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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288124/c1-neurons-mediate-a-stress-induced-anti-inflammatory-reflex-in-mice
#1
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Mabel A Inglis, Kenneth E Viar, Liping Huang, Hong Ye, Diane L Rosin, Ruth L Stornetta, Mark D Okusa, Patrice G Guyenet
C1 neurons, located in the medulla oblongata, mediate adaptive autonomic responses to physical stressors (for example, hypotension, hemorrhage and presence of lipopolysaccharides). We describe here a powerful anti-inflammatory effect of restraint stress, mediated by C1 neurons: protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Restraint stress or optogenetic C1 neuron (C1) stimulation (10 min) protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The protection was reproduced by injecting splenic T cells that had been preincubated with noradrenaline or splenocytes harvested from stressed mice...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280470/acute-effect-of-central-administration-of-urotensin-ii-on-baroreflex-and-blood-pressure-in-conscious-normotensive-rabbits
#2
Kyungjoon Lim, Yusuke Sata, Kristy L Jackson, Sandra L Burke, Geoffrey A Head
In the present study, we examined the effects of central administration of Urotensin II on blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreceptor heart rate reflexes in conscious normotensive rabbits. Preliminary operations were undertaken to implant a balloon cuff on the inferior vena cava for baroreflex assessments and to implant cannula into the lateral and fourth ventricle. After 2 weeks of recovery cumulative dose response curves to Urotensin II (10, 100 ng, 1, 10, and 100 μg) given into the ventricles, or Ringer's solution as a vehicle were performed on separate days...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270794/antagonistic-and-synergistic-activation-of-cardiovascular-vagal-and-sympathetic-motor-outflows-in-trigeminal-reflexes
#3
REVIEW
Bruno Buchholz, Jazmín Kelly, Eduardo A Bernatene, Nahuel Méndez Diodati, Ricardo J Gelpi
The trigeminal nerve and heart are strongly related through somato-autonomic nervous reflexes that induce rapid changes in cardiovascular function. Several trigeminal reflexes have been described, but the diving and trigeminocardiac reflexes are the most studied. The heart is a target organ dually innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Thus, how cardiac function is regulated during the trigeminal reflexes is the result of the combination of an increased parasympathetic response and increased, decreased, or unaltered sympathetic activity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128461/cluster-headache-and-other-tacs-pathophysiology-and-neurostimulation-options
#4
Miguel Ja Láinez, Edelmira Guillamón
BACKGROUND: The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are highly disabling primary headache disorders. There are several issues that remain unresolved in the understanding of the pathophysiology of the TACs, although activation of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex and ipsilateral hypothalamic activation both play a central role. The discovery of the central role of the hypothalamus led to its use as a therapeutic target. After the good results obtained with hypothalamic stimulation, other peripheral neuromodulation targets were tried in the management of refractory cluster headache (CH) and other TACs...
February 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106018/cardioneuroablation-in-the-treatment-of-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#5
Tolga Aksu, Tümer Erdem Güler, Serdar Bozyel, Kazım Serhan Özcan, Kıvanç Yalın, Ferit Onur Mutluer
OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone is a main cause of neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMRS). These patients may be very symptomatic and the condition may require cardiac pacemaker implantation. Cardioneuroablation (CNA) is a relatively novel technique based on radiofrequency ablation of vagal ganglia that can be used in treatment of NMRS. The aim of this analysis was to compare potential role of CNA in patients with NMRS. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, literature search was conducted using the keywords "cardioneuroablation," "vagal denervation," "reflex syncope," "vagal ablation," and "ganglionic plexi ablation...
December 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099586/serotoninergic-modulation-of-basal-cardiovascular-responses-and-responses-induced-by-isotonic-extracellular-volume-expansion-in-rats
#6
Isadora Ferraz Semionatto, Adrieli Oliveira Raminelli, Angelica Cristina Alves, Caroline Santos Capitelli, Rosangela Soares Chriguer
Background: Isotonic blood volume expansion (BVE) induced alterations of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the heart and blood vessels, which can be modulated by serotonergic pathways. Objective: To evaluate the effect of saline or serotonergic agonist (DOI) administration in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on cardiovascular responses after BVE. Methods: We recorded pulsatile blood pressure through the femoral artery to obtain the mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and the sympathetic-vagal ratio (LF/HF) of Wistar rats before and after they received bilateral microinjections of saline or DOI into the PVN, followed by BVE...
January 16, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091707/gastric-distension-causes-changes-in-heart-rate-and-arterial-blood-pressure-by-affecting-the-crosstalk-between-vagal-and-splanchnic-systems-in-anesthetised-rats
#7
Maurizio Sabbatini, Elena Grossini, Claudio Molinari, David A S G Mary, Giovanni Vacca, Mario Cannas
Various hindbrain nuclei have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of the cardiovascular reflexes elicited by both non-noxious and noxious gastric distension, through parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The different role played by the branches of autonomic nervous system in exerting these effects and their crosstalk in relation to low-/high-pressure distension rate has not been examined yet. Therefore, in the present work, monolateral and bilateral vagotomy and splanchnicotomy were performed in anesthetised rats to analyse the involvement of hindbrain nuclei in haemodynamic changes caused by gastric distension at high (80 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) pressure...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062485/activation-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-pulmonary-nociceptors-sensitizes-trpv1-channels-through-plc-and-pkc-signaling-pathway
#8
Qihai Gu, Deanna S Joe, Carolyn A Gilbert
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), a G-protein-coupled receptor family capable of detecting numerous bitter-tasting compounds, have recently been shown to be expressed and play diverse roles in many extraoral tissues. Here we report the functional expression of T2Rs in rat pulmonary sensory neurons. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats, intratracheal instillation of T2Rs agonist chloroquine (10 mM, 0.1 ml) significantly augmented chemoreflexes evoked by right-atrial injection of capsaicin, a specific activator for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1); whereas intravenous infusion of chloroquine failed to significantly affect capsaicin-evoked reflexes...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057794/purinergic-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#9
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
There is nervous control of the heart by ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory-motor nerves, as well as in intracardiac neurons. Centers in the brain control heart activities and vagal cardiovascular reflexes involve purines. Adenine nucleotides and nucleosides act on purinoceptors on cardiomyocytes, AV and SA nodes, cardiac fibroblasts, and coronary blood vessels. Vascular tone is controlled by a dual mechanism. ATP, released from perivascular sympathetic nerves, causes vasoconstriction largely via P2X1 receptors...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044203/advances-with-neonatal-aerodigestive-science-in-the-pursuit-of-safe-swallowing-in-infants-invited-review
#10
REVIEW
Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Feeding, swallowing, and airway protection are three distinct entities. Feeding involves a process of sequential, neurosensory, and neuromotor interactions of reflexes and behaviors facilitating ingestion. Swallowing involves anterograde bolus movement during oral-, pharyngeal-, and esophageal phases of peristalsis into stomach. During these events, coordination with airway protection is vital for homeostasis in clearing any material away from airway vicinity. Neurological-airway-digestive inter-relationships are critical to the continuum of successful feeding patterns during infancy, either in health or disease...
February 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013057/neural-control-of-ventilation-prevents-both-over-distension-and-de-recruitment-of-experimentally-injured-lungs
#11
Lukas Brander, Onnen Moerer, Göran Hedenstierna, Jennifer Beck, Jukka Takala, Arthur S Slutsky, Christer Sinderby
BACKGROUND: Endogenous pulmonary reflexes may protect the lungs during mechanical ventilation. We aimed to assess integration of continuous neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (cNAVA), delivering assist in proportion to diaphragm's electrical activity during inspiration and expiration, and Hering-Breuer inflation and deflation reflexes on lung recruitment, distension, and aeration before and after acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: In 7 anesthetised rabbits with bilateral pneumothoraces, we identified adequate cNAVA level (cNAVAAL) at the plateau in peak ventilator pressure during titration procedures before (healthy lungs with endotracheal tube, [HLETT]) and after ALI (endotracheal tube [ALIETT] and during non-invasive ventilation [ALINIV])...
March 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002383/stress-induced-parasympathetic-control-and-its-association-with-inflammatory-reactivity
#12
Alex Woody, Wilson S Figueroa, Fabian Benencia, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that the inflammatory cytokine system is regulated through the vagus nerve, where vagal activation inhibits release of inflammatory cytokines and, therefore, inflammation. Thus, loss of vagal activation (i.e., reduced high-frequency heart rate variability [HF-HRV]) should result in greater inflammation. Evidence to date for this relationship has relied on animal models and resting states in humans. The present study used a psychosocial stressor to test whether stress-induced decreases in HF-HRV predict increases in circulating inflammatory markers...
December 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974314/k%C3%A3-lliker-fuse-nuclei-regulate-respiratory-rhythm-variability-via-a-gain-control-mechanism
#13
Rishi R Dhingra, Mathias Dutschmann, Roberto F Galán, Thomas E Dick
Respiration varies from breath to breath. On the millisecond timescale of spiking, neuronal circuits exhibit variability due to the stochastic properties of ion channels and synapses. Does this fast, microscopic source of variability contribute to the slower, macroscopic variability of the respiratory period? To address this question, we modeled a stochastic oscillator with forcing; then, we tested its predictions experimentally for the respiratory rhythm generated by the in situ perfused preparation during vagal nerve stimulation (VNS)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941230/the-possible-role-of-the-vagal-nervous-system-in-the-recovery-of-the-blood-pressure-control-after-cardiac-arrest-a-porcine-model-study
#14
Mario Lavanga, Giuseppe Baselli, Francesca Fumagalli, Giuseppe Ristagno, Manuela Ferrario
Previous studies have proved that the baroreceptor reflex (baroreflex) control of heart rate can be used for stratification of post-infarction population and, in general, cardiovascular disease populations. Many methods have been proposed to estimate the so-called baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) expressed as ms mmhg(-1). Most of the studies that exploit BRS focus mainly on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and there are no important works that investigate the role of BRS immediately after cardiac arrest (CA). The present work is a continuation of the published work of Ristagno et al (2014 Shock 41 72-8)...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895591/comparison-in-conscious-rabbits-of-the-baroreceptor-heart-rate-reflex-effects-of-chronic-treatment-with-rilmenidine-moxonidine-and-clonidine
#15
Monique L Parkin, Kyungjoon Lim, Sandra L Burke, Geoffrey A Head
We investigated the effects of chronic subcutaneous treatment with centrally-acting antihypertensive agents moxonidine, rilmenidine, and clonidine on the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in conscious normotensive rabbits over 3 weeks. Infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside were performed at week 0 and at weeks 1 and 3 of treatment to determine mean arterial pressure (MAP)-HR baroreflex relationships. A second curve was performed after intravenous methscopolamine to determine the sympathetic baroreflex relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854009/autonomic-modulation-with-baroreflex-activation-therapy-in-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Edoardo Gronda, Emilio Vanoli
Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) produces a central inhibition of cardiac sympathetic outflow and, concomitantly, an increased cardiac vagal activity via a physiological reflex pathway. In a pilot study in 11 patients with NYHA class III heart failure (HF), BAT produced a persistent significant reduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity over a 21-month follow-up and a dramatic decrease in the number and length of hospitalizations. In a multinational, prospective, randomized, parallel-controlled, clinical trial in 146 NYHA functional class III HF, BAT produced a significant N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide reduction (p = 0...
December 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852563/effects-of-electroacupuncture-at-st25-and-bl25-in-a-sennae-induced-rat-model-of-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Xianwei Zhu, Zhibin Liu, Wenmin Niu, Yuan Wang, Aimin Zhang, Hongyan Qu, Jing Zhou, Lu Bai, Yong Yang, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) may have a role in the treatment of diarrhoea symptoms. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signalling molecule in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which initiates peristaltic, secretory, vasodilatory, vagal and nociceptive reflexes. In addition, according to the results of our previous report, EA stimulation mediates GI peristalsis by increasing expression of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). AIM: To investigate the effect of EA at acupuncture points ST25 and BL25 in a rat model of diarrhoea...
November 15, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836167/a-1-year-old-boy-with-long-pauses-caused-by-paroxysmal-atrioventricular-block-and-sinus-arrest-vagal-reflex-and-effect-of-pacing
#18
Sayaka Sakazaki, Satoshi Masutani, Yoichi Iwamoto, Yoshitaka Asano, Ai Miyamoto, Hirotaka Ishido, Masanori Tamura, Hideaki Senzaki
Paroxysmal atrioventricular block (PAVB) is rare in children. A 1-year-old boy presented with PAVB and sinus arrest that resulted in refractory life-threatening symptomatic long pauses. Continuous heart rate variability analysis with high time resolution (wavelet analysis) revealed an abrupt increase in parasympathetic activity just before a long pause, which indicated a vagal reflex. Although a pacemaker is not always effective because of a concomitant vasodepressive response in such cases, the complete stabilization after pacemaker implantation in this case supports the necessity and usefulness of pacemaker implantation in patients with reflex-induced highly symptomatic bradycardia...
March 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802329/loss-of-breathing-modulation-of-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-recent-and-long-standing-diabetes-mellitus-type-ii
#19
Ana Leonor Rivera, Bruno Estañol, Ruben Fossion, Juan C Toledo-Roy, José A Callejas-Rojas, José A Gien-López, Guillermo R Delgado-García, Alejandro Frank
Healthy subjects under rhythmic breathing have heart interbeat intervals with a respiratory band in the frequency domain that can be an index of vagal activity. Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM) affects the autonomic nervous system of patients, thus it can be expected changes on the vagal activity. Here, the influence of DM on the breathing modulation of the heart rate is evaluated by analyzing in the frequency domain heart interbeat interval (IBI) records obtained from 30 recently diagnosed, 15 long standing DM patients, and 30 control subjects during standardized clinical tests of controlled breathing at 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788744/-clinical-analysis-of-19-cases-of-pregnant-women-with-rapid-arrhythmia-in-the-treatment-of-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation
#20
L Chu, J Zhang, Y N Li, D Y Long
Objective: To investigate the risk of radiofrequency catheter ablation and maternal and infant in pregnant women with rapid arrhythmia during pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of the 19 cases of pregnancy complicated with rapid arrhythmia were retrospectively analyzed and followed up, including the gestational week, the type of arrhythmia, the treatment, and the outcome of the mother and child in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2002 to March 2016. Results: (1)Clinical characteristics: the ages of the 19 cases were(31±4)years old(ranged from 26 to 35 years old), the onset gestational ages were(21±4)weeks(ranged from 15 to 32 weeks)...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
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