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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818514/effects-of-low-dose-irradiation-on-mice-with-escherichia-coli-induced-sepsis
#1
Kyung-Hee Song, Seung-Youn Jung, Seong-Ho Kho, Sang-Gu Hwang, Hunjoo Ha, Seon Young Nam, Jie-Young Song
Although favorable immune responses to low-dose irradiation (LDI) have been observed in normal mice, i.e., a hormesis effect, little is known about the effects of LDI in infectious diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of LDI on mice with sepsis, a severe and often lethal hyperinflammatory response to bacteria. Female C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 10cGy 48h before Escherichia coli infection, and survival, bacterial clearance, cytokines, and antioxidants were quantified. LDI pretreatment significantly increased survival from 46...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813479/metabolomic-profiling-of-amines-in-sepsis-predicts-changes-in-nos-canonical-pathways
#2
Abel Tesfai, Niall MacCallum, Nicholas S Kirkby, Hime Gashaw, Nicola Gray, Elizabeth Want, Gregory J Quinlan, Sharon Mumby, James M Leiper, Mark Paul-Clark, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Jane A Mitchell
RATIONALE: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a biomarker/target in sepsis. NOS activity is driven by amino acids, which cycle to regulate the substrate L-arginine in parallel with cycles which regulate the endogenous inhibitors ADMA and L-NMMA. The relationship between amines and the consequence of plasma changes on iNOS activity in early sepsis is not known. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to apply a metabolomics approach to determine the influence of sepsis on a full array of amines and what consequence these changes may have on predicted iNOS activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#3
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796387/ulinastatin-inhibited-sepsis-induced-spinal-inflammation-to-alleviate-peripheral-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-neuromyopathy
#4
Fei Xie, Su Min, Jingyuan Chen, Jun Yang, Xin Wang
Sepsis initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade that contributes to spinal cord inflammation and behavioral impairment, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of this cascade. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ulinastatin (ULI) inhibits sepsis-induced spinal inflammation to alleviate peripheral neuromuscular dysfunction through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Muscular function, spinal cord water content, and cytokine levels of spinal cord were tested in TLR4-inhibited rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753256/a-novel-moonlight-function-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-for-immunomodulation
#5
Toshiaki Nakano, Shigeru Goto, Yuki Takaoka, Hui-Peng Tseng, Takashi Fujimura, Seiji Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Ono, Chao-Long Chen
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an energy metabolism-related enzyme, which generates NADH in glycolysis. Our previous study revealed a novel role of exogenous GAPDH in the amelioration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-related, severe acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Here, we show the effect of extracellular GAPDH on the physiological functions of macrophages, which play an important role in the onset of sepsis and ALI. GAPDH has no effect on cell viability, while it strongly suppressed cell adhesion, spreading, and phagocytic function of LPS-stimulated macrophages...
July 28, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750040/oral-administration-of-live-or-heat-killed-candida-albicans-worsened-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-sepsis-in-a-murine-model-possibly-due-to-an-increased-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan
#6
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Malcolm Finkelman, Navaporn Worasilchai, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Candida albicans is the most common fungus in the human intestinal microbiota but not in mice. To make a murine sepsis model more closely resemble human sepsis and to explore the role of intestinal C. albicans, in the absence of candidemia, in bacterial sepsis, live- or heat-killed C. albicans was orally administered to mice at 3h prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A higher mortality rate of CLP was demonstrated with Candida-administration (live- or heat-killed) prior to CLP. Fecal Candida presented only in experiments with live-Candida administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747072/regulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-of-macrophages-by-cd44-reactive-oxygen-species-and-acid-sphingomyelinase
#7
Cao Li, Yuqing Wu, Veronique Orian-Rousseau, Yang Zhang, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassme
AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in sepsis, pneumonia, and wound infections. Acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to pulmonary S. aureus infections. Here, we investigated the role of CD44 as a molecule that mediates important aspects of the infection of macrophages with S. aureus. RESULTS: We showed that CD44 activation by S. aureus stimulated Asm via the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in ceramide release, clustering of CD44 in ceramide-enriched membrane platforms, CD44/Asm-dependent activation of Rho family GTPases, translocation of phospho-ezrin/radixin/moesin to the plasma-membrane, and a rapid rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton with cortical actin polymerization...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723551/understanding-immunosuppression-after-sepsis
#8
Fatemeh Fattahi, Peter A Ward
Following a severe primary infection or trauma, the risk of developing pneumonia increases due to acquired immune defects collectively known as sepsis-induced immunosuppression. In this issue of Immunity, Roquilly et al. (2017) show that dendritic cells and macrophages developing in the lung after the resolution of a severe infection acquire tolerogenic properties that contribute to persistent immunosuppression and susceptibility to secondary infections.
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723546/local-modulation-of-antigen-presenting-cell-development-after-resolution-of-pneumonia-induces-long-term-susceptibility-to-secondary-infections
#9
Antoine Roquilly, Hamish E G McWilliam, Cedric Jacqueline, Zehua Tian, Raphael Cinotti, Marie Rimbert, Linda Wakim, Irina Caminschi, Mireille H Lahoud, Gabrielle T Belz, Axel Kallies, Justine D Mintern, Karim Asehnoune, Jose A Villadangos
Lung infections cause prolonged immune alterations and elevated susceptibility to secondary pneumonia. We found that, after resolution of primary viral or bacterial pneumonia, dendritic cells (DC), and macrophages exhibited poor antigen-presentation capacity and secretion of immunogenic cytokines. Development of these "paralyzed" DCs and macrophages depended on the immunosuppressive microenvironment established upon resolution of primary infection, which involved regulatory T (Treg) cells and the cytokine TGF-β...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717346/inflammatory-wnt5a-signalling-pathways-affecting-barrier-function-of-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#10
Tom Skaria, Gabriele Schoedon
Wnt5A is a chemokine secreted by inflammatory-activated human macrophages that sustains their inflammatory response in an autocrine manner. High levels of Wnt5A are found in sera of patients with sepsis and septic shock. Here, we comment on recently reported Wnt5A signalling pathways in human vascular endothelial cells (VEC). In human VEC, Wnt5A regulates cytoskeleton remodelling and barrier function through Ryk receptor and Rho-associated protein serine/threonine kinase, targeting LIMK2 and CFL1 involved in actin polymerisation...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714387/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-a-favorable-marker-in-inflammatory-diseases
#11
Johannes Hertelendy, Georg Reumuth, David Simons, Christian Stoppe, Bong-Sung Kim, Jan-Philipp Stromps, Paul C Fuchs, Jürgen Bernhagen, Norbert Pallua, Gerrit Grieb
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was firstly described in the 1960s as a pleiotropic cytokine affecting a variety of immune cells. Different physiological functions mainly involving inflammatory reactions such as chemokine-like function and regulating systemic stress responses have been reported. In several clinical studies the use of MIF as a biomarker has been investigated promising support for diseases with an inflammatory aspect such as sepsis, systemic infections and autoimmune diseases. This article in detail reviews clinical data and evaluates the function as biomarker focusing on inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
July 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710255/cathelicidins-inhibit-escherichia-coli-induced-tlr2-and-tlr4-activation-in-a-viability-dependent-manner
#12
Maarten Coorens, Viktoria A F Schneider, A Marit de Groot, Albert van Dijk, Marjolein Meijerink, Jerry M Wells, Maaike R Scheenstra, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Activation of the immune system needs to be tightly regulated to provide protection against infections and, at the same time, to prevent excessive inflammation to limit collateral damage to the host. This tight regulation includes regulating the activation of TLRs, which are key players in the recognition of invading microbes. A group of short cationic antimicrobial peptides, called cathelicidins, have previously been shown to modulate TLR activation by synthetic or purified TLR ligands and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammation during infections...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708971/short-term-alcohol-abstinence-improves-antibacterial-defenses-of-chronic-alcohol-consuming-mice-against-gut-bacteria-associated-sepsis-caused-by-enterococcus-faecalis-oral-infection
#13
Makiko Kobayashi, Akira Asai, Ichiaki Ito, Sumihiro Suzuki, Kazuhide Higuchi, Fujio Suzuki
The effects of short-term alcohol abstinence on host antibacterial resistance against Enterococcus faecalis oral infection was investigated in chronic alcohol-consuming mice [mice with 0.1 g/day of 20% ethanol consumption for 12 or 16 weeks (CAC-mice)]. These mice were highly susceptible to the infection; however, after 7 days of alcohol abstinence (aaCAC-mice), their antibacterial resistances were completely restored to the normal mouse level. Normal mice inoculated with CAC-mouse hepatic macrophages were shown to be susceptible to the infection, whereas the same macrophage preparation from aaCAC-mice did not impair the antibacterial resistance of normal mice...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690060/genetically-modified-lactococcus-lactis-producing-a-green-fluorescent-protein-bovine-lactoferrin-fusion-protein-suppresses-proinflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-raw-264-7-cells
#14
S Shigemori, F Namai, Y Yamamoto, S Nigar, T Sato, T Ogita, T Shimosato
Lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein distributed widely in the biological fluids of mammals, is believed to play an important role in host defenses against infection. Previous studies in animal models and humans demonstrated that combined administration of LF and probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can prevent sepsis. In this study, we genetically engineered a probiotic LAB strain, Lactococcus lactis, to produce recombinant bovine LF based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused expression system...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679957/socs1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-metabolic-reprogramming-during-sepsis
#15
Annie Rocio Piñeros Alvarez, Nicole Glosson-Byers, Stephanie Brandt, Soujuan Wang, Hector Wong, Sarah Sturgeon, Brian Paul McCarthy, Paul R Territo, Jose Carlos Alves-Filho, C Henrique Serezani
Sepsis can induce an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, resulting in organ damage and death. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) negatively regulates signaling by cytokine receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms for SOCS1 activity during polymicrobial sepsis are unknown. To address this, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model for sepsis; C57BL/6 mice subjected to CLP were then treated with a peptide (iKIR) that binds the SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) and blocks its activity...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670397/combined-administration-of-a-sedative-dose-sevoflurane-and-60-oxygen-reduces-inflammatory-responses-to-sepsis-in-animals-and-in-human-pmbcs
#16
Er-Fei Zhang, Zuo-Xu Hou, Tian Shao, Wan-Wan Yang, Bin Hu, Xiao-Xia Wang, Ze-Xin Zhang, Yi Huang, Li-Ze Xiong, Li-Chao Hou
Our study aims to investigate the effects of the inhalation of subanesthestic doses of sevoflurane combined with oxygen on sepsis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats or Male ICR/Km mice underwent caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysccharide (LPS) to induce sepsis, while sham rats were used as control. Then, rats were treated with the inhalation of sevoflurane in oxygen; and air or 100% oxygen was used as control. Seven-day survival, lung injury and inflammatory factors were assessed...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667518/screening-cytokine-chemokine-profiles-in-serum-and-organs-from-an-endotoxic-shock-mouse-model-by-liquichip
#17
Jinghua Liu, Juan Wang, Haihua Luo, Zhijie Li, Tianyu Zhong, Jing Tang, Yong Jiang
Studying the cytokine profiles in animal models or patients with sepsis provides an experimental basis for the identification of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this study, we used a liquid protein chip (LiquiChip), also known as flexible multi-analyte profiling technology, to perform quantitative analyses of several cytokines and chemokines (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, keratinocyte chemoattractant, monocyte chemoattractant protein, monokine induced by gamma interferon, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha)...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667502/lysophosphatidic-acid-protects-against-endotoxin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#18
Koryun Mirzoyan, Colette Denis, Audrey Casemayou, Marion Gilet, Dimitri Marsal, Dominique Goudounéche, Stanislas Faguer, Jean-Loup Bascands, Joost P Schanstra, Jean-Sébastien Saulnier-Blache
Septic shock is the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and no targeted therapies exist. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid which in vivo administration was reported to mitigate inflammation and injuries caused by bacterial endotoxemia in the liver and lung. The objective of the present study was to determine whether LPA can protect against sepsis-associated AKI. C57BL/6 mice were treated with LPA 18:1 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before being injected with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and AKI was evaluated after 24 h...
June 30, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663567/systemic-blockade-of-p2x7-receptor-protects-against-sepsis-induced-intestinal-barrier-disruption
#19
Xiuwen Wu, Jianan Ren, Guopu Chen, Lei Wu, Xian Song, Guanwei Li, Youming Deng, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Jieshou Li
Sepsis, during which the intestinal epithelial barrier is frequently disrupted, remains a challenging and life-threatening problem in clinical practice. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective adenosine triphosphate-gated cation channel present in macrophages that is involved in inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the role of P2X7R in macrophages during sepsis-induced intestinal barrier disruption. In this study, mice were treated with the P2X7R antagonist A740003 or the agonist BzATP by intra-peritoneal injection after the induction of gut-origin sepsis...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661933/pyr-41-a-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-e1-inhibitor-attenuates-lung-injury-in-sepsis
#20
Shingo Matsuo, Archna Sharma, Ping Wang, Weng-Lang Yang
During sepsis, systemic inflammation is observed and is associated with multiple organ failure. Activation of NF-κB is crucial for inducing inflammation, which is controlled by degradation of IκB. The ubiquitination proteasome pathway is responsible for the regulation of protein turnover. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of PYR-41, an inhibitor of ubiquitination, could reduce inflammation and organ injury in septic mice. PYR-41 prevented the reduction of IκB protein levels and inhibited release of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264...
June 28, 2017: Shock
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