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Stranding deaths

Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Corinne Gibble, Rebecca Duerr, Barbara Bodenstein, Kirsten Lindquist, Jackie Lindsey, Jessie Beck, Laird Henkel, Jan Roletto, Jim Harvey, Raphael Kudela
From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of common murres ( Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August-October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Nengyi Hou, Zhiyi Guo, Gaoping Zhao, Guiqing Jia, Bin Luo, Xiaogang Shen, Yifeng Bai
MicroRNA-21-3p (miR-21-3p), the passenger strand of pre-mir-21, has been found to be high-expressing in various cancers and to be associated with tumor malignancy, which is proposed as a novel focus in malignant tumors. Colorectal cancer (CRC), currently known as one of the most prevalent malignancy, is a leading cause of cancer death. This study aimed to investigate the key role of miR-21-3p in CRC by inhibiting its expression using transfection with miR-21-3p inhibitors into human CRC HCT116 cells. Results showed that the expression of miR-21-3p was higher than other CRC cells used in the study including Lovo, HT29, Colo320 and SW480 cells, inhibition of which suppressed the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells...
March 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Peter V Deraska, Colin O'Leary, Hunter D Reavis, Shelby Labe, Tru-Khang Dinh, Jean-Bernard Lazaro, Christopher Sweeney, Alan D D'Andrea, David Kozono
Despite optimal chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), and/or surgery, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the US and worldwide. Thoracic RT, a mainstay in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, is often restricted in efficacy by a therapeutic index limited by sensitivity of tissues surrounding the malignancy. Therefore, radiosensitizers that can improve the therapeutic index are a vital unmet need. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway is a proposed mechanism of radiosensitization...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Lu Li, Hai-Dong Fu
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis. The imbalance between the formation and degradation of NETs has long been considered to be closely associated with the activity of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Reactive oxygen species derived from the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase pathway or mitochondrial DNA pathway play a key role in the primary stage of NETs formation. The exposure or delayed degradation of abundant autoantigens, such as double-strand DNA, caused by abnormal activation of neutrophils can induce autoantibody to form immune complexes that deposit in local tissues and then induce the plasmacytoid dendritic cells to secrete the interferon alpha and other inflammatory factors...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Hiroshi Tauchi, Yoshiki Kudo, Satoshi Tashiro, Takashi Yamamoto, Shinya Matsuura
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are the initial and critical step in major alteration of genetic information and cell death. To prevent deleterious effects, DNA repair systems recognize and re-join DNA DSBs in human cells. It has been suggested that there are individual differences in radiosensitivity within human populations, and that variations in DNA repair genes might contribute to this heterogeneity. Because confounding factors, including age, gender, smoking, and diverse genetic backgrounds within human populations, also influence the cellular radiosensitivity, to accurately measure the effect of candidate genetic variations on radiosensitivity, it is necessary to use human cultured cells with a uniform genetic background...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Samuel C Cerps, Mandy Menzel, Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Leif Bjermer, Hamid Akbarshahi, Lena Uller
Defective production of antiviral interferon (IFN)-β is thought to contribute to rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. These exacerbations are associated with elevated lung levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating occurrence of cell necrosis. We thus hypothesized that reduced lung IFN-β could contribute to necrotic cell death in a model of asthma exacerbations. Wild-type and IFN-β-/- mice were given saline or house dust mite (HDM) intranasally for 3 weeks to induce inflammation. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was then given for additional 3 days to induce exacerbation...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eui-Hwan Choi, Seobin Yoon, Keun P Kim
Homologous recombination (HR), which ensures accurate DNA replication and strand-break repair, is necessary to preserve embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. However, little is known about how HR factors modulate ESC differentiation and replication stress-associated DNA breaks caused by unique cell-cycle progression. Here, we report that ESCs utilize Rad51-dependent HR to enhance viability and induce rapid proliferation through a replication-coupled pathway. In addition, ESC differentiation was shown to be enhanced by ectopic expression of a subset of recombinases...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Chiaho Shih, Ching-Chun Yang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Chih-Hsu Chang, An-Ting Liou
This infographic about hepatitis B virus explores its replication cycle, natural history of infection and pathogenesis, and how this can be controlled and treated. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common worldwide blood-borne pathogen. Chronic hepatitis B can progress to an inactive carrier state, and then, in some patients, give rise to cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, leading to death. An HBV surface-antigen vaccine is effective, but treatments are currently not curative. HBV replicates via reverse transcription...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Alissa C Deming, Kathleen M Colegrove, Padraig J Duignan, Ailsa J Hall, James F X Wellehan, Frances M D Gulland
Urogenital carcinoma is common in wild California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) along the west coast of the US. From 1979 to 1994, this cancer was observed in 18% (66/370) of necropsied subadult and adult sea lions at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California. A retrospective review of records from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015 was performed to characterize prevalence and characteristics of cancer over this decade. Fourteen percent (263/1917) of necropsied sea lions had cancer, of which 90% (237/263) were urogenital carcinoma...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Wafa Al-Dhaheri, Imam Hassouna, Sherif M Karam
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the United Arab Emirates and worldwide. Although many factors contribute to the high incidence of breast cancer, a considerable number of cases are related to environmental factors. In the present study, breast cancer was induced in female rats using a single dose, 80 mg/kg body wt, of the environmental carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The aim of the present study, was to characterize some of the molecular changes that occur during breast cancer development in the DMBA-treated rat model...
February 28, 2018: Oncology Reports
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
F Berardinelli, A Sgura, A Facoetti, S Leone, B Vischioni, M Ciocca, A Antoccia
The pentacyclic acridine RHPS4 is a highly potent and specific G-quadruplex (G4) ligand, which binds and stabilizes telomeric G4 leading to the block of the replication forks at telomeres and consequently to telomere dysfunctionalization. In turn, the cell recognizes unprotected telomeres as DNA double-strand breaks with consequent activation of DNA repair response at telomeres, cellular growth impairment and death. Data from the literature showed the capability of this compound to sensitize U251MG glioblastoma radioresistant cell line to X-rays sparsely ionizing radiations...
February 27, 2018: FEBS Journal
Viviana Calvillo-Páez, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Mario Leyva-Peralta, Juan Carlos Gálvez-Ruiz, David Corona-Martínez, Ramón Moreno-Corral, Raymundo Escobar-Picos, Herbert Höpfl, Octavio Juárez-Sánchez, Karen Ochoa Lara
In this work, we report on the synthesis of two new mono-alkylated tetrandrine derivatives with acridine and anthracene units, MAcT and MAnT. The compounds were fully characterized by standard techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, both derivatives were studied as nucleotide receptors and double-stranded DNA binders in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH = 7.2 using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. According to the molecular recognition studies, MAcT and MAnT exhibit high affinity (K ∼ 105  M-1 ) and selectivity for ds-DNA, presumably in an intercalation mode...
February 21, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Annalaura Mancia, Denise Lunardi, Luigi Abelli
Wild animals in their natural environment could provide a big source of information, but sampling can be very challenging, above all for protected species, like marine mammals. Nevertheless, significant data can be obtained sampling stranded animals right after their death, taking into account proper sampling time and methodology. RNA samples from the skin of 12 individuals including the species Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, and Grampus griseus were used to test 4 potential gene markers of anthropogenic contaminants exposure...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Meijun Yuan, Mingxiao Ning, Panpan Wei, Wenjing Hao, Yunting Jing, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Serpin families classified serine protease inhibitors regulate various physiological processes. However, there is not study on the role of serpin in immune responses against Spiroplasma eriocheiris as a novel causative pathogen in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In our study, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the mRNA transcripts of Esserpin-2 were ubiquitous in every tissue, relative higher expression in hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes, while the intestine, muscle, heart and nerve showed relative lower expression...
February 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Miriam Sjåstad Langseth, Trine Baur Opstad, Vibeke Bratseth, Svein Solheim, Harald Arnesen, Alf Åge Pettersen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Ragnhild Helseth
Background Neutrophil extracellular traps, comprising chromatin and granule proteins, have been implicated in atherothrombosis. Design and methods We investigated whether the circulating neutrophil extracellular traps markers, double-stranded DNA and myeloperoxidase-DNA were associated with clinical outcome and hypercoagulability in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Patients with angiographically verified stable coronary artery disease ( n = 1001) were included. Follow-up was 2 years, recording 106 clinical endpoints (unstable angina, non-haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction or death)...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Don S Dizon, Dora Dias-Santagata, Amy Bregar, Laura Sullivan, Jennifer Filipi, Elizabeth DiTavi, Lucy Miller, Leif Ellisen, Michael Birrer, Marcela DelCarmen
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the U.S. and, although the majority of cases present at an early stage and can be treated with curative intent, those who present with advanced disease, or develop metastatic or recurrent disease, have a poorer prognosis. A subset of endometrial cancers exhibit mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. It is now recognized that MMR-deficient cancers are particularly susceptible to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, and in a landmark judgement in 2017, the U...
February 22, 2018: Oncologist
Sonia García-Rodríguez, Antonio Rosal-Vela, Davide Botta, Luz M Cumba Garcia, Esther Zumaquero, Verónica Prados-Maniviesa, Daniela Cerezo-Wallis, Nicola Lo Buono, José-Ángel Robles-Guirado, Salvador Guerrero, Elena González-Paredes, Eduardo Andrés-León, Ángel Corbí, Matthias Mack, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Ramón Merino, Mercedes Zubiaur, Frances E Lund, Jaime Sancho
In this study, we investigated the role of CD38 in a pristane-induced murine model of lupus. CD38-deficient (Cd38-/- ) but not ART2-deficient (Art2-/- ) mice developed less severe lupus compared to wild type (WT) mice, and their protective phenotype consisted of (i) decreased IFN-I-stimulated gene expression, (ii) decreased numbers of peritoneal CCR2hi Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes, TNF-α-producing Ly6G+ neutrophils and Ly6Clo monocytes/macrophages, (iii) decreased production of anti-single-stranded DNA and anti-nRNP autoantibodies, and (iv) ameliorated glomerulonephritis...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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