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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767741/gateway-reflex-neural-activation-mediated-immune-cell-gateways-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#2
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739759/reflex-anoxic-seizures-ras-in-an-adult-patient-a-separate-entity-from-epilepsy
#3
Laith Cebe, Harpreet Singh
Reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) are essential in the differential diagnosis of non-epileptic paroxysmal seizures. They are precipitated by vagally mediated brief cardiac asystole, which in turn leads to transient cerebral ischaemia. RAS are usually seen in infants and preschool children, but in this case happened in a middle-aged man. Our patient is a 61-year-old man who presented with sudden, repeated contractions of his left upper arm and urine incontinence, followed by loss of consciousness for about 30 s...
May 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734380/mitochondrial-modulation-induced-activation-of-vagal-sensory-neuronal-subsets-by-antimycin-a-but-not-cccp-or-rotenone-correlates-with-mitochondrial-superoxide-production
#4
Katherine R Stanford, Thomas E Taylor-Clark
Inflammation causes nociceptive sensory neuron activation, evoking debilitating symptoms and reflexes. Inflammatory signaling pathways are capable of modulating mitochondrial function, resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial depolarization and calcium release. Previously we showed that mitochondrial modulation with antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor, selectively stimulated nociceptive bronchopulmonary C-fibers via the activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin 1 (A1) and vanilloid 1 (V1) cation channels...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733898/intravenous-dexmedetomidine-augments-the-oculocardiac-reflex
#5
Robert W Arnold, Russell Biggs, Brion Beerle
BACKGROUND: We reported that premedication with nasal dexmedetomidine was associated with a more intense oculocardiac reflex (OCR). In this study we performed an intrasubject, intravenous comparison to test our hypothesis that this alpha-adrenergic agonist potentiates the trigemino-vagal reflex. METHODS: OCR (greatest change heart rate/baseline heart rate) was prospectively monitored with 10-second, square-wave 200 g tension on the inferior rectus or other muscles during strabismus surgery...
May 4, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672123/interferon-%C3%AE-enhances-the-cough-reflex-sensitivity-via-calcium-influx-in-vagal-sensory-neurons
#6
Zheng Deng, Wenliang Zhou, Jiayang Sun, Chenhui Li, Bonian Zhong, Kefang Lai
RATIONALE: Cough hypersensitivity syndrome is often triggered by a viral infection. The viral infection might trigger cough hypersensitivity via increasing the release of interferon-γ from T lymphocytes in the lung. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of interferon-γ on the vagal sensory neurons and the cough reflex. METHODS: Effects of interferon-γ on the cough reflex were investigated in guinea pigs. Cellular immunofluorescence imaging, calcium imaging and patch clamp techniques were used to study effects of interferon-γ in primary cultured rat vagal sensory neurons...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663941/using-the-oculocardiac-reflex-to-characterize-autonomic-imbalance-in-a-naturally-occurring-canine-model-of-valvular-insufficiency
#7
Bruna C Brüler, Thayane C Vieira, Marcela Wolf, Stephany B Lucina, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, Marlos G Sousa
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by reduced heart rate variability. Although various methods to achieve parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation have been documented, stimulation of the vagal nerve (that is, vagal maneuvers) has not often been used to assess the autonomic impairment associated with disease progression in veterinary species. In this study, we investigated cardiac autonomic control in a naturally occurring canine model of mitral insufficiency by means of individual responses to oculocardiac reflex...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604384/allopregnanolone-effects-on-transmission-in-the-brain-stem-solitary-tract-nucleus-nts
#8
Sojin Kim, Sung-Moon Kim, Bermseok Oh, Jihoon Tak, Eunhee Yang, Young-Ho Jin
During pregnancy, the progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (ALLO), becomes elevated and has been associated with altered levels within the CNS and resulting changes in GABAA receptor function. Pregnant animals poorly compensate reflexes for decrease in blood pressure during hemorrhage. Previous works suggested that ALLO decreases baroreflex responses by central actions, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested ALLO actions on visceral afferent synaptic transmission at second order neurons within medial portions of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) using hindbrain slices from non-pregnant female rats...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597000/cough-reflex-sensitivity-does-not-correlate-with-the-esophageal-sensitivity-to-acid-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#9
Martin Duricek, Lenka Nosakova, Tomas Zatko, Renata Pecova, Rudolf Hyrdel, Peter Banovcin
The sensitization of cough reflex observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is attributed to activation of vagal C-fibers innervating the esophagus by acid, while the heartburn in GERD is mediated by esophageal acid sensitive C-fibers derived from (dorsal root ganglia) DRG. Here we explored the relationship between cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and esophageal sensitivity to acid. We evaluated CRS to capsaicin inhalation and esophageal sensitivity to acid (intensity of heartburn evoked by esophageal infusions of acid pH = 3, 2 and 1) in patients with GERD and chronic heartburn before and 3 months after proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment...
March 26, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541878/neural-pathways-involved-in-infection-induced-inflammation-recent-insights-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512224/physiology-of-static-breath-holding-in-elite-apneists
#11
REVIEW
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath-hold-related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently, within the last ∼30 years, has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473355/-clinical-research-of-vasospasm-and-vagus-reflex-during-radial-artery-puncture-treated-with-auricular-point-sticking
#12
Xiaoyan Fan, Yanping Liu, Jinhong Xie, Yushan Chen, Yanyan Cao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and clinical value of auricular point sticking for the diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm and vagus reflex during radial artery puncture, including radial artery spasm (RAS) and coronary artery spasm (CAS). METHODS: A total of 480 patients were randomized into an observation group (224 cases) and a control group (256 cases). Percutaneous coronary intervention and usual care in perioperative period were used in the control group...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472865/intracranial-pressure-is-a-determinant-of-sympathetic-activity
#13
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468816/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-revisited
#14
REVIEW
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392854/ghrelin-secretion-in-humans-a-role-for-the-vagus-nerve
#15
S Veedfald, A Plamboeck, B Hartmann, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop, C F Deacon, L B Svendsen, J J Holst
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is secreted from endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. Circulating levels rise in the preprandial phase, suggesting an anticipatory or cephalic phase of release, and decline in the postprandial phase, suggesting either the loss of a stimulatory factor or inhibition by factors released when nutrients enter the intestine. We hypothesized that vagal signals are not required for the (i) preprandial increase or (ii) postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385305/intraoperative-cardiac-arrest-etiologies-in-head-and-neck-surgery-a-comprehensive-review
#16
Constantine Tarabanis, Nicholas B Abt, Heather A Osborn
BACKGROUND: The etiologies of intraoperative cardiac arrest within otolaryngology are not well understood as they are rare events. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the etiologies and corresponding pathophysiologic neural mechanisms of intraoperative cardiac arrest in otolaryngologic surgery are examined. RESULTS: The occurrence of this rare complication has been described in a range of head and neck procedures, including but not limited to suspension laryngoscopy and oncologic resections in the neck, maxilla and thyroid...
January 31, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369741/reflex-bronchoconstriction-evoked-by-inhaled-nicotine-aerosol-in-guinea-pigs-role-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#17
Lu-Yuan Lee, Ruei-Lung Lin, Mehdi Khosravi, Fadi Xu
Inhaled cigarette smoke stimulated vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers via an action of nicotine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Recent studies have reported that nicotine at high concentrations can also activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor (TRPA1) expressed in these sensory nerves. This study was carried out to characterize the airway response to inhaled nicotine aerosol and to investigate the relative roles of nAChR and TRPA1 in this response. Guinea pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated; one tidal volume of nicotine aerosol (2% solution) was diluted by equal volume of air and delivered directly into the lung via a tracheal cannula in a single breath...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306061/structure-of-vagal-afferent-nerve-terminal-fibers-in-the-mouse-trachea
#18
Michal Hennel, Jana Harsanyiova, Fei Ru, Tomas Zatko, Mariana Brozmanova, Alzbeta Trancikova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
The structure of primary afferent nerve terminals profoundly influences their function. While the complex vagal airway nerve terminals (stretch receptors, cough receptors and neuroepithelial bodies) were thoroughly characterized, much less is known about the structure of airway nerves that do not form distinct complex terminals (often termed free nerve fibers). We selectively induced expression of GFP in vagal afferent nerves in the mouse by transfection with AAV-GFP virus vector and visualized nerve terminals in the trachea by whole organ confocal imaging...
February 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275446/distinct-expression-of-phenotypic-markers-in-placodes-and-neural-crest-derived-afferent-neurons-innervating-the-rat-stomach
#19
Alzbeta Trancikova, Eva Kovacova, Fei Ru, Kristian Varga, Mariana Brozmanova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is initiated by activation of primary afferent neurons among which the capsaicin-sensitive (TRPV1-positive) neurons play an important role. The stomach is a common source of visceral pain. Similar to other organs, the stomach receives dual spinal and vagal afferent innervation. Developmentally, spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and vagal jugular neurons originate from embryonic neural crest and vagal nodose neurons originate from placodes. In thoracic organs the neural crest- and placodes-derived TRPV1-positive neurons have distinct phenotypes differing in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation and reflex responses...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242088/voluntarily-induced-vomiting-a-yoga-technique-to-enhance-pulmonary-functions-in-healthy-humans
#20
Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Ramesh Mavathur Nanjundaiah, Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath
Vomiting is a complex autonomic reflex orchestrated by several neurological centres in the brain. Vagus, the cranial nerve plays a key role in regulation of vomiting. Kunjal Kriya (Voluntarily Induced Vomiting), is a yogic cleansing technique which involves voluntarily inducing vomiting after drinking saline water (5%) on empty stomach. This study was designed with an objective to understand the effect of voluntary induced vomiting (ViV) on pulmonary functions in experienced practitioners and novices and derive its possible therapeutic applications...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
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