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vagal reflex

Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Xiaoyan Fan, Yanping Liu, Jinhong Xie, Yushan Chen, Yanyan Cao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and clinical value of auricular point sticking for the diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm and vagus reflex during radial artery puncture, including radial artery spasm (RAS) and coronary artery spasm (CAS). METHODS: A total of 480 patients were randomized into an observation group (224 cases) and a control group (256 cases). Percutaneous coronary intervention and usual care in perioperative period were used in the control group...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
S Veedfald, A Plamboeck, B Hartmann, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop, C F Deacon, L B Svendsen, J J Holst
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is secreted from endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. Circulating levels rise in the preprandial phase, suggesting an anticipatory or cephalic phase of release, and decline in the postprandial phase, suggesting either the loss of a stimulatory factor or inhibition by factors released when nutrients enter the intestine. We hypothesized that vagal signals are not required for the (i) preprandial increase or (ii) postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Constantine Tarabanis, Nicholas B Abt, Heather A Osborn
BACKGROUND: The etiologies of intraoperative cardiac arrest within otolaryngology are not well understood as they are rare events. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the etiologies and corresponding pathophysiologic neural mechanisms of intraoperative cardiac arrest in otolaryngologic surgery are examined. RESULTS: The occurrence of this rare complication has been described in a range of head and neck procedures, including but not limited to suspension laryngoscopy and oncologic resections in the neck, maxilla and thyroid...
January 31, 2018: Head & Neck
Lu-Yuan Lee, Ruei-Lung Lin, Mehdi Khosravi, Fadi Xu
Inhaled cigarette smoke stimulated vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers via an action of nicotine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Recent studies have reported that nicotine at high concentrations can also activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor (TRPA1) expressed in these sensory nerves. This study was carried out to characterize the airway response to inhaled nicotine aerosol and to investigate the relative roles of nAChR and TRPA1 in this response. Guinea pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated; one tidal volume of nicotine aerosol (2% solution) was diluted by equal volume of air and delivered directly into the lung via a tracheal cannula in a single breath...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Michal Hennel, Jana Harsanyiova, Fei Ru, Tomas Zatko, Mariana Brozmanova, Alzbeta Trancikova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
The structure of primary afferent nerve terminals profoundly influences their function. While the complex vagal airway nerve terminals (stretch receptors, cough receptors and neuroepithelial bodies) were thoroughly characterized, much less is known about the structure of airway nerves that do not form distinct complex terminals (often termed free nerve fibers). We selectively induced expression of GFP in vagal afferent nerves in the mouse by transfection with AAV-GFP virus vector and visualized nerve terminals in the trachea by whole organ confocal imaging...
January 3, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Alzbeta Trancikova, Eva Kovacova, Fei Ru, Kristian Varga, Mariana Brozmanova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is initiated by activation of primary afferent neurons among which the capsaicin-sensitive (TRPV1-positive) neurons play an important role. The stomach is a common source of visceral pain. Similar to other organs, the stomach receives dual spinal and vagal afferent innervation. Developmentally, spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and vagal jugular neurons originate from embryonic neural crest and vagal nodose neurons originate from placodes. In thoracic organs the neural crest- and placodes-derived TRPV1-positive neurons have distinct phenotypes differing in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation and reflex responses...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Ramesh Mavathur Nanjundaiah, Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath
Vomiting is a complex autonomic reflex orchestrated by several neurological centres in the brain. Vagus, the cranial nerve plays a key role in regulation of vomiting. Kunjal Kriya (Voluntarily Induced Vomiting), is a yogic cleansing technique which involves voluntarily inducing vomiting after drinking saline water (5%) on empty stomach. This study was designed with an objective to understand the effect of voluntary induced vomiting (ViV) on pulmonary functions in experienced practitioners and novices and derive its possible therapeutic applications...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Sukhdeep Bhogal, Pooja Sethi, Yasir Taha, Muralidhar Papireddy, Akhilesh Mahajan, Syed Imran M Zaidi, Vijay Ramu, Timir Paul
Deglutition syncope is a relatively rare cause of syncope that belongs to the category of neurally mediated reflex syncopal syndromes. The phenomenon is related to vagal reflex in context to deglutition causing atrioventricular block and acute reduction in cardiac output leading to dizziness or syncope. We present case series of two cases of deglutition syncope, of which first was managed medically and second with pacemaker implantation.
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
E M Besecker, A R White, G M Holmes
BACKGROUND: Patients with cervical or high-thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) often present reduced gastric emptying and early satiety. Ghrelin provokes motility via gastric vagal neurocircuitry and ghrelin receptor agonists offer a therapeutic option for gastroparesis. We have previously shown that experimental high-thoracic injury (T3-SCI) diminishes sensitivity to another gastrointestinal peptide, cholecystokinin. This study tests the hypothesis that T3-SCI impairs the vagally mediated response to ghrelin...
December 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Axel Van Damme, Tine De Backer, Philippe Vanderheeren
Introduction Swallow syncope is a neurally mediated syncope. Multiple causes have been described in literature. A rare cause is arrhythmias. Only a limited amount of cases present the association of swallow syncope and third degree AV-block. Case presentation A 39-year-old man presented with episodes of presyncope while eating. Further medical history, physical examination, resting 12-lead ECG, cyclo-ergometry, transthoracic echocardiography and MRI of the heart were normal. 24 h Holter monitoring demonstrated high-grade third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block...
December 5, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Ahmad Kantar, Oladunni Enilari, Francesco Paravati
BACKGROUND: Cough originates from stimulation of structures innervated by the vagus nerve, including the airways and distal esophagus. Arnold nerve reflex describes the induction of cough by stimulation of the external auditory canal, which is innervated by the auricular branch of the vagus. Historically, the prevalence of this reflex has been reported in the range of 2% to 3% on the basis of studies of outpatients in otolaryngology practices, but has not been investigated in healthy volunteers or in patients with chronic cough...
November 29, 2017: Chest
Eiji Kondo, Osamu Jinnouchi, Seiichi Nakano, Hiroki Ohnishi, Ikuji Kawata, Hidehiko Okamoto, Noriaki Takeda
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether aural stimulation with ointment containing capsaicin improves swallowing function in elderly patients with dysphagia. Study design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, comparative study. Settings: Secondary hospital. Patients and methods: Twenty elderly dysphagic patients with a history of cerebrovascular disorder or Parkinson's disease were randomly divided into two groups: 10 receiving aural stimulation with 0...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Mauro Fresia, Eric Liebler, Giorgio Sandrini, Cristina Tassorelli
Introduction The mechanism of action of non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation in the treatment of migraine is elusive. We studied its effect in a human model of pain, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex. Methods We enrolled 10 healthy subjects who underwent active non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation and sham treatment in a randomized, cross-over, sham-controlled study. Non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation was delivered with gammaCore®. The assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex was performed at baseline (T0) and at 5 (T5) and 30 (T30) minutes after stimulation...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Motohiro Tamiya, Akihiro Tamiya, Takayuki Shiroyama, Sawa Takeoka, Yujiro Naito, Naoki Omachi, Yohei Kimura, Naoko Morishita, Hidekazu Suzuki, Norio Okamoto, Kyoichi Okishio, Tomoya Kawaguchi, Shinji Atagi, Tomonori Hirashima
Background Cisplatin and pemetrexed are very effective against advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without EGFR mutations. Erlotinib plus bevacizumab are highly effective against advanced NSCLCs with activating EGFR mutations. We performed this phase I 'Quartet Trial' to determine the safety and efficacy of all 4 agents as a first-line treatment for non-squamous NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations. Patients and Methods Patients received escalating quartet-agent doses every 3 weeks for 4 cycles...
November 4, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande D Z Chen
OBJECTIVES: Acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied for treating chemotherapy-induced emesis with limited success. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-emetic effect of EA and to explore underlying anti-emetic mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were chronically implanted with a pair of stainless steel leads at acupoint pericardium 6 (PC6). Effects of EA with different parameters on cisplatin-induced nausea were assessed by pica (intake of kaolin, a surrogate of nausea in species without vomiting reflex)...
November 1, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Carlos Galvez, Jose Navarro-Martinez, Sergio Bolufer, Francisco Lirio, Julio Sesma, Juan Manuel Corcoles
Nonintubated procedures have widely developed during the last years, thus nowadays major anatomical resections are performed in spontaneously breathing patients in some centers. In an attempt for combining less invasive surgical approaches with less aggressive anesthesia, nonintubated uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomies and segmentectomies have been proved feasible and safe, but there are no comparative trials and the evidence is still poor. A program in nonintubated uniportal major surgery should be started in highly experienced units, overcoming first a learning period performing minor procedures and a training program for the management of potential crisis situations when operating on these patients...
2017: Journal of visualized surgery
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