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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#1
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a "low resistance potential," is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#2
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905181/effectiveness-of-collagen-oxidised-regenerated-cellulose-silver-containing-composite-wound-dressing-for-the-treatment-of-medium-depth-split-thickness-skin-graft-donor-site-wounds-in-multi-morbid-patients-a-prospective-non-comparative-single-centre-study
#3
Alexander Konstantinow, Tatjana V Fischer, Johannes Ring
Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is a widely used method in reconstructive surgery, but donor site wounds (DSWs) are often slow healing and painful. This prospective study evaluated the performance of a composite wound dressing containing collagen/oxidised regenerated cellulose in the treatment of medium-depth (0·4 mm) DSWs in 25 multi-morbid patients with chronic leg ulcers requiring STSG. The range of patients' ages was 44-84 years (mean 71·6 years) with DSW sizes ranging between 12 and 162 cm(2) (mean 78 cm(2) )...
December 1, 2016: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902375/improving-time-to-optimal-staphylococcus-aureus-treatment-using-a-penicillin-binding-protein-2a-assay
#4
Sonia N Rao, Sheila K Wang, Jose Gonzalez Zamora, Amy P Hanson, Radhika S Polisetty, Kamaljit Singh
The penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) assay is a quick, accurate and inexpensive test for determining methicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. A pre-post study design was conducted using a PBP2a assay with and without the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AS) intervention to improve time to optimal therapy for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Our results demonstrate significantly improved time to optimal therapy and support the use of a PBP2a assay as part of an AS program for all healthcare facilities, especially those with limited resources...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901391/comparison-of-antibacterial-effects-among-three-foams-used-with-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-in-an-ex-vivo-equine-perfused-wound-model
#5
Lore L Van Hecke, Maarten Haspeslagh, Katleen Hermans, Ann M Martens
OBJECTIVE To compare antibacterial effects among 3 types of foam used with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in an ex vivo equine perfused wound model. SAMPLES Abdominal musculocutaneous flaps from 6 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES Each musculocutaneous flap was continuously perfused with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four 5-cm circular wounds were created in each flap and contaminated with 10(6) CFUs of both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After a 1-hour incubation period, 1 of 4 treatments (NPWT with silver-impregnated polyurethane foam [NPWT-AgPU], polyurethane foam [NPWT-PU], or polyvinyl alcohol foam [NPWT-PVA] or a nonadherent dressing containing polyhexamethylene biguanide without NPWT [control]) was randomly applied to each wound...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898266/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-foot-osteomyelitis
#6
Chester N Ashong, Shazia A Raheem, Andrew S Hunter, Cezarina Mindru, Neal R Barshes
BACKGROUND: Conflicting studies exist regarding the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on increased time to wound healing, future need for surgical procedures, and likelihood of treatment failure in patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the overall significance of MRSA in predicting treatment failure in bone infections of the foot and to determine an appropriate pre-operative and empiric post-operative antibiotic regimen...
November 29, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895012/a-multicenter-observational-study-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#7
Evan J Zasowski, Trang D Trinh, Kimberly C Claeys, Anthony M Casapao, Noor Sabagha, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Kenneth P Klinker, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Novel therapies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) are needed in the setting of reduced antibiotic susceptibilities and therapeutic failure. Ceftaroline is an advanced generation cephalosporin with MRSA activity. Although not FDA approved for MRSA BSI, ceftaroline has generated much interest as a potential treatment option. However, detailed description of its use in this setting remains limited. To address this, we conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational study of adult patients with MRSA BSI treated with at least 72 hours of ceftaroline from 2011 to 2015...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889013/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-review-of-the-currently-available-treatment-options
#8
REVIEW
S M Purrello, J Garau, E Giamarellos, T Mazzei, F Pea, A Soriano, S Stefani
This review is the result of discussions that took place at the 5th MRSA Working Group Consensus Meeting and explores the possible treatment options available for different types of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), focusing on those antibiotics that could represent a valid alternative to vancomycin. In fact, whilst vancomycin remains a viable option, its therapy is moving towards individualised dosing. Other drugs, such as the new lipoglycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin and telavancin) and fifth-generation cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole), are showing good in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, especially for patients infected with micro-organisms with higher vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873126/resistance-to-non-glycopeptide-agents-in-serious-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#9
REVIEW
Kyle C Molina, Vanthida Huang
The role of vancomycin in the treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections, both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant, is becoming increasingly ineffective due to increasing MIC and failure. The development of reduced vancomycin susceptibility by S. aureus to glycopeptides highlights the need for clinicians to reexamine the roles of non-glycopeptide therapy. As the use of these alternative non-glycopeptides antimicrobials increases, it will become pertinent to monitor the rates of resistance...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867536/life-threatening-mrsa-sepsis-with-bilateral-pneumonia-osteomyelitis-and-septic-arthritis-of-the-knee-in-a-previously-healthy-13-year-old-boy-a-case-report
#10
Nina Hardgrib, Michala Wang, Anne Grethe Jurik, Klaus K Petersen
The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy...
October 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859922/cadexomer-iodine-provides-superior-efficacy-against-bacterial-wound-biofilms-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Daniel J Fitzgerald, Paul J Renick, Emma C Forrest, Shannon P Tetens, David N Earnest, Jillian McMillan, Brett M Kiedaisch, Lei Shi, Eric D Roche
Examination of clinical samples indicates bacterial biofilms are present in the majority of chronic wounds, and substantial evidence suggests biofilms contribute significantly to delayed healing. Bacteria in biofilms are highly tolerant of antimicrobials, and little data exist to guide the choice of anti-biofilm wound therapy. Cadexomer Iodine (CI) was recently reported to have superior efficacy compared to diverse wound dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in an ex vivo model. In the current study, the strong performance of CI versus P...
November 17, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855064/rifampin-based-combination-therapy-is-active-in-foreign-body-osteomyelitis-after-prior-rifampin-monotherapy
#12
Cassandra L Brinkman, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are associated with biofilm formation, making them difficult to treat; if managed with débridement and implant retention, rifampin-based therapy is usually employed. Rifampin resistance potentially challenges PJI treatment. In investigating the effects of rifampin monotherapy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreign body osteomyelitis in rats, we previously demonstrated that rifampin resistance was selected but that it disappeared 14 days following rifampin monotherapy (1) and that rifampin resistance occurred less frequently following two rounds than one round of rifampin monotherapy (2)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851438/1803-combination-antibiotic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-necrotizing-mrsa-pneumonia
#13
Andy Kim, Kelsey Gray, Joy Kehoe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832585/tackling-difficult-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-antibodies-show-the-way
#14
Bo Shopsin, Srini V Kaveri, Jagadeesh Bayry
The recent spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has brought increasing concerns of heightened disease severity and persistence following invasive disease. In line with the need for new treatment paradigms, two recent reports have shown that antibody-based therapies can restrict acute S. aureus infection and persistence and improve pathological symptoms.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821441/beta-lactamase-inhibitors-enhance-the-synergy-between-beta-lactam-antibiotics-and-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Karl Evans R Henson, Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, George Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak
The evidence for using combination therapy for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is growing. In this study, we investigate the synergistic effect of daptomycin combined with piperacillin+tazobactam and ampicillin+sulbactam against MRSA using time-kill experiments. Six of 8 strains demonstrated synergy between DAP and the β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combination. In 5/8 strains, the synergy occurred only in the presence of the BLI, highlighting a role for BLIs in peptide-beta-lactam synergy...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820584/ca-mrsa-decolonization-strategies-do-they-reduce-recurrence-rate
#16
Joling Tidwell, Lisa Kirk, Tim Luttrell, Caitlin A Pike
BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus commonly presents as a skin and soft tissue infection. Recurrence of the infection is common even after incision and drainage of the affected area. OBJECTIVE: This Evidence-Based Report Card reviews whether decolonization strategies will reduce the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection (MRSA-SSTI) recurrence or colonization in patients with a history of MRSA-SSTI...
November 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813433/factors-affecting-the-rise-of-treatment-of-resistant-bacteria-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-united-states-1993-2012
#17
Margaret E Wetzel, Alan B Fleischer
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) prevalence has been steadily increasing for the past 40 years. The increase in such infections has contributed to a change in the treatment patterns of the patient. This study aimed to detail the factors determining prescription practices associated with MRSA-related skin and soft tissue infections. METHODS: The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) was searched for data from 1993 to 2012 regarding the factors associated with resistant vs...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795377/molecular-bases-determining-daptomycin-resistance-mediated-re-sensitization-to-%C3%AE-lactams-see-saw-effect-in-mrsa
#18
Adriana M Renzoni, William L Kelley, Roberto R Rosato, Maria P Martinez, Melanie Roch, Maryam Fatouraei, Daniel P Haeusser, William Margolin, Samuel Fenn, Robert D Turner, Simon J Foster, Adriana E Rosato
Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the principal threats to public health worldwide, yet the problem is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are among the most difficult to treat in clinical settings due to the resistance to nearly all available antibiotics. The cyclic anionic lipopeptide antibiotic Daptomycin (DAP) is the clinical mainstay of anti-MRSA therapy. Decreased susceptibility to DAP (DAPR) reported in MRSA is frequently accompanied with a paradoxical decrease in β-lactam resistance, a process known as the "see-saw" effect...
October 24, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789041/signs-of-stigma-and-poor-mental-health-among-carriers-of-mrsa
#19
B Rump, M De Boer, R Reis, M Wassenberg, J Van Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: Many countries have implemented guidelines to prevent transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Important contextual factors of stigma can be identified in the context of MRSA. Over the past decade, concerns have been raised over a possible stigmatizing effect of these actions. AIM: To identify and quantify the occurrence of MRSA-associated stigma, and to explore its association with mental health in a country with an MRSA 'search and destroy' policy...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784495/-extensive-burns-complicated-with-infective-endocarditis-and-septic-pulmonary-embolism-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
T S Li, Y Qi, Y Wang, Y X Wang, F Y Liu, L Dai, G G Xia
Objective: To improve the clinical recognition of infective endocarditis (IE) and septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) in patients with extensive burns. Methods: A case of large area burn complicated with IE and SPE confirmed by blood cultures and echocardiography was described. A literature review was performed with "burn" and "infective endocarditis" as the Chinese key words in Wanfang database; with "burn" and "infective endocarditis" as Mesh terms in PubMed. Results: The patient was a 37-year-old male with large area burn, who presented with fever and hemoptysis...
October 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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