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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801386/gender-differences-in-infant-survival-a-secondary-data-analysis-in-rural-north-india
#1
Ranadip Chowdhury, Sunita Taneja, Sarmila Mazumder, Nita Bhandari, Tor A Strand
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in infant survival on the first day of life, in the first week of life, and in the neonatal and post-neonatal periods by socio-demographic and economic variables. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis was performed on data from a cluster randomised trial on the effect of implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness programme, India. SETTINGS: The study setting was Palwal and Faridabad, districts of Haryana, a state in North India...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#2
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796249/rho-inhibition-by-lovastatin-affects-apoptosis-and-dsb-repair-of-primary-human-lung-cells-in-vitro-and-lung-tissue-in-vivo-following-fractionated-irradiation
#3
Verena Ziegler, Christian Henninger, Ioannis Simiantonakis, Marcel Buchholzer, Mohammad Reza Ahmadian, Wilfried Budach, Gerhard Fritz
Thoracic radiotherapy causes damage of normal lung tissue, which limits the cumulative radiation dose and, hence, confines the anticancer efficacy of radiotherapy and impacts the quality of life of tumor patients. Ras-homologous (Rho) small GTPases regulate multiple stress responses and cell death. Therefore, we investigated whether pharmacological targeting of Rho signaling by the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin influences ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in primary human lung fibroblasts, lung epithelial and lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and subchronic mouse lung tissue damage following hypo-fractionated irradiation (4x4 Gy)...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795608/focus-small-to-find-big-the-microbeam-story
#4
Jinhua Wu, Tom K Hei
PURPOSE: Even though the first ultraviolet microbeam was described by S. Tschachotin back in 1912, the development of sophisticated micro-irradiation facilities only began to flourish in the late 1980s. In this article, we highlight significant microbeam experiments, describe the latest microbeam irradiator configurations and critical discoveries made by using the microbeam apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modern radiological microbeams facilities are capable of producing a beam size of a few micrometers, or even tens of nanometers in size, and can deposit radiation with high precision within a cellular target...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791251/combining-oncolytic-adenovirus-with-radiation-a-paradigm-for-the-future-of-radiosensitization
#5
REVIEW
Sean M O'Cathail, Tzveta D Pokrovska, Timothy S Maughan, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour, Maria A Hawkins
Oncolytic viruses and radiotherapy represent two diverse areas of cancer therapy, utilizing quite different treatment modalities and with non-overlapping cytotoxicity profiles. It is, therefore, an intriguing possibility to consider that oncolytic ("cancer-killing") viruses may act as cancer-selective radiosensitizers, enhancing the therapeutic consequences of radiation treatment on tumors while exerting minimal effects on normal tissue. There is a solid mechanistic basis for this potential synergy, with many viruses having developed strategies to inhibit cellular DNA repair pathways in order to protect themselves, during genome replication, from unwanted interference by cell processes that are normally triggered by DNA damage...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790200/chromosome-end-repair-and-genome-stability-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#6
Susannah F Calhoun, Jake Reed, Noah Alexander, Christopher E Mason, Kirk W Deitsch, Laura A Kirkman
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates within circulating red blood cells, where it is subjected to conditions that frequently cause DNA damage. The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is thought to rely almost exclusively on homologous recombination (HR), due to a lack of efficient nonhomologous end joining. However, given that the parasite is haploid during this stage of its life cycle, the mechanisms involved in maintaining genome stability are poorly understood. Of particular interest are the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, which contain the majority of the multicopy variant antigen-encoding genes responsible for virulence and disease severity...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783694/zbp1-dai-is-an-innate-sensor-of-influenza-virus-triggering-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-programmed-cell-death-pathways
#7
Teneema Kuriakose, Si Ming Man, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Rajendra Karki, Sannula Kesavardhana, David E Place, Geoffrey Neale, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The interferon (IFN)-inducible protein Z-DNA binding protein 1 [ZBP1; also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1] was identified as a double-stranded DNA sensor, which instigates innate immune responses. However, this classification has been disputed, and whether ZBP1 functions as a pathogen sensor during an infection has remained unknown. We demonstrated ZBP1-mediated sensing of the influenza A virus (IAV) proteins NP and PB1, triggering cell death and inflammatory responses via the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-RIPK3-caspase-8 axis...
August 12, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780512/repeated-administration-of-dapirolizumab-pegol-in-a-randomised-phase-i-study-is-well-tolerated-and-accompanied-by-improvements-in-several-composite-measures-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-disease-activity-and-changes-in-whole-blood-transcriptomic-profiles
#8
Chris Chamberlain, Peter J Colman, Ann M Ranger, Linda C Burkly, Geoffrey I Johnston, Christian Otoul, Christian Stach, Miren Zamacona, Thomas Dörner, Murray Urowitz, Falk Hiepe
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease associated with diffuse immune cell dysfunction. CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction activates B cells, antigen-presenting cells and platelets. CD40L blockade might provide an innovative treatment for systemic autoimmune disorders. We investigated the safety and clinical activity of dapirolizumab pegol, a polyethylene glycol conjugated anti-CD40L Fab' fragment, in patients with SLE. METHODS: This 32-week randomised, double-blind, multicentre study (NCT01764594) evaluated repeated intravenous administration of dapirolizumab pegol in patients with SLE who were positive for/had history of antidouble stranded DNA/antinuclear antibodies and were on stable doses of immunomodulatory therapies (if applicable)...
August 5, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779875/paths-from-dna-damage-and-signaling-to-genome-rearrangements-via-homologous-recombination
#9
REVIEW
Jac A Nickoloff
DNA damage is a constant threat to genome integrity. DNA repair and damage signaling networks play a central role maintaining genome stability, suppressing tumorigenesis, and determining tumor response to common cancer chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critical lesions induced by ionizing radiation and when replication forks encounter damage. DSBs can result in mutations and large-scale genome rearrangements reflecting mis-repair by non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination...
July 24, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769759/the-insect-ortholog-of-the-human-orphan-cytokine-receptor-crlf3-is-a-neuroprotective-erythropoietin-receptor
#10
Nina Hahn, Debbra Y Knorr, Johannes Liebig, Liane Wüstefeld, Karsten Peters, Marita Büscher, Gregor Bucher, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Ralf Heinrich
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates various cell homeostatic responses to environmental challenges and pathological insults. While stimulation of vertebrate erythrocyte production is mediated by homodimeric "classical" Epo receptors, alternative receptors are involved in neuroprotection. However, their identity remains enigmatic due to complex cytokine ligand and receptor interactions and conflicting experimental results. Besides the classical Epo receptor, the family of type I cytokine receptors also includes the poorly characterized orphan cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3) present in vertebrates including human and various insect species...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756616/parp-1-par-activity-in-cultured-human-lens-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-two-levels-of-uvb-light
#11
Caroline S Cencer, Shravan K Chintala, Tenira J Townsend, Daniel P Feldmann, Mirna A Awrow, Nahrain A Putris, Mason E Geno, Maria G Donovan, Frank J Giblin
This study investigated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation in cultured human lens epithelial cells exposed to two levels of UVB light (312 nm peak wavelength), 0.014 and 0.14 J/cm(2) ("low" and "high" dose, respectively). At the low dose, PARP-1 and poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers acted to repair DNA strand breaks rapidly with no subsequent major effects on either cell morphology or viability. However, following the high UVB dose, there was a dramatic second phase of PARP-1 activation, 90 min later, which included a sudden reappearance of DNA strand breaks, bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation both within the mitochondria and nucleus, a translocation of PAR from the nucleus to the mitochondria, and an ultimate 70% loss of cell viability occurring after 24 hrs...
July 30, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753077/low-dose-cyclosporine-a-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-proliferative-lupus-nephritis
#12
Marjan Sheikholeslami, Mehrzad Hajialilo, Seyed Sadreddin Rasi Hashemi, Aida Malek Mahdavi, Morteza Gojazadeh, Alireza Khabbazi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate long-term efficacy of low dose cyclosporine A (CsA) in the treatment of resistant proliferative lupus nephritis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with biopsy proven proliferative lupus nephritis who were unresponsive to combination therapy with steroid plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or cyclophosphamide (CYC) and had been treated with CsA were included. Efficacy monitoring was based on the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity index, dose of prednisolone, serum complement, anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) titration, urine analysis, proteinuria, creatinine clearance, remission of the renal disease, renal survival and involvement of other organs...
July 28, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745046/all-atom-md-predicts-magnesium-induced-hairpin-in-chemically-perturbed-rna-analog-of-f10-therapeutic
#13
Ryan L Melvin, William H Gmeiner, Freddie R Salsbury
Given their increasingly frequent usage, understanding the chemical and structural properties which allow therapeutic nucleic acids to promote the death of cancer cells is critical for medical advancement. One molecule of interest is a 10mer of FdUMP (5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate) - also called F10. To investigate causes of structural stability, we have computationally restored the 2'-oxygen on each ribose sugar of the phosphodiester backbone, creating FUMP[10]. Microsecond time-scale, all-atom, simulations of FUMP[10] in the presence of 150mM MgCl2 predict that the strand has a 45% probability of folding into a stable hairpin-like secondary structure...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739276/a-process-of-resection-dependent-nonhomologous-end-joining-involving-the-goddess-artemis
#14
REVIEW
Markus Löbrich, Penny Jeggo
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a hazardous form of damage that can potentially cause cell death or genomic rearrangements. In mammalian G1- and G2-phase cells, DSBs are repaired with two-component kinetics. In both phases, a fast process uses canonical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ) to repair the majority of DSBs. In G2, slow repair occurs by homologous recombination. The slow repair process in G1 also involves c-NHEJ proteins but additionally requires the nuclease Artemis and DNA end resection. Here, we consider the nature of slow DSB repair in G1 and evaluate factors determining whether DSBs are repaired with fast or slow kinetics...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737158/gastric-lesions-in-dolphins-stranded-along-the-eastern-adriatic-coast
#15
Jerko Hrabar, Ivana Bočina, Andrea Gudan Kurilj, Martina Đuras, Ivona Mladineo
Stranded cetaceans are often found with gastric lesions associated with the presence of parasites; most frequently, nematodes of the genus Anisakis and the heterophyd digenean trematode Pholeter gastrophilus. In this study, we present histopathology mainly (but not exclusively) related to these 2 parasite species. Macroscopically, lesions associated with the presence of Anisakis spp. were characterised by the presence of ulcers within the gastric mucosa, while the digenean P. gastrophilus was found within large submucosal fibrotic nodules in the gastric wall...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735731/marine-debris-in-harbour-porpoises-and-seals-from-german-waters
#16
B Unger, H Herr, H Benke, M Böhmert, P Burkhardt-Holm, M Dähne, M Hillmann, K Wolff-Schmidt, P Wohlsein, U Siebert
Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals)...
July 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735671/choroid-plexus-cyst-in-a-neonatal-burmeister-s-porpoise-phocoena-spinipinnis
#17
J Díaz-Delgado, K R Groch, M W Wiegand, E R Secchi, R Réssio, F C C Natália, J L Catão-Dias
Neuroectodermal developmental anomalies are reported rarely in cetaceans and central nervous system cysts are not described. We describe the gross, microscopical, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of a neuraxial myelencephalic cyst in a stranded neonatal Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). Grossly, a subdural, extra-axial, well-demarcated, yellow fluid-filled cystic structure (1.9 × 1.6 × 1 cm) expanded the left foramen of Luschka, the left caudolateral cerebellar recess and the left cranioventral myelencephalon...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732309/zebularine-induces-replication-dependent-double-strand-breaks-which-are-preferentially-repaired-by-homologous-recombination
#18
Manuel Luis Orta, Nuria Pastor, Estefanía Burgos-Morón, Inmaculada Domínguez, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Carlos Huertas Castaño, Miguel López-Lázaro, Thomas Helleday, Santiago Mateos
Zebularine is a second-generation, highly stable hydrophilic inhibitor of DNA methylation with oral bioavailability that preferentially target cancer cells. It acts primarily as a trap for DNA methyl transferases (DNMTs) protein by forming covalent complexes between DNMT protein and zebularine-substrate DNA. It's well documented that replication-blocking DNA lesions can cause replication fork collapse and thereby to the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). DSB are dangerous lesions that can lead to potentially oncogenic genomic rearrangements or cell death...
July 12, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731447/chromatin-bound-oxidized-%C3%AE-synuclein-causes-strand-breaks-in-neuronal-genomes-in-in-vitro-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Velmarini Vasquez, Joy Mitra, Pavana M Hegde, Arvind Pandey, Shiladitya Sengupta, Sankar Mitra, K S Rao, Muralidhar L Hegde
Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) overexpression and misfolding/aggregation in degenerating dopaminergic neurons have long been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The neurotoxicity of α-Syn is enhanced by iron (Fe) and other pro-oxidant metals, leading to generation of reactive oxygen species in PD brain. Although α-Syn is predominantly localized in presynaptic nerve terminals, a small fraction exists in neuronal nuclei. However, the functional and/or pathological role of nuclear α-Syn is unclear. Following up on our earlier report that α-Syn directly binds DNA in vitro, here we confirm the nuclear localization and chromatin association of α-Syn in neurons using proximity ligation and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729543/evaluation-of-atm-heterozygous-mutations-underlying-individual-differences-in-radiosensitivity-using-genome-editing-in-human-cultured-cells
#20
Ekaterina Royba, Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Kosuke Hosoba, Hiroshi Tauchi, Yoshiki Kudo, Satoshi Tashiro, Takashi Yamamoto, Shinya Matsuura
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are an initial step towards chromosomal aberrations and cell death. It has been suggested that there are individual differences in radiosensitivity within human populations, and that the variations in DNA repair genes might determine this heterogeneity. However, it is difficult to quantify the effect of genetic variants on the individual differences in radiosensitivity, since confounding factors such as smoking and the diverse genetic backgrounds within human populations affect radiosensitivity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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