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Anti fungal agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159425/novel-biosynthetic-pathway-for-sulfur-amino-acids-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Akio Toh-E, Misako Ohkusu, Kiminori Shimizu, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
We elucidated a unique feature of sulfur metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans. C. neoformans produces cysteine solely by the O-acetylserine pathway that consists of serine-O-acetyl transferase and cysteine synthase. We designated the gene encoding the former enzyme CYS2 (locus tag CNE02740) and the latter enzyme CYS1 (locus tag CNL05880). The cys1Δmutant strain was found to be avirulent in a murine infection model. Methionine practically does not support growth of the cys1Δ strain, and cysteine does not serve as a methionine source, indicating that the transsulfuration pathway does not contribute to sulfur amino acid synthesis in C...
November 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140934/response-of-symptomatic-persistent-chronic-disseminated-candidiasis-to-corticosteroid-therapy-in-immunosuppressed-pediatric-patients-case-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Vered Shkalim-Zemer, Itzhak Levi, Salvador Fischer, Hannah Tamary, Joanne Yakobovich, Gali Avrahami, Gil Gilad, Sara Elitzur, Isaac Yaniv, Ronit Elhasid, Michal Manistersky, Itamar Shalit
BACKGROUND: Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a severe invasive fungal infection principally observed during neutrophil recovery in patients with acute leukemia treated with intensive chemotherapy. Its pathophysiology remains unclear. We describe the management of six children with symptomatic CDC who did not respond to antifungal therapy. METHODS: The databases of the hematology-oncology departments of two tertiary pediatric medical centers were searched for all patients diagnosed with CDC from 2003 to 2015 who responded to corticosteroids after failing antifungal therapy...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127020/does-the-use-of-antifungal-agents-in-agriculture-and-in-food-foster-polyene-resistance-development-a-reason-for-concern
#3
REVIEW
Axel Dalhoff
Environmental fungicides are used in agriculture to reduce fungal spoilage of crop to a minimum and the polyene macrolide natamycin is used as a food preservative. The use of natamycin in yoghurt has recently been authorized in the USA and some other countries. However, resistance development is a serious risk associated with the use of antimicrobials as food additives and environmental fungicides. Cross-resistance between agricultural and medical azoles and amphothericin B, respectively, not being used in agriculture has been demonstrated in clinical and environmental isolates...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126739/discovery-of-simplified-sampangine-derivatives-as-novel-fungal-biofilm-inhibitors
#4
Na Liu, Hua Zhong, Jie Tu, Zhigan Jiang, Yanjuan Jiang, Yan Jiang, Yuanying Jiang, Jian Li, Wannian Zhang, Yan Wang, Chunquan Sheng
Lack of novel antifungal agents and severe drug resistance have led to high incidence and associated mortality of invasive fungal infections. To tackle the challenges, novel antifungal agents with new chemotype, fungicidal activity and anti-resistant potency are highly desirable. On the basis of our previously identified simplified analogue of antifungal natural product sampangine, systemic structure-activity relationships were clarified and two novel derivatives showed promising features as novel antifungal lead compounds...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122175/enhancing-taxol-production-in-a-novel-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-aculeatinus-tax-6-isolated-from-taxus-chinensis-var-mairei
#5
Weichuan Qiao, Fei Ling, Lei Yu, Yifang Huang, Ting Wang
Taxol is a curatively effective but rare anti-tumor agent extracted from Taxus (yew) barks; however, the high cost and low production of the extraction method have limited its widespread use. In this study, fungi isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei were tested for their ability to produce taxol. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that Aspergillus aculeatinus Tax-6, one of the endophytic fungi, could produce taxol in potato dextrose agar liquid medium. NaOAc, Cu(2+), and salicylic acid were introduced into the medium to enhance taxol production of strain Tax-6 because NaOAc is an important precursor of taxol, Cu(2+) may enhance the activity of oxidase and catalyze the formation of taxol, and salicylic acid could be an elicitor signal...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111970/complementation-of-a-metk-deficient-e-coli-strain-with-heterologous-adomet-synthetase-genes
#6
Gwenn G Parungao, Mojun Zhao, Qinzhe Wang, Stephen P Zano, Ronald E Viola, Robert M Blumenthal
S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) is an essential metabolite, playing a wide variety of metabolic roles. The enzyme that produces AdoMet from l-methionine and ATP (methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT) is thus an attractive target for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents. It would be very useful to have a system that allows rapid identification of species-specific inhibitors of this essential enzyme. A previously generated E. coli strain, lacking MAT (∆metK) but containing a heterologous AdoMet transporter, was successfully complemented with heterologous metK genes from several bacterial pathogens, as well as with MAT genes from a fungal pathogen and Homo sapiens...
November 7, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100929/in-vitro-evaluation-of-marine-derived-fungi-against-cutibacterium-acnes
#7
Shivankar Agrawal, Alok Adholeya, Colin J Barrow, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh
Cutibacterium acnes (or Propionibacterium acnes) is the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-C. acnes and anti-S. epidermidis properties of some marine fungi isolated from different Indian marine environments. Seventy fungal isolates were obtained from samples collected from the west coasts and Andaman Island, India. Methanol extracts of 35 isolates were screened for their antibacterial properties and 5 out of the 35 isolates displayed significant inhibition as compared with tetracycline...
November 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099797/synthesis-single-crystal-x-ray-analysis-and-antifungal-profiling-of-certain-new-oximino-ethers-bearing-imidazole-nuclei
#8
Reem I Al-Wabli, Alwah R Al-Ghamdi, Hazem A Ghabbour, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Mohamed I Attia
Fungal infections threaten human health, particularly in immune-compromised patients worldwide. Although there are a large number of antifungal agents available, the desired clinical attributes for the treatment of fungal infections have not yet been achieved. Azoles are the mainstay class of the clinically used antifungal agents. In the current study, the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and antifungal activity of certain new oximino ethers Va-n bearing imidazole nuclei are reported. The (E)-configuration of the imine double bond of the synthesized compounds Va-n has been confirmed via single crystal X-ray analysis of compound Vi as a representative example of this class of compounds...
November 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098138/antiquorum-sensing-activity-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-p-aeruginosa-an-in-silico-study
#9
Syed Ghazanfar Ali, Mohammad Azam Ansari, Qazi Mohd Sajid Jamal, Haris M Khan, Mohammad Jalal, Hilal Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa an opportunistic pathogen regulates its virulence through Quorum sensing (QS) mechanism comprising of Las and Rhl system. Targeting of QS mechanism could be an ideal strategy to combat infection caused by P. aeruginosa. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been broadly applied as antimicrobial agents against a number of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains, but have not been reported as an anti-QS agent. Therefore, the aim of present work was to show the computational analysis for the interaction of AgNPs with the QS system using an In silico approach...
2017: In Silico Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093640/identification-of-novel-antiviral-of-fungus-derived-brefeldin-a-against-dengue-viruses
#10
Muhareva Raekiansyah, Mihoko Mori, Kenichi Nonaka, Masanobu Agoh, Kazuro Shiomi, Atsuko Matsumoto, Kouichi Morita
Microbial natural products possess a wide range of biological and biochemical potential. Among them, fungal secondary metabolites are one of the most important sources for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. In the present study, we explored substances produced by the strain Penicillium sp. FKI-7127 for its antiviral activity. We identified brefeldin A as a novel antiviral agent against dengue viruses. The inhibitory effect of brefeldin A was confirmed by virus titer and immunofluorescence assay. Brefeldin A inhibited dengue viruses regardless of serotypes and other related viruses including Zika virus and Japanese encephalitis virus...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071233/effect-of-addition-of-antifungal-agents-on-physical-and-biological-properties-of-a-tissue-conditioner-an-in-vitro-study
#11
Pragati Rawat, Swatantra Agarwal, Siddhi Tripathi
Purpose: Tissue conditioners are used for healing of abused oral tissues. They may harbour microorganisms causing oral diseases such as candidiasis compromising the health of the patient. Also, addition of antifungal agents into tissue conditioner may alter its properties. This study compares the anti-fungal property and mechanical properties of tissue conditioner containing different antifungal agents. Methods: Three antifungal agents, one synthetic - fluconazole, and two natural - oregano oil and virgin coconut oil were added into the tissue conditioner (Viscogel) in different concentrations...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069388/the-secreted-polyketide-boydone-a-is-responsible-for-the-anti-staphylococcus-aureus-activity-of-scedosporium-boydii
#12
Cindy Staerck, Anne Landreau, Gaëtan Herbette, Catherine Roullier, Samuel Bertrand, Benjamin Siegler, Gérald Larcher, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Usually living as a soil saprophyte, the filamentous fungus Scedosporium boydii may also cause various infections in human. Particularly, it is one of the major causative agents of fungal colonization of the airways in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To compete with other microorganisms in the environment, fungi have evolved sophisticated strategies, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity which may also help them to establish successfully within the respiratory tract of receptive hosts...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988970/effects-of-berberine-curcumin-resveratrol-alone-and-in-combination-with-chemotherapeutic-drugs-and-signal-transduction-inhibitors-on-cancer-cells-power-of-nutraceuticals
#13
James A McCubrey, Stephen L Abrams, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Alberto M Martelli, Saverio Candido, Massimo Libra, Ramiro M Murata, Pedro L Rosalen, Paolo Lombardi, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Agnieszka Gizak, Dariusz Rakus, Linda S Steelman
Over the past fifty years, society has become aware of the importance of a healthy diet in terms of human fitness and longevity. More recently, the concept of the beneficial effects of certain components of our diet and other compounds, that are consumed often by different cultures in various parts of the world, has become apparent. These "healthy" components of our diet are often referred to as nutraceuticals and they can prevent/suppress: aging, bacterial, fungal and viral infections, diabetes, inflammation, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases and have other health-enhancing effects...
October 3, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966608/tacrolimus-increases-the-effectiveness-of-itraconazole-and-fluconazole-against-sporothrix-spp
#14
Luana P Borba-Santos, Leandro F Reis de Sá, Juliene A Ramos, Anderson M Rodrigues, Zoilo P de Camargo, Sonia Rozental, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira
Calcineurin inhibitors - such as the clinically used drug tacrolimus - are active against important fungal pathogens, particularly when combined with azoles. However, tacrolimus has not been tested against sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis with worldwide distribution. Here, we evaluated the activity of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in vitro - as monotherapy and in combination with itraconazole or fluconazole - against yeasts of Sporothrix brasiliensis and S. schenckii, the main sporotrichosis agents in Brazil...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961698/bioactive-and-biocontrol-potential-of-endophytic-fungi-associated-with-brugmansia-aurea-lagerh
#15
Gurpreet Singh, Archana Katoch, Mod Razak, Surinder Kitchlu, Anindya Goswami, Meenu Katoch
This study describes 32 fungal endophytes isolated from different tissues of Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. Each fungal strain was authenticated based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these fungi are distributed in three classes, seven orders and 12 genera. The dichloromethane extracts of endophytic strains were screened for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Anticancer activity of extracts against human cancer cell lines revealed that 50% strains are active with IC 50  < 10 μg/mL...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947778/an-invertebrate-infection-model-for-evaluating-anti-fungal-agents-against-dermatophytosis
#16
Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Yamada, Shigeru Abe, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Animal models of pathogenic infection are needed to evaluate candidate compounds for the development of anti-infectious drugs. Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that cause several infectious diseases. We established a silkworm dermatophyte infection model to evaluate anti-fungal drugs. Injection of conidia of the dermatophyte Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii into silkworms was lethal. A. vanbreuseghemii conidia germinated in liquid culture were more potent against silkworms than non-germinated conidia. Germinated conidia of other dermatophytes, Arthroderma benhamiae, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis, also killed silkworms...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927025/repurposing-itraconazole-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#17
Rachel Pounds, Sarah Leonard, Christopher Dawson, Sean Kehoe
The repurposing of drugs is becoming increasingly attractive as it avoids the lengthy process and cost implications associated with bringing a novel drug to market. Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum anti-fungal agent. An emerging body of in vivo, in vitro and clinical evidence have confirmed that it also possesses antineoplastic activities and has a synergistic action when combined with other chemotherapeutic agents. It acts via several mechanisms to prevent tumour growth, including inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway, prevention of angiogenesis, decreased endothelial cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and induction of auto-phagocytosis...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922497/mutual-independence-of-alkaline-and-calcium-mediated-signalling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-refutes-the-existence-of-a-conserved-druggable-signalling-nexus
#18
Omar Loss, Margherita Bertuzzi, Yu Yan, Natalie Fedorova, Bethany L McCann, Darius Armstrong-James, Eduardo A Espeso, Nick D Read, William C Nierman, Elaine M Bignell
Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca(2+) , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has therefore been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876209/soil-microbiomes-associated-with-verticillium-wilt-suppressive-broccoli-and-chitin-amendments-are-enriched-with-potential-biocontrol-agents
#19
Patrik Inderbitzin, Judson Ward, Alexandra Barbella, Natalie Solares, Dmitriy Izyumin, Prabir Burman, Dan O Chellemi, Krishna V Subbarao
Two naturally infested Verticillium wilt-conducive soils from the Salinas Valley of coastal California were amended with disease-suppressive broccoli residue or crab meal amendments, and changes to the soil prokaryote community were monitored using Illumina sequencing of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene library generated from 160 bulk soil samples. The experiment was run in a greenhouse, twice, with eggplant as the Verticillium wilt-susceptible host. Disease suppression, plant height, soil microsclerotia density, and soil chitinase activity were assessed at the conclusion of each experiment...
November 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838343/in-vitro-evaluation-of-cytotoxic-anti-proliferative-anti-oxidant-apoptotic-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-cladonia-pocillum
#20
M Ersoz, Z M Coskun, B Acikgoz, I Karalti, G Cobanoglu, C Cesal
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative, apoptotic, cytotoxic, and anti-oxidant effects of extracts from the lichen Cladonia pocillumon human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and to characterize the anti-microbial features.  MCF-7 cells were treated with methanolic C. pocillum extract for 24h. The cytotoxicity of the extract was tested with MTT. Moreover, its anti-proliferative effects were examined with immunocytochemical method. Apoptosis and biochemical parameters were detected in MCF-7...
August 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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