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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743816/penile-anaerobic-dysbiosis-as-a-risk-factor-for-hiv-infection
#1
Cindy M Liu, Jessica L Prodger, Aaron A R Tobian, Alison G Abraham, Godfrey Kigozi, Bruce A Hungate, Maliha Aziz, Fred Nalugoda, Sanjeev Sariya, David Serwadda, Rupert Kaul, Ronald H Gray, Lance B Price
Sexual transmission of HIV requires exposure to the virus and infection of activated mucosal immune cells, specifically CD4(+) T cells or dendritic cells. The foreskin is a major site of viral entry in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Although the probability of acquiring HIV from a sexual encounter is low, the risk varies even after adjusting for known HIV risk factors. The genital microbiome may account for some of the variability in risk by interacting with the host immune system to trigger inflammatory responses that mediate the infection of mucosal immune cells...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740077/footprint-free-human-fetal-foreskin-derived-ipscs-a-tool-for-modeling-hepatogenesis-associated-gene-regulatory-networks
#2
Peggy Matz, Wasco Wruck, Beatrix Fauler, Diran Herebian, Thorsten Mielke, James Adjaye
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are similar to embryonic stem cells and can be generated from somatic cells. We have generated episomal plasmid-based and integration-free iPSCs (E-iPSCs) from human fetal foreskin fibroblast cells (HFF1). We used an E-iPSC-line to model hepatogenesis in vitro. The HLCs were characterized biochemically, i.e. glycogen storage, ICG uptake and release, UREA and bile acid production, as well as CYP3A4 activity. Ultra-structure analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of lipid and glycogen storage, tight junctions and bile canaliculi- all typical features of hepatocytes...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730257/apocrine-hidrocystoma-of-the-foreskin-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Daniel Val, José Fernando Val-Bernal
Apocrine hidrocystoma (AH) is an uncommon benign cystic tumor that is rarely located in the genitalia. We present the case of a 52-year-old uncircumcised man who presented an AH on his foreskin. The lesion was non-proliferative. Including the present report, only 10 cases of penile AH have been published to date. Most patients are adult (mean age 39.2 years, range 25-56 years) and only one case in one child and another case in one adolescent have been reported. The lesion involves more commonly the foreskin followed by the shaft...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719319/phosphoproteome-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-host-cells-reveals-specific-cellular-processes-predominating-in-different-phases-of-infection
#4
Cheng He, Ai-Yuan Chen, Hai-Xia Wei, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hong-Juan Peng
The invasion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into the host cell results in extensive host cell signaling activation/deactivation that is usually regulated by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. To elucidate how T. gondii regulates host cell signal transduction, the comparative phosphoproteome of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-labeled human foreskin fibroblast cells was analyzed. The cells were grouped (Light [L], Medium [M], and Heavy [H] groups) based on the labeling isotope weight and were infected with T...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715157/use-of-the-shangring-circumcision-device-in-boys-below-18-years-old-in-kenya-results-from-a-pilot-study
#5
Quentin D Awori, Richard K Lee, Phillip S Li, Jared N Moguche, Dan Ouma, Betsy Sambai, Marc Goldstein, Mark A Barone
INTRODUCTION: Male circumcision is a proven prevention strategy against the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization's new 2016-2021 strategic framework on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) targets 90% of males aged 10-29 years to receive circumcision by 2021 in 14 priority sub-Saharan countries while anticipating an increase in the demand for infant circumcision. It also states that the use of circumcision devices is a safe and efficient innovation to accelerate attainment of these goals...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704436/platinum-nanoparticles-induce-damage-to-dna-and-inhibit-dna-replication
#6
Lukas Nejdl, Jiri Kudr, Amitava Moulick, Dagmar Hegerova, Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky, Jaromir Gumulec, Kristyna Cihalova, Kristyna Smerkova, Simona Dostalova, Sona Krizkova, Marie Novotna, Pavel Kopel, Vojtech Adam
Sparsely tested group of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) may have a comparable effect as complex platinum compounds. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of PtNPs in in vitro amplification of DNA fragment of phage λ, on the bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus), human foreskin fibroblasts and erythrocytes. In vitro synthesized PtNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (PtNPs size range 4.8-11.7 nm), zeta potential measurements (-15 mV at pH 7.4), X-ray fluorescence, UV/vis spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702647/an-enhanced-htert-promoter-driven-crispr-cas9-system-selectively-inhibits-the-progression-of-bladder-cancer-cells
#7
Xinbo Huang, Chengle Zhuang, Changshui Zhuang, Tiefu Xiong, Yawen Li, Yaoting Gui
The current therapies for treating tumors are lacking in efficacy and specificity. Synthetic biology principles may bring some new possible methods for curing cancer. Here we present a synthetic logic circuit based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been applied in many biological fields, including cancer research. In this study, the expression of Cas9 nuclease was controlled indirectly by an enhanced hTERT promoter using the GAL4/upstream activating sequence (UAS) binding system. Cas9 was driven by 5XUAS, single guide RNA (sgRNA) was used to target mutant or wild-type HRAS, and the fusion gene GAL4-P65 was driven by the enhanced hTERT promoter...
July 12, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701277/the-epigenetic-architecture-at-gene-promoters-determines-cell-type-specific-lps-tolerance
#8
Kerstin Klein, Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Emmanuel Karouzakis, Renate E Gay, Christoph Kolling, Adrian Ciurea, Nagihan Bostanci, Georgios N Belibasakis, Lih-Ling Lin, Oliver Distler, Steffen Gay, Caroline Ospelt
Synovial fibroblasts (SF) drive inflammation and joint destruction in chronic arthritis. Here we show that SF possess a distinct type of LPS tolerance compared to macrophages and other types of fibroblasts. In SF and dermal fibroblasts, genes that were non-tolerizable after repeated LPS stimulation included pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, whereas anti-viral genes were tolerizable. In macrophages, all measured genes were tolerizable, whereas in gingival and foreskin fibroblasts these genes were non-tolerizable...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675217/g2-s16-dendrimer-as-a-candidate-for-a-microbicide-to-prevent-hiv-1-infection-in-women
#9
Rafael Ceña-Diez, Pilar García-Broncano, Francisco Javier de la Mata, Rafael Gómez, Salvador Resino, MªÁngeles Muñoz-Fernández
Unprotected heterosexual intercourse is the first route for sustaining the global spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), being responsible for 80% of new HIV-1 infections in the world. The presence of inflammation in the female reproductive tract and the presence of semen increases the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. This state-of-the-art research based on an innovative nanotechnology design was focused on a toxicological study of the limitation of the activity of the novel H2O-soluble anionic carbosilane dendrimer G2-S16 in the adult cervical and foreskin epithelia...
July 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652238/characterization-of-the-activities-of-dinuclear-thiolato-bridged-arene-ruthenium-complexes-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Afonso P Basto, Joachim Müller, Riccardo Rubbiani, David Stibal, Federico Giannini, Georg Süss-Fink, Vreni Balmer, Andrew Hemphill, Gilles Gasser, Julien Furrer
The in vitro effects of 18 dinuclear-thiolato bridged arene ruthenium complexes, (1 mono-, 4 di- and 13-tri-thiolato compounds), originally designed as anti-cancer agents, were studied in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii grown in human foreskin fibroblast host cells (HFF). Some tri-thiolato compounds exhibited anti-parasitic efficacy at 250 nM and below. Among those, complex 1 and complex 2 inhibited T. gondii proliferation with IC50 values of 34 and 62 nM, respectively, and they did not affect HFF at dosages of 200 μM or above, resulting in selectivity indices of > 23' 000...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643940/proteomic-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-secreted-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Maria Luisa Zardo, Halisson Tesseroli Miot, Samuel Goldenberg, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Patricia Alves Mörking
Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of hosts worldwide, including humans and domesticated animals causing toxoplasmosis disease. Recently, exosomes, small extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids derived from their original cells were linked with disease protection. The effect of EVs derived from T. gondii on the immune response and its relevance in a physiological context is unknown. Here we disclose the first proteomic profiling of T. gondii EVs compared to EVs isolated from a human foreskin fibroblast infected cell line cultured in a vesicle- free medium...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639539/foreskin-and-the-molecular-politics-of-risk
#12
Aaron T Norton
In this paper, I examine disputes over recent claims that male circumcision reduces HIV risk to suggest a complicated relationship between risk individualization and categorization. Whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in sub-Saharan Africa appear to have provided key evidence for the World Health Organization's endorsement of male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy, RCTs alone did not provide evidence for the underlying causal mechanism. For that, medical authorities have turned to histo-immunological studies of the foreskin's biomolecular vulnerability to HIV, thus molecularizing risk...
June 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620502/balanitis-xerotica-obliterans-has-its-diagnostic-accuracy-improved-with-time
#13
Khalis Boksh, Nitin Patwardhan
OBJECTIVES: We observed whether general practitioners are referring more appropriately for balanitis xerotica obliterans in regards to circumcision, especially at a time of clinical concern, and whether their discriminative abilities were affected by age. We also aimed to explore if balanitis xerotica obliterans was over-diagnosed by surgeons potentially leading to unnecessary circumcisions of healthy foreskins. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Leicester Royal Infirmary...
June 2017: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617598/withanolides-from-aeroponically-grown-physalis-peruviana-and-their-selective-cytotoxicity-to-prostate-cancer-and-renal-carcinoma-cells
#14
Ya-Ming Xu, E M Kithsiri Wijeratne, Ashley L Babyak, Hanna R Marks, Alan D Brooks, Poonam Tewary, Li-Jiang Xuan, Wen-Qiong Wang, Thomas J Sayers, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611662/an-antifungal-mechanism-of-protolichesterinic-acid-from-the-lichen-usnea-albopunctata-lies-in-the-accumulation-of-intracellular-ros-and-mitochondria-mediated-cell-death-due-to-apoptosis-in-candida-tropicalis
#15
S N Kumar, C Mohandas
Candida species causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections and are difficult to treat due to the resistance of these organism to various clinically used drugs. Protolichesterinic acid is a well-known lichen compound. Although the antibacterial activity of protolichesterinic acid has been reported earlier, the antifungal property and its mechanism of action are still largely unidentified. The goal of the present investigation is to explore the anticandidal activity and mechanism of action of protolichesterinic acid, especially against Candida tropicalis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611308/an-oral-keratinocyte-life-cycle-model-identifies-novel-host-genome-regulation-by-human-papillomavirus-16-relevant-to-hpv-positive-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
Michael R Evans, Claire D James, Oonagh Loughran, Tara J Nulton, Xu Wang, Molly L Bristol, Brad Windle, Iain M Morgan
Many aspects of the HPV life cycle have been characterized in cervical cell lines (W12, CIN612) and in HPV immortalized primary foreskin keratinocytes. There is now an epidemic of HPV positive oropharyngeal cancers (HPV16 is responsible for 80-90% of these); therefore increased understanding of the HPV16 life cycle in oral keratinocytes is a priority. To date there have been limited reports characterizing the HPV16 life cycle in oral keratinocytes. Using TERT immortalized "normal" oral keratinocytes (NOKs) we generated clonal cell lines maintaining the HPV16 genome as an episome, NOKs+HPV16...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602756/antrodia-cinnamomea-sensitizes-radio-chemo-therapy-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-by-modulating-microrna-expression
#17
Yu-Kai Su, Ping-Hsiao Shih, Wei-Hwa Lee, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Alexander T H Wu, Chun-Chih Huang, Yew-Min Tzeng, Michael Hsiao, Chi-Tai Yeh, Chien-Min Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The discovery of many tissue-specific cancer stem cells (CSCs) continues to attract scientific attention. These CSCs are considered to be associated with chemo- and radio-resistance, and consequently, failure of conventional anticancer therapies. The recent demonstration of several microRNAs as enhancers of tumorigenicity via modulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stemness, makes them putative novel therapeutic target in oncology. Antrodia cinnamomea is a Chinese traditional medicine with several biological functions including anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and cancer prevention...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598108/-hpv-e7-function-in-dna-damage-response-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#18
Han-Yu Cao, Xiao-Jun Wang, Zi-Zhi Tang, Jiang-Yan Lou
OBJECTIVES: To determine the function of human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 in DNA damage response of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 cells. METHODS: Samples of CIN 3 and child foreskin tissues were collected,with pathologically confirmed HPV positive and negative,respectively.Collagenase A was used for digesting tissues prior to primary culture.The HPV negative cells were infected with lentivirus E7 and pLV.Proteins(53BP1,NBS1,BRCA1 and RPA32) responsive to DNA double break damages were detected by indirect immunofluorescent staining after 0-8 h treatment with X-ray (2 or 5 Gy)...
November 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595461/an-in-vitro-examination-of-the-antioxidant-cytoprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-chrysin-loaded-nanofibrous-mats-for-potential-wound-healing-applications
#19
Yaghoub Deldar, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Mehdi Dadashpour, Soheila Montazer Saheb, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Nosratollah Zarghami
Chrysin (Chr) is a naturally occurring flavone with a wide spectrum of biological functions including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Due to the low bioavailability and in vivo stability of Chr at therapeutic levels for wound-healing applications, Chr-loaded PCL/PEG nanofibrous mats were successfully fabricated by optimizing the electrospinning parameters and characterized using FE-SEM and FTIR. Results of MTT showed that Human foreskin fibroblast cells (HFF-1) have more than 80% viability on Chr-loaded nanofibers...
June 9, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579353/in%C3%A2-vitro-differentiation-of-menstrual-blood-stem-cells-into-keratinocytes-a-potential-approach-for-management-of-wound-healing
#20
Maryam Akhavan-Tavakoli, Maryam Fard, Sayeh Khanjani, Sona Zare, Haleh Edalatkhah, Davood Mehrabani, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Reza Shirazi, Somaieh Kazemnejad
The skin wounds caused by insults should be treated immediately to restore the functions and integrity. Recent studies suggest that stem cells-based therapies may be applicable in wound healing. Newly defined menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) show high rate of cell proliferation and trans-differentiation potency to various cell types. However, MenSCs potential to generate keratinocyte for future therapeutic use of skin lesions has been remained to investigate. We cultivated MenSCs in the presence of isolated foreskin derived-keratinocytes using an indirect co-culture system and evaluated efficiency of this protocol to generate keratinocytes using immunofluorescent staining and Real Time PCR technique...
June 1, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
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