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Anti fungal agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644565/long-term-risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-on-anti-tnf-treatment-a-prospective-single-center-cohort-study-in-china
#1
Yue Li, Hui Jun Shu, Hong Lu, Hong Yang, Ji Li, Bei Tan, Jiaming Qian
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF agents have demonstrated to greatly improve management strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical trials and registry studies in Western countries have shown that infections and malignancy are the most concerned complications of anti-TNF treatment. However, data derived from clinical practice in China are limited. The aim of this study is to explore the long-term infection risk of infliximab (IFX) in treating patients with Crohn's disease (CD) from a tertiary IBD center in China...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637533/everybody-needs-sphingolipids-right-mining-for-new-drug-targets-in-protozoan-sphingolipid-biosynthesis
#2
John G M Mina, P W Denny
Sphingolipids (SLs) are an integral part of all eukaryotic cellular membranes. In addition, they have indispensable functions as signalling molecules controlling a myriad of cellular events. Disruption of either the de novo synthesis or the degradation pathways has been shown to have detrimental effects. The earlier identification of selective inhibitors of fungal SL biosynthesis promised potent broad-spectrum anti-fungal agents, which later encouraged testing some of those agents against protozoan parasites...
June 22, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608807/amphotericin-b-an-anti-fungal-medication-directly-increases-the-cytotoxicity-of-nk-cells
#3
Nayoung Kim, Ji-Wan Choi, Hye-Ran Park, Inki Kim, Hun Sik Kim
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) present one example of immunomodulatory agents that improve cancer immunotherapy. Based on the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells, a high throughput screening method for the identification of novel immunomodulatory molecules with the potential to stimulate NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells was designed and tested using an approved drug library. Among the primary hit compounds, the anti-fungal drug amphotericin B (AMP-B) increased the cytotoxicity of NK cell line and human primary NK cells in a direct manner...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602386/respiratory-infections-associated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-agents
#4
REVIEW
E Blanchard, M-E Truchetet, I Machelart, J Séneschal, C Raherison-Semjen
Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. This excessive infection risk seems real, particularly in the first six months following treatment initiation, and higher for patients receiving anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies than for those receiving soluble TNFα receptor...
June 8, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601633/leptomycin-b-attenuates-neuronal-death-via-pka-and-pp2b-mediated-erk1-2-activation-in-the-rat-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#5
Su-Ji Min, Hye-Won Hyun, Tae-Cheon Kang
Leptomycin B (LMB), originally developed as an anti-fungal agent, has potent neuroprotective properties against status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure activity). However, the pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of LMB for neuroprotection remain elusive. In the present study, we found that LMB increased phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunits, protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B, calcineurin) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) under normal condition, and abolished SE-induced neuronal death...
June 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584988/methodology-for-anti-cryptococcal-vaccine-development
#6
Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is widely considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen which targets individuals with impaired immune systems, while C. gattii is predominantly associated with fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. However, C. neoformans and C. gattii have certainly been identified as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in both immune compromised and immune competent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579986/hiv-aspartic-peptidase-inhibitors-modulate-surface-molecules-and-enzyme-activities-involved-with-physiopathological-events-in-fonsecaea-pedrosoi
#7
Vanila F Palmeira, Daniela S Alviano, Lys A Braga-Silva, Fátima R V Goulart, Marcela Q Granato, Sonia Rozental, Celuta S Alviano, André L S Santos, Lucimar F Kneipp
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shown anti-F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544982/an-evaluation-of-minor-groove-binders-as-anti-fungal-and-anti-mycobacterial-therapeutics
#8
Fraser J Scott, Ryan J O Nichol, Abedawn I Khalaf, Federica Giordani, Kirsten Gillingwater, Soumya Ramu, Alysha Elliott, Johannes Zuegg, Paula Duffy, Michael-Jon Rosslee, Lerato Hlaka, Santosh Kumar, Mumin Ozturk, Frank Brombacher, Michael Barrett, Reto Guler, Colin J Suckling
This study details the synthesis and biological evaluation of a collection of 19 structurally related Minor Groove Binders (MGBs), derived from the natural product distamycin, which were designed to probe antifungal and antimycobacterial activity. From this initial set, we report several MGBs that are worth more detailed investigation and optimisation. MGB-4, MGB-317 and MGB-325 have promising MIC80s of 2, 4 and 0.25 μg/mL, respectively, against the fungus C. neoformans.MGB-353 and MGB-354 have MIC99s of 3...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536384/in-vitro-anti-oxidant-and-anti-microbial-potentiality-investigation-of-different-fractions-of-caryota-urens-leaves
#9
Shofiul Azam, Md Kayes Mahmud, Md Hamza Naquib, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Md Josim Uddin, Irfan Sajid, Muhammad Sazzad Hossain, Md Salimul Karim, Md Ali Hasan
BACKGROUND: Caryota urens is a member of the Arecaceae family and a common plant in the Southeast Asian region. This plant has been reported as an anti-microbial agent in recent years. Thus, we aimed to find out the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against different pathogenic microorganism. METHODS: The leaves of C. urens were extracted and fractioned using different reagents (chloroform, n-hexane and carbon tetrachloride). Disc diffusion method was implemented for the assessment of in vitro anti-microbial potency (500 and 250 µg/disc)...
July 27, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531554/efficacy-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-in-the-control-of-aspergillus-parasiticus-growth-and-aflatoxins-production-on-pistachio
#10
Fatemeh Siahmoshteh, Ilenia Siciliano, Houda Banani, Zohreh Hamidi-Esfahani, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Davide Spadaro
Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516246/aspergillus-species-in-bronchiectasis-challenges-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-and-non-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#11
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Maria Teresa Martin-Gomez
Bronchiectasis is a chronic irreversible airway abnormality associated with infectious agents that either cause or superinfect the airways. While the role of bacteria is well studied, much remains to be determined about fungi in both cystic fibrosis- and non-cystic fibrosis-related bronchiectasis. The airway is constantly exposed to inhaled ambient moulds of which Aspergillus represent the most ubiquitous. In a normal healthy host, this situation is of little consequence. The presence of anatomical or immunological abnormalities such as those in bronchiectasis leads to a range of fungal-related pathologies from asymptomatic airway colonization to fungal sensitization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or chronic pulmonary aspergillosis...
May 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513812/common-dermatophytes-and-in-vitro-anti-fungal-susceptibility-testing-in-patients-attending-the-dermatological-clinic-at-the-hospital-for-tropical-medicine-bangkok
#12
Watcharamat Muangkaew, Thanwa Wongsuk, Natthanej Luplertlop
Dermatophytes comprising the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton are important causes of superficial mycoses. The number of infected patients and the distribution of species of these organisms in our hospital were unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate the clinical pattern of dermatophyte infections and to identify the species of these dermatophytes at the Dermatological Clinic of the Hospital for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok in a 1-year period...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503354/mechanism-of-the-p450-catalyzed-oxidative-cyclization-in-the-biosynthesis-of-griseofulvin
#13
Jessica M Grandner, Ralph A Cacho, Yi Tang, K N Houk
Griseofulvin is an anti-fungal agent which has recently been determined to have potential anti-viral and anti-cancer applications. The role of specific enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of this natural product has previously been determined, but the mechanism by which a p450, GsfF, catalyzes the key oxidative cyclization of griseophenone B remains unknown. Using density functional theory (DFT), we have determined the mechanism of this oxidation that forms the oxa-spiro core of griseofulvin. Computations show GsfF preferentially performs two sequential phenolic O-H abstractions rather than epoxidation to form an arene oxide intermediate...
July 1, 2016: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492800/fungal-infection-control-by-garlic-extracts-allium-sativum-l-and-modulation-of-peritoneal-macrophages-activity-in-murine-model-of-sporotrichosis
#14
J P Burian, L V S Sacramento, I Z Carlos
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483535/a-battery-of-assays-as-an-integrated-approach-to-evaluate-fungal-and-mycotoxin-inhibition-properties-and-cytotoxic-genotoxic-side-effects-for-the-prioritization-in-the-screening-of-thiosemicarbazone-derivatives
#15
Claudia Zani, Franco Bisceglie, Francesco Maria Restivo, Donatella Feretti, Marianna Pioli, Francesca Degola, Serena Montalbano, Serena Galati, Giorgio Pelosi, Gaia V C Viola, Mauro Carcelli, Dominga Rogolino, Elisabetta Ceretti, Annamaria Buschini
Aflatoxins represent a serious problem for a food economy based on cereal cultivations used to fodder animal and for human nutrition. The aims of our work are two-fold: first, to perform an evaluation of the activity of newly synthesized thiosemicarbazone compounds as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents and, second, to conduct studies on the toxic and genotoxic hazard potentials with a battery of tests with different endpoints. In this paper we report an initial study on two molecules: S-4-isopropenylcyclohexen-1-carbaldehydethiosemicarbazone and its metal complex, bis(S-4-isopropenylcyclohexen-1-carbaldehydethiosemicarbazonato)nickel (II)...
May 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481901/%C3%AE-lapachone-suppresses-the-lung-metastasis-of-melanoma-via-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#16
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Dae-Seung Kim, Jeong-Geon Mun, Seong-Hwan Park, Hong-Seob So, Sung-Joo Park, Raekil Park, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
β-Lapachone is a natural quinone compound from Lapacho trees, which has various pharmacological effects such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of β-lapachone on metastasis of melanoma cells is unclear. In this study, β-lapachone reduced cell viability of metastatic melanoma cancer cell lines B16F10 and B16BL6 through induction of apoptosis via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Additionally, flow cytometry results showed that β-lapachone increased DNA content in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462176/assessment-of-effectiveness-of-fluconazole-and-clotrimazole-in-treating-oral-candidiasis-patients-a-comparative-study
#17
R C Jagat Reddy, S Jeelani, P Duraiselvi, M Kandasamy, G Suresh Kumar, R Azhal Vel Pandian
AIMS: One of the most common fungal infections infecting humans is Candidiasis. Belonging to the group of opportunistic infections, it often affects individuals with various debilitating diseases. Fluconazole and clotrimazole are two of the commonly used anti-fungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate the effectiveness of fluconazole and clotrimazole in the treatment of patients suffering from candidiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 participants were enrolled in the present study...
March 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461309/crystal-structure-of-the-new-investigational-drug-candidate-vt-1598-in-complex-with-aspergillus-fumigatus-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-provides-insights-into-its-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity
#18
Tatiana Y Hargrove, Edward P Garvey, William J Hoekstra, Christopher M Yates, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Girish Rachakonda, Fernando Villalta, Galina I Lepesheva
Within the past decades, the incidence and complexity of human fungal infections have increased, and therefore the need for safer and more efficient, broad-spectrum antifungal agents is high. Herein, we characterize the new tetrazole-based drug candidate VT-1598 as an inhibitor of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51B) from the filamentous fungi Aspergillus fumigatus VT-1598 displayed a high binding affinity to the enzyme in solution (with the Kd of 13±1 nM) and in the reconstituted enzymatic reaction revealed the inhibitory potency stronger than the potencies of all other simultaneously tested antifungal drugs, including fluconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole...
May 1, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458355/growth-inhibition-of-an-opportunistic-yeast-pathogen-trichosporon-asahii-by-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#19
Reiko Ikeda, Yuki Ogasawara, Kazuhiko Takatori, Tomoe Ichikawa, Miki Nakajima, Kazuko Harigaya, Miho Watanabe, Erika Okudaira, Hanari Yoshikawa, Kazuki Yanagisawa
In the co-culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Trichosporon asahii, a fungal pathogen, it was observed that live S. epidermidis inhibited the growth of T. asahii. Soluble active anti-T. asahii substances were speculated to be produced by S. epidermidis in culture medium. Using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and electron ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-negative-FAB-MS), we separated the active molecule and identified it as lactic acid. Commercially available L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid inhibited the growth of T...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458321/thoracic-aortic-graft-infection-due-to-candida-albicans-with-multiple-embolism-in-the-left-side-vessels-of-the-body
#20
Takaaki Nemoto, Yasuharu Tokuda, Masanori Hirose, Yoshiyuki Naitoh, Yukitaka Yamasaki, Taro Shimizu, Hisashi Nishisako, Hiroyuki Kunishima, Takahide Matsuda
A 79-year-old Japanese man who had undergone thoracic aortic replacement 10 years prior presented with a 3-day history of sore throat. He was initially diagnosed with pharyngitis; however, multiple emboli in the vessels of the left side of the body were recognized. He was diagnosed with thoracic aortic graft infection caused by Candida albicans, with multiple embolisms. Anti-fungal therapy was initiated, but surgical removal of the graft was not performed because of the high risk associated with the operation, and he eventually died...
2017: Internal Medicine
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