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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661157/sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-oxacillin-modify-the-expression-of-agr-locus-in-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-strains-belonging-to-different-clonal-complexes
#1
Esther Viedma, Dafne Pérez-Montarelo, Jennifer Villa, Irene Muñoz-Gallego, Nieves Larrosa, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Joan Gavaldà, Benito Almirante, Fernando Chaves
BACKGROUND: The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade tissues and cause an infectious disease is the result of a multi-factorial process supported by the huge number of virulence factors inherent to this microorganism tightly regulated by the accessory gene regulator (agr). During antimicrobial therapy bacteria may be exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics that may trigger transcriptional changes that may have an impact on the pathogenesis of infection...
April 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651276/liposome-entrapment-of-bacteriophages-improves-wound-healing-in-a-diabetic-mouse-mrsa-infection
#2
Sanjay Chhibber, Jasjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur
Diabetic populations are more prone to developing wound infections which results in poor and delayed wound healing. Infection with drug resistant organisms further worsen the situation, driving searches for alternative treatment approaches such as phage therapy. Major drawback of phage therapy, however, is low phage persistence in situ , suggesting further refinement of the approach. In the present work we address this issue by employing liposomes as delivery vehicles. A liposome entrapped phage cocktail was evaluated for its ability to resolve a Staphylococcus aureus -induced diabetic excission wound infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642449/characterization-of-a-new-staphylococcus-aureus-kayvirus-harboring-a-lysin-active-against-biofilms
#3
Luís D R Melo, Ana Brandão, Ergun Akturk, Silvio B Santos, Joana Azeredo
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogens involved in many biofilm-associated diseases, and is a major cause of nosocomial infections, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. Consequently, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are urgent. It has been previously shown that polyvalent staphylococcal kayviruses and their derived endolysins are excellent candidates for therapy. Here we present the characterization of a new bacteriophage: vB_SauM-LM12 (LM12)...
April 7, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619336/risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-surgical-patients-with-presumed-pneumonia-is-not-impacted-by-choice-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-therapy
#4
Kelsey B Billups, Erica E Reed, Gary S Phillips, Kurt B Stevenson, Steven M Steinberg, Claire V Murphy
Background: Vancomycin and linezolid are standard treatment options for nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. While acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly attributed to vancomycin, existing data has not definitely confirmed vancomycin as an independent risk factor for AKI. Aims: This study aimed to quantify the incidence of AKI in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients receiving empiric vancomycin or linezolid for nosocomial pneumonia and to identify risk factors for AKI with a focus on MRSA antibiotic therapy...
January 2018: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619261/septic-pulmonary-emboli-and-renal-abscess-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#5
Isaí Medina-Piñón, Alan Ledif Reyes-Mondragón, Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia in the general population and can lead to serious metastatic infection particularly in immunocompromised persons. However, prompt diagnosis and management can result in favorable outcomes. In the following case report, the clinical course of an HIV-infected man is presented; he developed bloodstream infection (BSI) and associated complications: septic pulmonary embolism, right renal abscess, and ipsilateral renal vein thrombosis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified as the cause of sepsis and successfully treated with surgery and antimicrobials...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610202/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activities-of-ds-2969b-a-novel-gyrb-inhibitor-and-its-water-soluble-prodrug-ds11960558-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Tarani Kanta Barman, Manoj Kumar, Tarun Mathur, Eiko Namba, Diksha Singh, Tridib Chaira, Yuichi Kurosaka, Makiko Yamada, Dilip Jatashankar Upadhyay, Nobuhisa Masuda
DS-2969b is a novel GyrB inhibitor under clinical development. In this study, the in vitro activity of DS-2969b and in vivo activities of DS-2969b and its water-soluble prodrug, DS11960558, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were evaluated. DS-2969b inhibited the supercoiling activity of S. aureus DNA gyrase and the decatenation activity of its topoisomerase IV. DS-2969b showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive aerobes but not against Gram-negative aerobes, except Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae DS-2969b was active against MRSA with an MIC90 of 0...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610194/the-combination-of-daptomycin-plus-fosfomycin-has-synergistic-potent-and-rapid-bactericidal-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-a-rabbit-model-of-experimental-endocarditis-ee
#7
Cristina García-de-la-Mària, Oriol Gasch, Javier García-Gonzalez, Dolors Soy, Evelyn Shaw, Juan Ambrosioni, Manel Almela, Juan M Pericàs, Adrián Tellez, Carlos Falces, Marta Hernandez-Meneses, Elena Sandoval, Eduard Quintana, Barbara Vidal, Jose M Tolosana, David Fuster, Jaume Llopis, Miquel Pujol, Asuncion Moreno, Francesc Marco, Jose M Miró
This study aims to investigate whether the addition of fosfomycin or cloxacillin to daptomycin provides better outcomes in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) experimental aortic endocarditis in rabbits. Five MRSA strains were used to perform in vitro time-kill studies at standard (105) and high (108) inocula. Combined therapy was compared with daptomycin monotherapy treatment in the MRSA experimental endocarditis model. A human-like pharmacokinetics model was applied and the equivalents of cloxacillin 2g/4hiv, fosfomycin 2g/6h iv and daptomycin 6-10mg/kg/d iv were administered...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574990/the-effect-of-combined-pulsed-wave-low-level-laser-therapy-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-on-the-healing-of-an-infected-wound-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcal-aureus-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Reza Kouhkheil, Mohammadjavad Fridoni, Abbas Piryaei, Soudabeh Taheri, Alireza S Chirani, Iraj J Anarkooli, Reza Nejatbakhsh, Sasha Shafikhani, Lucia A Schuger, Vijaya B Reddy, Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi, Reza Jalalifirouzkouhi, Sufan Chien, Mohammad Bayat
This study aims to investigate the combined effects of Pulsed wave low-level laser therapy (PW LLLT) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (hBM-MSC-CM) on the microbial flora and tensiometrical properties of an infected wound model with methicillin-resistant staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) in an experimental model for Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM). TIDM was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ). One full-thickness excision was made on the backs of the rats. Next, the rats were divided into the following groups: Group 1 was the control (placebo) group; Group 2 received hBM-MSCs-CM four times; Group 3 were laser PWLLLT (890 nm, 80 Hz, 0...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570590/osteoarticular-infections-following-open-or-penetrating-trauma-in-children-in-the-post-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-era-the-impact-of-enterobacter-cloacae
#9
J Chase McNeil, Jesus G Vallejo, Kristina G Hulten, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Most cases of pediatric osteoarticular infections (OAI) are hematogenous in nature and caused by Staphylococcus aureus. OAI in children can also occur through direct inoculation of microorganisms secondary to penetrating or open trauma. No studies in the US have evaluated the microbiology or outcomes of trauma-related OAI (TROAI) in children in the era of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). METHODS: Cases were identified from the inpatient infectious diseases consultation database at Texas Children's Hospital from Jan 2011-Dec 2016...
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570150/cost-effectiveness-research-in-anesthesiology
#10
Bijan J Teja, Tori N Sutherland, Sheila R Barnett, Daniel S Talmor
Perioperative interventions aimed at decreasing costs and improving outcomes have become increasingly popular in recent years. Anesthesiologists are often faced with a choice among different treatment strategies with little data available on the comparative cost-effectiveness. We performed a systematic review of the English language literature between 1980 and 2014 to identify cost-effectiveness analyses of anesthesiology and perioperative medicine interventions. We excluded interventions related to critical care or pediatric anesthesiology, and articles on interventions not normally ordered or performed by anesthesiologists...
March 21, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569505/risk-factors-associated-with-complications-sequelae-of-acute-and-subacute-haematogenous-osteomyelitis-an-italian-multicenter-study
#11
Elena Chiappini, Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Elena Bozzola, Clara Gabiano, Susanna Esposito, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Maria Rita Govoni, Cristina Vallongo, Icilio Dodi, Elio Castagnola, Nadia Rossi, Piero Valentini, Fabio Cardinale, Filippo Salvini, Gianni Bona, Grazia Bossi, Alma Nunzia Olivieri, Fiorella Russo, Emilio Fossali, Gabriella Bottone, Marta Dellepiane, Maurizio de Martino, Alberto Villani, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: Acute/subacute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM/SAHOM) are potentially devastating diseases. Updated information about the epidemiology, management and outcome of AHOM/SAHOM is needed to minimize the risk of complications and sequelae. METHODS: A multicenter study was performed to evaluate retrospectively the management and outcome of AHOM/SAHOM in Italy. Data from children aged>1 month, and hospitalized between 2010 and 2016, in 19 pediatric centers, were analyzed...
March 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555635/beta-lactams-combinations-with-vancomycin-provide-synergy-against-vssa-hvisa-and-visa
#12
Kieu-Nhi Tran, Michael J Rybak
Background: Increasing utilization of vancomycin due to the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA). In vitro data suggest the potential for potent synergy between several beta-lactams and vancomycin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the synergy between beta-lactams and vancomycin against MRSA that is vancomycin susceptible, vancomycin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA), hVISA, and VISA...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548778/detection-of-the-meca-gene-and-identification-of-staphylococcus-directly-from-blood-culture-bottles-by-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#13
Taisa Trevizani Rocchetti, Katheryne Benine Martins, Patricia Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Rogério Antonio de Oliveira, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we evaluated a multiplex PCR standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534850/a-successful-salvage-therapy-with-daptomycin-and-linezolid-for-right-sided-infective-endocarditis-and-septic-pulmonary-embolism-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Megumi Yazaki, Takehiko Oami, Kazuya Nakanishi, Ryota Hase, Hiroyuki Watanabe
Although vancomycin administration is recommended for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), it is unclear whether an alternative agent, daptomycin, can be used to treat IE with pulmonary complications. A 26-year-old female who had undergone surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect as an early teenager presented with fever, headache, and vomiting. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with right-sided IE with septic pulmonary embolism caused by MRSA...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531872/community-acquired-pneumonia-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-patient-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-a-therapeutic-challenge
#15
John Pham, Talal Asif, Majdi S Hamarshi
Methicillin-resistant S taphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was previously considered a purely nosocomial pathogen. However, community-acquired MRSA has recently emerged as an important cause of severe necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia (CA-MRSA) in previously healthy individuals. This new pathogen exhibits antibiotic resistance and is linked to extended hospital stay and higher mortality. CA-MRSA has presented new therapeutic challenges due to high vancomycin treatment failure and lack of specificity of clinical findings...
January 3, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530544/efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-tedizolid-versus-linezolid-in-patients-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-japan-results-of-a-randomised-multicentre-phase-3-study
#16
Hiroshige Mikamo, Yoshio Takesue, Yuji Iwamoto, Takahiko Tanigawa, Masaharu Kato, Yoko Tanimura, Shigeru Kohno
The objective of this open-label, randomised (i.e. 2:1 ratio), Phase 3 study was to compare the efficacy and safety of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, once-daily treatment with that of linezolid 600 mg, twice-daily treatment for 7-14 days in Japanese adult patients (N = 125) with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and/or for 7-21 days for those with SSTI-related bacteraemia, caused by confirmed or highly suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Primary outcome was clinical cure rate at test-of-cure (TOC, in SSTI: 7-14 days, in bacteraemia: 4-6 weeks after end-of-therapy [EOT]) time point in the microbiologically evaluable MRSA (ME-MRSA) population (N = 39)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529928/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-ototopical-therapy
#17
David D Walker, Michael Z David, Dominic Catalano, Robert Daum, Michael B Gluth
Objective Despite the rising incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) otologic infections, choice of treatment remains controversial. Only fluoroquinolone-containing ototopical preparations are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for middle ear application. Furthermore, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation guidelines advocate ototopical monotherapy for both tympanostomy tube otorrhea and acute otitis externa. Unfortunately, MRSA may be ciprofloxacin resistant...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519734/attaching-nora-efflux-pump-inhibitors-to-methylene-blue-enhances-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Ardeshir Rineh, John B Bremner, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony R Ball, George P Tegos, Michael J Kelso
Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a public health concern worldwide due to the increasing failure of standard antibiotic therapies. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is a promising non-antibiotic alternative for treating localized bacterial infections that uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and kill microbes. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O are hydrophobic cations that are naturally expelled from bacterial cells by multidrug efflux pumps, which reduces their effectiveness...
February 24, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518178/a-comparison-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-followed-by-oral-delafloxacin-with-vancomycin-plus-aztreonam-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-phase-3-multinational-double-blind-randomized-study
#19
William O'Riordan, Alison McManus, Juri Teras, Ivan Poromanski, Maria Cruz-Saldariagga, Megan Quintas, Laura Lawrence, ShuJui Liang, Sue Cammarata
Background: Delafloxacin is an IV/oral anionic fluoroquinolone with activity against Gram-positive (including MRSA), Gram-negative, atypical and anaerobic organisms. It is approved in the US for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by designated susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, and is in development for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of 850 adults with ABSSSI compared delafloxacin 300 mg IV Q12h for 3 days with a switch to 450 mg oral delafloxacin, to vancomycin 15 mg/kg IV with aztreonam for 5-14 days...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514600/low-incidence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-nosocomial-infection-due-to-a-preventive-multimodal-nosocomial-infection-control-a-10-year-single-centre-prospective-cohort-study-in-neurocritical-care
#20
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Daniela Fackova, Zdenka Bohunova, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection (NI) control is an important issue in neurocritical care due to secondary brain damage and the increased morbidity and mortality of primary acute neurocritical care patients. The primary aim of this study was to determine incidence of nosocomial infections and multidrug-resistant bacteria and seek predictors of nosocomial infections in a preventive multimodal nosocomial infection protocol in the neurointensive care unit (NICU). The secondary aim focused on their impact on stay, mortality and cost in the NICU...
March 7, 2018: BMC Neurology
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