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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777036/pol%C3%AE-a-y-family-translesion-synthesis-polymerase-promotes-cellular-tolerance-of-myc-induced-replication-stress
#1
Kiminori Kurashima, Takayuki Sekimoto, Tsukasa Oda, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Fumio Hanaoka, Takayuki Yamashita
Growth of precancerous and cancer cells relies on their tolerance of oncogene-induced replication stress (RS). Translesion synthesis (TLS) plays an essential role in cellular tolerance of various types of RS and bypasses replication barriers by employing specialized polymerases. However, limited information is available about the role of TLS polymerases in oncogene-induced RS. Here, we report that Polη, a Y-family TLS polymerase, promotes cellular tolerance of Myc-induced RS. Polη was recruited to Myc-induced RS sites, and Polη depletion enhanced the Myc-induced slowing and stalling of replication forks and the subsequent generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769346/porcine-deltacoronavirus-accessory-protein-ns6-antagonizes-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-interfering-with-the-binding-of-rig-i-mda5-to-double-stranded-rna
#2
Puxian Fang, Liurong Fang, Jie Ren, Yingying Hong, Xiaorong Liu, Yunyang Zhao, Dang Wang, Guiqing Peng, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has recently emerged as an enteric pathogen that can cause serious vomiting and diarrhea in suckling piglets. The first outbreak of PDCoV occurred in the United States in 2014 and was followed by reports of PDCoV in South Korea, China, Thailand, Lao people's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam, leading to economic losses for pig farms and posing considerable threat to the swine industry worldwide. Our previous studies have shown that PDCoV encodes three accessory proteins, NS6, NS7, and NS7a, but the functions of these proteins in viral replication, pathogenesis, and immune regulation remain unclear...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768405/pathology-and-causes-of-death-in-stranded-humpback-whales-megaptera-novaeangliae-from-brazil
#3
Kátia Regina Groch, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Milton C C Marcondes, Adriana Castaldo Colosio, Elitieri B Santos-Neto, Vítor Luz Carvalho, Gisele Silva Boos, Ana Carolina Oliveira de Meirelles, Hernani Gomes da Cunha Ramos, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, João Carlos Gomes Borges, Jociery Einhardt Vergara-Parente, Judy A St Leger, Antonio Fernández, José Luiz Catão-Dias
This study describes the pathologic findings of 24 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) found stranded along the Brazilian coast from 2004 to 2016. Eighteen (75%) animals evaluated were found stranded alive. From these, 13 died naturally on shore and five were euthanized. Six died at sea and were washed ashore. Of the 24, 19 (79.2%) were calves, four (16.7%) were juveniles, and one (4.2%) was an adult. The most probable cause of stranding and/or death (CSD) was determined in 23/24 (95.8%) individuals. In calves, CSD included neonatal respiratory distress (13/19; 68...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765515/cancer-cell-selective-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-of-aptamer-decorated-nanoparticles
#4
Shira Engelberg, Julia Modrejewski, Johanna G Walter, Yoav D Livney, Yehuda G Assaraf
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, resulting in 88% deaths of all diagnosed patients. Hence, novel therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. Single-stranded oligonucleotide-based aptamers (APTs) are excellent ligands for tumor cell targeting. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their internalization into living cells have been poorly studied. Towards the application of APTs for active drug targeting to cancer cells, we herein studied the mechanism underlying S15-APT internalization into human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759559/clinical-importance-of-dna-repair-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Gustavo A Laporte, Natalia M Leguisamo, Antonio N Kalil, Jenifer Saffi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, despite the scientific efforts to provide a molecular classification to improve CRC clinical practice management, prognosis and therapeutic decision are still strongly dependent on the TNM staging system. Mismatch repair system deficiencies can occur in many organs, but it is mainly a hallmark of CRC influencing clinical outcomes and response to therapy. This review will discuss the effect of the modulation of other DNA repair pathways (direct, excision and double strand break repairs) in the clinical and pathological aspects of colorectal cancer and its potential as prognostic and predictive biomarkers...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749464/methyl-ferulic-acid-exerts-anti-apoptotic-effects-on-l-02-cells-via-the-ros-mediated-signaling-pathway
#6
Li Li, Yujuan Zhong, Zuheng Ma, Chengfang Yang, Hanning Wei, Li Chen, Chen Li, Dan Wu, Ming Zhi Rong, Yongwen Li
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-apoptotic effects of methyl ferulic acid (MFA) on L-02 cell apoptosis induced by ethanol, and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. L-02 cells were examined after being soaked in ethanol (400 mM) to allow the ethanol to permeate into the cells for 24 h. Cell survival was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by both flow cytometry and single-stranded DNA assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate dye...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746957/in-vivo-inhibition-of-circulating-tumor-cells-by-two-apoptosis-promoting-circular-aptamers-with-enhanced-specificity
#7
Haiyan Dong, Longyu Han, Jie Wang, Jingjing Xie, Yu Gao, Fangwei Xie, Lee Jia
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are known as the root cause of cancer metastasis that accounts for 90% of cancer death. Owing to the rarity of blood CTCs and their microenvironmental complexity, the existing biotechnology could not precisely capture and apoptosize CTCs in vivo for cancer metastasis prevention. Here, we designed two double strand circular aptamers aimed to simultaneously target MUC1 and HER2 surface biomarkers on mesenchymal cancer cells. The circular aptamers are composed of a capture arm for binding and seizing CTCs and a circular body for resisting degradation by exonucleases...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743337/oocyte-quality-control-causes-mechanisms-and-consequences
#8
Neil Hunter
Oocyte quality and number are key determinants of reproductive life span and success. These variables are shaped in part by the elimination of oocytes that experience problems during the early stages of meiosis. Meiotic prophase-I marks an extended period of genome vulnerability in which epigenetic reprogramming unleashes retroelements and hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are inflicted to initiate the programmed recombination required for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division...
May 9, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738226/nobf-4-functionalized-au-fe-3-o-4-nanoheterodimers-for-radiation-therapy-synergy-effect-due-to-simultaneous-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-formation
#9
Stefanie Klein, Christina Harreiss, Christina Menter, Julian Hümmer, Luitpold V R Distel, Karsten Meyer, Rainer Hock, Carola Kryschi
Snowman-shaped Au-Fe3 O4 nanoheterodimers were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron oleate on pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Subsequently performed ligand exchange with nitrosyl tetrafluoroborate provided water solubility and enabled X-ray induced NO release. These Au-Fe3 O4 nanoheterodimers combine high-Z material with catalytically active Fe3 O4 surfaces and moreover, plasmonic properties with superparamagnetic performance. We could establish synergetic interactions between X-radiation and both, the Au and Fe3 O4 surfaces, which resulted in the simultaneous production of the nitric oxide radical at the Fe3 O4 surface and the superoxide radical at the Au surface...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730308/in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies-reveal-capsid-mutant-porcine-circovirus-2b-with-novel-cytopathogenic-and-structural-characteristics
#10
Taís Fukuta Cruz, Angelo José Magro, Alessandra M M G de Castro, Francisco J Pedraza-Ordoñez, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, David Perahia, João Pessoa Araújo
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is an icosahedral, non-enveloped, and single-stranded circular DNA virus that belongs to the family Circoviridae, genus Circovirus, and is responsible for a complex of different diseases defined as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs). These diseases - including postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), enteric disease, respiratory disease, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure - are responsible for large economic losses in the pig industry...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717930/myoediting-toward-prevention-of-muscular-dystrophy-by-therapeutic-genome-editing
#11
Yu Zhang, Chengzu Long, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Muscular dystrophies represent a large group of genetic disorders that significantly impair quality of life and often progress to premature death. There is no effective treatment for these debilitating diseases. Most therapies, developed to date, focus on alleviating the symptoms or targeting the secondary effects, while the underlying gene mutation is still present in the human genome. The discovery and application of programmable nucleases for site-specific DNA double-stranded breaks provides a powerful tool for precise genome engineering...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715575/advances-in-therapeutic-targeting-of-the-dna-damage-response-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Amar Desai, Yan Yan, Stanton L Gerson
The DNA damage response (DDR) is a series of pathways and processes required to repair lesions to DNA. These pathways range from repairing strand breaks to the double helix, damaged bases formed after oxidation or deamination, inaccurate DNA replication resulting in mispaired base alignment, intrastrand crosslinks that trigger cell death, and a plethora of other genomic insults. The DDR is believed to be a critical component of radio and chemoresistance in many cancers as well, with the tumor's ability to repair therapy induced damage being an important tool used to survive traditional chemotherapeutic agents...
April 23, 2018: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695864/cryo-em-structure-of-the-gasdermin-a3-membrane-pore
#13
Jianbin Ruan, Shiyu Xia, Xing Liu, Judy Lieberman, Hao Wu
Gasdermins mediate inflammatory cell death after cleavage by caspases or other, unknown enzymes. The cleaved N-terminal fragments bind to acidic membrane lipids to form pores, but the mechanism of pore formation remains unresolved. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the 27-fold and 28-fold single-ring pores formed by the N-terminal fragment of mouse GSDMA3 (GSDMA3-NT) at 3.8 and 4.2 Å resolutions, and of a double-ring pore at 4.6 Å resolution. In the 27-fold pore, a 108-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel is formed by two β-hairpins from each subunit capped by a globular domain...
April 25, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692040/-the-continuous-trophic-spectrum-of-food-web-in-dalian-marine-area-china
#14
Jia Shen Tian, Jia Bo Han, Zhi Chuang Lu, Zhi Qiang Ma, Duo Hui Li, Bai Wang, Yi Bing Liu
This study analyzed the values of δ13 C and δ15 N by the application of stable isotope technique from the marine mammals (Phoca largha, Neophocaena asiaorientalis sunameri, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and major biological species in Dalian marine area based on the animals collected due to stranding and death after bycatch from January, 2008 to June, 2017, and the fisheries resources investigation between autumn, 2016 and spring, 2017 in the same area. The trophic level was then calculated in order to establish the continuous trophic spectrum of the food web in Dalian marine area...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686682/targeting-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pathways-for-cancer-immunotherapies
#15
REVIEW
Sandra Iurescia, Daniela Fioretti, Monica Rinaldi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogen infection though also influences pathways involved in cancer immunosurveillance. The innate immune system relies on a limited set of germ line-encoded sensors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), signaling proteins and immune response factors. Cytosolic receptors mediate recognition of danger damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685720/immunohistochemical-expression-of-apoptosis-related-biomarkers-in-normal-tissues-of-camel-camelus-dromedarius-a-survey-in-a-desert-dwelling-mammalian-model
#16
Abdel-Hamid K Osman, Thomas Caceci, Mitchiko Shintani
Programmed cell death is a fundamental event that takes place during organ development and plays an important role in cellular homeostasis. Since various body organs of the camel are under high ecological and physiological stress during food and water deprivation, desiccation, and the long exposure to solar radiation in these desert nomads, we aimed to examine the immunohistochemical expression of apoptosis-related biomarkers in some of its normal body organs to illustrate a basic track for further pathological investigation...
April 20, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682208/development-of-a-quantitative-pharmacodynamic-assay-for-apoptosis-in-fixed-tumor-tissue-and-its-application-in-distinguishing-cytotoxic-drug-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-from-dna-double-strand-breaks-associated-with-apoptosis
#17
Angie B Dull, Deborah Wilsker, Melinda Hollingshead, Christina Mazcko, Christina M Annunziata, Amy K LeBlanc, James H Doroshow, Robert J Kinders, Ralph E Parchment
DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by cancer therapeutic agents can lead to DNA damage repair or persistent DNA damage, which can induce apoptotic cell death; however, apoptosis also induces DSBs independent of genotoxic insult. γH2AX is an established biomarker for DSBs but cannot distinguish between these mechanisms. Activated cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) promotes apoptosis by enhancing nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and plasma membrane blebbing. Here, we describe an immunofluorescence assay that distinguishes between apoptosis and drug-induced DSBs by measuring coexpression of γH2AX and membrane blebbing-associated CC3 to indicate apoptosis, and γH2AX in the absence of CC3 blebbing to indicate drug-induced DNA damage...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680689/chicken-type-lysozyme-functions-in-the-antibacterial-immunity-in-red-swamp-cray%C3%AF-sh-procambarus-clarkii
#18
Tian-Jiang Liao, Jie Gao, Jin-Xing Wang, Xian-Wei Wang
Lysozymes possess antibacterial activities, making them crucial defense proteins in innate immunity. In this study, a chicken-type (c-type) lysozyme (designated PcLyzc) was cloned and characterized from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The full-length cDNA had an open reading frame of 435 base pairs encoding a polypeptide of 144 amino acid residues. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PcLyzc shared high similarity to the other known invertebrate c-type lysozymes. PcLyzc transcripts were steadily expressed in a wide range of tissues in healthy crayfish, and were prominently up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and gills after Vibrio anguillarum or Aeromonas hydrophila challenge...
April 11, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675003/role-of-micrornas-and-exosomes-in-helicobacter-pylori-and-epstein-barr-virus-associated-gastric-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Iva Polakovicova, Sofia Jerez, Ignacio A Wichmann, Alejandra Sandoval-Bórquez, Nicolás Carrasco-Véliz, Alejandro H Corvalán
Emerging evidence suggests that chronic inflammation caused by pathogen infection is connected to the development of various types of cancer. It is estimated that up to 20% of all cancer deaths is linked to infections and inflammation. In gastric cancer, such triggers can be infection of the gastric epithelium by either Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ), a bacterium present in half of the world population; or by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a double-stranded DNA virus which has recently been associated with gastric cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674236/sub-lethal-ultraviolet-b-irradiation-and-poly-i-c-treatment-synergistically-induced-apoptosis-of-hacat-cells-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#20
Wuxiyar Otkur, Weiwei Liu, Jinda Wang, Xingfan Jia, Dianchao Huang, Fang Wang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation exerts multiple effects on skin cells, inducing apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptor 3, a member of pattern recognition receptors, is reported to initiate inflammation by recognizing double-strand RNA (dsRNA) released from UVB-irradiated cells. It has not been studied, however, whether apoptosis induction in UVB irradiation is attributed to TLR3 activation. Here, we report on the pro-apoptotic role of TLR3 in UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA that activates TLR3, was used in combination with sub-lethal UVB (4...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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