one of the most sensitive analytical techniques, capable of detecting antigens at picogram levels. EQCN is an effective monitoring technique for regulation of the antibiotics below the maximum residual limit (MRL)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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