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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451940/patient-factors-associated-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-septic-arthritis-in-children
#2
Derek T Bernstein, Lee S Haruno, Shiva Daram, John R Dawson, Wei Zhang, Scott B Rosenfeld
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative organism in pediatric septic arthritis, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being responsible for a significant portion of these infections. Early identification and initiation of proper treatment may improve outcomes by minimizing potential morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify variables obtained on initial patient presentation associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Sixteen factors were retrospectively evaluated in 109 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with culture-confirmed septic arthritis...
February 16, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426723/topical-therapy-for-refractory-rhinosinusitis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-first-report-in-a-prospective-series
#3
Alan H Shikani, Nadim Khoueir, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, Henry J Shikani, Randall J Basaraba, Jeff G Leid
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is rising and remains a therapeutic challenge. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a non-invasive topical therapy against MRSA in these patients. METHODS: Seventeen patients with refractory CRS caused by MRSA were treated with a topical therapy protocol. Treatment consisted of weekly endoscopic sinus debridement followed by intra-sinus installation of a hydroxyl-ethylcellulose gel that releases mometasone and a culture-directed antibiotic for a period of 6 weeks, along with daily nasal nebulization of mometasone with the same antibiotic and saline rinses...
February 6, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422819/increasing-rate-of-daptomycin-non-susceptible-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Izabela Błażewicz, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Lidia Piechowicz, Damian Neubauer, Roman J Nowicki, Wojciech Kamysz, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
Introduction: Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains. Daptomycin exerts its antimicrobial effect by a calcium-dependent interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in depolarization, ion loss and rapid cell death. Unfortunately, loss of daptomycin susceptibility in S. aureus in the clinical setting has been noted...
December 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418054/evaluation-of-treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-mrsa-bacteremia-following-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-with-pharmacist-intervention
#5
Kengo Ohashi, Tomoko Matsuoka, Yasutaka Shinoda, Yasuyuki Fukami, Joe Shindoh, Tetsuya Yagi, Tomoaki Yoshimura, Tadashi Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSA-B) is associated with high mortality and implementing an appropriate antimicrobial stewardship (AS) program with treatment intervention is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AS with pharmacist intervention on patients with MRSA-B. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with MRSA-B between January 2012 and April 2013 were defined as the pre-intervention group, while those diagnosed between May 2013 and December 2015 were defined as the intervention group (ie, AS with pharmacist intervention)...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418006/light-based-methods-for-whole-blood-bacterial-inactivation-enabled-by-a-recirculating-flow-system
#6
Gwangseong Kim, Mahsa Karbaschi, Marcus Cooke, Angelo Gaitas
Light of certain wavelengths can be used to inactivate pathogens. Whole blood is opaque, thus the penetration of light is reduced. Here, we overcame this limitation by using a thin transparent tube that is illuminated from all angles. Three light-based techniques were evaluated: photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a 660-nm light and antibody-photosensitizer conjugates, ultraviolet, and violet light. We observed a reduction of 55-71% of Staphylococcus aureus after 5 h of exposure (starting concentration 107 CFU/mL), and an 88-97% reduction in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (starting 104 CFU/mL)...
February 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414649/passive-immunization-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-recombinant-pbp2a-in-sepsis-model-of-mice-comparable-results-with-antibiotic-therapy
#7
Rojin Zeyaei Naghshbandi, Setareh Haghighat, Mehdi Mahdavi
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a representative pathogen that is responsible for a nosocomial infection and considerable yearly mortality rate. Antibiotic resistance provides a great reason for immunotherapy as an alternative strategy to prevent and/or treat the infection. Herein, following the preparation of recombinant penicillin binding protein 2a (r-PBP2a), rabbit polyclonal IgG was purified. Specificity of IgG to r-PBP2a was evaluated by ELISA and western blotting. IgG fraction was prepared by sulfate ammonium precipitation...
January 29, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409000/the-standardized-antimicrobial-administration-ratio-a-new-metric-for-measuring-and-comparing-antibiotic-use
#8
Katharina L van Santen, Jonathan R Edwards, Amy K Webb, Lori A Pollack, Erin O'Leary, Melinda M Neuhauser, Arjun Srinivasan, Daniel A Pollock
Background: To provide a standardized, risk-adjusted method for summarizing antibiotic use (AU) and to enable hospitals to track their AU over time and compare their AU data to national benchmarks, CDC developed a new metric, the Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (SAAR). Methods: Hospitals reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) AU Option collect and submit aggregated AU data electronically as antimicrobial days of therapy per patient days present...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405452/immunotherapy-synergizes-with-debridement-and-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-murine-1-stage-exchange-model-of-mrsa-implant-associated-osteomyelitis
#9
Noriaki Yokogawa, Masahiro Ishikawa, Kohei Nishitani, Christopher A Beck, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Addisu Mesfin, Stephen L Kates, John L Daiss, Chao Xie, Edward M Schwarz
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) reinfection following revision surgery remains a major orthopaedic problem. Toward the development of immunotherapy with anti-glucosaminidase monoclonal antibodies (anti-Gmd), we aimed to: (i) develop a murine 1-stage exchange model of bioluminescent MRSA (USA300LAC::lux) contaminated femoral implants; and (ii) utilize this model to demonstrate the synergistic effects of combination vancomycin and anti-Gmd therapy on reinfection and bone healing. Following an infection surgery, the original plate and two screws were removed on day 7, and exchanged with sterile implants...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400119/morbidity-mortality-and-management-of-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-bacteremia-in-the-us-update-on-antibacterial-choices-and-understanding
#10
Jessica Ortwine, Kavita Bhavan
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant healthcare costs, morbidity, and mortality in the United States. Complications of MRSA bacteremia include infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis, all of which are difficult to treat. Time to effective therapy and antibacterial choice greatly affect patient outcomes. Vancomycin and daptomycin remain first-line therapies; however, reports of vancomycin-associated treatment failure and reduced daptomycin susceptibility highlight the need to define alternative strategies for MRSA bacteremia treatment...
February 5, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397537/management-of-bloodstream-infections-by-infection-specialists-in-france-and-germany-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Kévin Diallo, Winfried V Kern, Katja de With, Amandine Luc, Nathalie Thilly, Céline Pulcini
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are frequent infections worldwide. Our objective was to explore variation in the management of patients with BSI by infection specialists in France and Germany. METHODS: This work is part of an international ESCMID cross-sectional internet-based questionnaire survey that was opened from December 2016 to February 2017. All hospital-based infection specialists, senior or trainees, giving at least weekly advice on positive blood cultures could participate...
February 3, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382143/use-of-a-regression-model-to-study-host-genomic-determinants-of-phage-susceptibility-in-mrsa
#12
Henrike Zschach, Mette V Larsen, Henrik Hasman, Henrik Westh, Morten Nielsen, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Andrzej Górski
Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections. Especially in methicillin-resistant strains, conventional treatment options are limited and expensive, which has fueled a growing interest in phage therapy approaches. We have tested the susceptibility of 207 clinical S. aureus strains to 12 (nine monovalent) different therapeutic phage preparations and subsequently employed linear regression models to estimate the influence of individual host gene families on resistance to phages. Specifically, we used a two-step regression model setup with a preselection step based on gene family enrichment...
January 29, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378704/clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-treated-with-vancomycin-at-an-institution-with-suppressed-mic-reporting-impact-of-vancomycin-mic
#13
Shaili Adani, Tanaya Bhowmick, Melvin P Weinstein, Navaneeth Narayanan
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of bacteremia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prior studies evaluating the association of vancomycin MIC and clinical outcomes in patients with MRSA bacteremia have been inconsistent. This study evaluated the association between vancomycin MIC and 30-day in-hospital mortality in patients with MRSA bacteremia. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with MRSA bacteremia treated with vancomycin for ≥72 hours from January 2013 to August 2016...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378030/inducible-costimulator-contributes-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#14
Silvia Pires, Rudy Jacquet, Dane Parker
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of both community- and healthcare-acquired pneumonias. Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is part of the CD28 family of proteins and is a target for immune checkpoint therapy. We found ICOS highly expressed on activated CD4 cells in response to S. aureus. In the absence of ICOS, mice had improved survival in a pneumonia model with the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 and significant reductions in bacterial burden in a nonlethal acute pneumonia model...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374577/evaluation-of-linezolid-or-cotrimoxazole-in-combination-with-rifampicin-as-alternative-oral-treatments-based-on-an-in-vitro-pharmacodynamic-model-of-staphylococcal-biofilm
#15
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Nuria Lloberas, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Fe Tubau, Pere Fontova, Carme Cabellos, Javier Ariza
BACKGROUND: Linezolid or cotrimoxazole plus rifampicin (RIF) are alternative oral treatments for staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections when fluoroquinolones are not possible to use, but there is limited evidence about its activity. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of linezolid (LZD) and cotrimoxazole (SXT) alone and in combination with RIF against Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biofilm model. METHODS: Using the CDC Biofilm Reactor® system, simulated regimens of LZD (600 mg q12h), SXT (160/800 mg q8h) and levofloxacin (LVX, 750 mg/day) alone and in combination with RIF (600 mg/day) were evaluated against one MSSA and one MRSA strain...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374504/the-role-of-negative-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-surveillance-swabs-in-predicting-the-need-for-empiric-vancomycin-therapy-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#16
Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Pranita D Tamma, Avinash Gadala, Sara E Cosgrove
OBJECTIVES The role of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal surveillance swabs (nasal swabs) in guiding decisions about prescribing vancomycin is unclear. We aimed to determine the likelihood that patients with negative MRSA nasal swabs develop subsequent MRSA infections; to assess avoidable vancomycin days for patients with negative nasal swabs; and to identify risk factors for having a negative nasal swab and developing a MRSA infection during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 6 ICUs at a tertiary-care hospital from December 2013 through June 2015...
January 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366337/extensive-cutaneous-botryomycosis-with-subsequent-development-of-nocardia-positive-wound-cultures
#17
Judy Park DeWitt, Cloyce L Stetson, Kleesy L Thomas, Bryan J Carroll
Botryomycosis is a rare, chronic granulomatous infection caused by a response to bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous manifestations, such as subcutaneous nodules, nonhealing ulcers, or sinus tracks, typically occur following inoculation of bacteria after trauma. Drainage from the skin lesions may contain yellow grains resembling those seen in actinomycosis and nocardiosis. A 20-year-old Hispanic male presented over the course of several years with a chronic nonhealing left posterior scalp wound...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363950/new-developments-in-glycopeptide-antibiotics
#18
Mark Arnold Thomas Blaskovich, Karl A Hansford, Mark Stuart Butler, ZhiGuang Jia, Alan Edward Mark, Matthew A Cooper
Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPA) are a key weapon in the fight against drug resistant bacteria, with vancomycin still a mainstream therapy against serious Gram-positive infections more than 50 years after it was first introduced. New, more potent semisynthetic derivatives that have entered the clinic, such as dalbavancin and oritavancin, have superior pharmacokinetic and target engagement profiles that enable successful treatment of vancomycin-resistant infections. In the face of resistance development, with multi-drug resistant (MDR) S...
January 24, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358290/evaluating-the-relationship-between-vancomycin-trough-concentration-and-24-hour-area-under-the-concentration-time-curve-in-neonates
#19
Sheng-Hsuan Tseng, Chuan Poh Lim, Qi Chen, Cheng Cai Tang, Sing Teang Kong, Paul Chi-Lui Ho
Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially those involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommend vancomycin 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve to MIC ratio (AUC24/MIC, hr) > 400 as the best predictor of successful treatment against MRSA infections when MIC (mg/L) is ≤ 1. The relationship between steady state vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC24 (mg ⋅ hr/L) has not been studied in an Asian neonatal population...
January 22, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#20
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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