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Ventilation in neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441181/inhaled-treprostinil-drug-delivery-during-mechanical-ventilation-and-spontaneous-breathing-using-two-different-nebulizers
#1
Donna K Parker, Shuijie Shen, Jiang Zheng, D Dunbar Ivy, Dave N Crotwell, Justin C Hotz, Robert M DiBlasi
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of delivering inhaled treprostinil during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous unassisted ventilation using the Tyvaso Inhalation System and the vibrating mesh nebulizer. We sought to compare differences in fine particle fraction, and absolute inhaled treprostinil mass delivered to neonatal, pediatric, and adult models affixed with a face mask, conventional, and high-frequency ventilation between Tyvaso Inhalation System and with different nebulizer locations between Tyvaso Inhalation System and vibrating mesh nebulizer...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440985/-early-neonatal-sepsis-and-associated-factors
#2
Roberto Anaya-Prado, Cuauhtémoc Valero-Padilla, Augusto Sarralde-Delgado, Jorge Manuel Sánchez-González
BACKGROUND: Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is an infectious disease of low incidence but high morbidity and mortality with severe consequences to the newborn prognosis. Identifying the associated factors related to EONS allows to start a timely treatment and to take preventive measures. METHODS: In this case and controls study we identified all the newborns (NB) with and without EONS (cases and controls), diagnosed through blood culture in a period of three years...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439384/characteristics-of-neonatal-pneumothorax-in-saudi-arabia-three-years-experience
#3
Abdulrahman Al Matary, Humariya H Munshi, Sameh Abozaid, Mostafa Qaraqei, Tariq A Wani, Amani K Abu-Shaheen
OBJECTIVES: To identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, morbidity, and mortality among hospitalized neonates with pneumothorax. METHODS: The records of 2 204 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2011 and 2014 were reviewed. All newborns hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit with pneumothorax were included in the study. Participants were evaluated for baseline characteristics, predisposing factors of neonatal pneumothorax (NP), accompanying disorders, and mortality...
March 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439195/the-role-of-serial-measurements-of-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-levels-in-the-development-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#4
Bayram Ali Dorum, Cansu Canbolat Yılmaz, Nilgün Köksal, Hilal Özkan, Meral Yıldız, Ahmet Tuncer Özmen
AIM: To determine the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in the development of retinopathy of prematurity, which is a major cause of childhood blindness worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied newborn infants born at a postmenstrual age of <32 weeks and birth weights <1 500 gr, between January 1(st), 2015, and December 31(st), 2015. A total of 40 infants were enrolled in the study. The retinal examination time was determined in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for retinopathy of prematurity screening and follow-up...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437301/dexmedetomidine-a-solution-to-the-dilemma-of-pain-and-agitation-in-the-mechanically-ventilated-preterm-neonate
#5
Sara E Rostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436394/sarcomere-dysfunction-in-nemaline-myopathy
#6
Josine M de Winter, Coen A C Ottenheijm
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies (incidence 1:50.000). Hallmark features of NM are skeletal muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies in the muscle fiber. The clinical phenotype of NM patients is quite diverse, ranging from neonatal death to normal lifespan with almost normal motor function. As the respiratory muscles are involved as well, severely affected patients are ventilator-dependent. The mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM are currently poorly understood...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434546/surgical-strategy-toward-biventricular-repair-for-severe-ebstein-anomaly-in-neonates-and-infancy
#7
Shu-Chien Huang, En-Ting Wu, Shyh-Jye Chen, Chi-Hsiang Huang, Jin-Chung Shih, Hen-Wen Chou, Chung-I Chang, Ing-Sh Chiu, Yih-Sharng Chen
BACKGROUND: Neonates with severe forms of Ebstein anomaly present a surgical challenge, and the Starnes operation as single ventricle palliation is highly advocated. Cone reconstruction for tricuspid valvuloplasty (TVP) has become a widely accepted technique, although very few cases of TVP have been reported in neonates. This report describes a surgical strategy for neonatal Ebstein anomaly, with an aim toward biventricular repair. METHODS: Since 2007, 7 neonates or young infants with severe Ebstein anomalies have received TVP at the National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan...
April 20, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427883/born-not-breathing-a-randomised-trial-comparing-two-self-inflating-bag-masks-during-newborn-resuscitation-in-tanzania
#8
Monica Thallinger, Hege Langli Ersdal, Fortunata Francis, Anita Yeconia, Estomih Mduma, Hussein Kidanto, Jørgen Erland Linde, Joar Eilevstjønn, Nina Gunnes, Ketil Størdal
AIMS: Effective ventilation is crucial to save non-breathing newborns. We compared standard equipment for newborn resuscitation to a new Upright bag, in an area with high neonatal mortality. METHODS: Newborns requiring resuscitation at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania, were ventilated with 230ml standard or 320ml Upright bag-mask by weekly non-blinded block randomization. A Laerdal Newborn Resuscitation Monitor collected ventilation data through a flow sensor between mask and bag and heart rate with electrocardiography electrodes...
April 17, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424020/the-utility-of-an-obesity-specific-small-for-gestational-age-standard-for-pregnancies-complicated-by-maternal-obesity
#9
Ruofan Yao, Sarah E Foster, Aaron B Caughey
INTRODUCTION: An obesity-specific standard for small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies may help identify additional at risk pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all non-anomalous singleton neonates born in Texas from 2006-2011. Analysis was limited to births between 34 and 42 weeks gestation. Two SGA birth weight standards (birth weight ≤ 10(th) centile) were generated, one using the entire population (SGApop) and another using obese pregnancies (SGAcust)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419061/functional-status-of-neonatal-and-pediatric-patients-after-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#10
Katherine Cashen, Ron Reeder, Heidi J Dalton, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Christopher J L Newth, Murray M Pollack, David Wessel, Joseph Carcillo, Rick Harrison, J Michael Dean, Tammara Jenkins, Kathleen L Meert
OBJECTIVES: To describe functional status at hospital discharge for neonatal and pediatric patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and identify factors associated with functional status and mortality. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of observational data collected by the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network between December 2012 and September 2014. SETTING: Eight hospitals affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411062/incidence-and-characteristics-of-positive-pressure-ventilation-delivered-to-newborns-in-a-us-tertiary-academic-hospital
#11
Dana E Niles, Courtney Cines, Elena Insley, Elizabeth E Foglia, Okan U Elci, Christiane Skåre, Theresa Olasveengen, Anne Ades, Michael Posencheg, Vinay M Nadkarni, Jo Kramer-Johansen
INTRODUCTION: The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guidelines recommend positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the first 60s of life to support perinatal transition in non-breathing newborns. Our aim was to describe the incidence and characteristics of newborn PPV using real-time observation in the delivery unit. METHODS: Prospective, observational, quality improvement study conducted at a tertiary academic hospital. Deliveries during randomized weekday/evening 8-h shifts were attended by a trained observer...
April 12, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410573/risk-factors-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-neonates-a-systematic-review-of-prognostic-studies
#12
Noor Samuels, Rob A van de Graaf, Rogier C J de Jonge, Irwin K M Reiss, Marijn J Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe multifactorial disease in preterm neonates associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better insight into prognostic values of the many reported factors associated with NEC is needed to enable identification of neonates at risk for NEC. The aim was to systematically review the literature to identify independent risk factors for NEC from the literature. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched systematically for cohort studies reporting prognostic factors for NEC in neonates using multivariable analysis...
April 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409751/early-extubation-failure-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-clinical-outcomes-and-predictive-factors
#13
K Al-Hathlol, N Bin Saleem, M Khawaji, S Al Saif, I Abdelhakim, B Al-Hathlol, E Bazbouz, Q Al Anzi, A Al-Essa
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical outcomes and the potential predictive factors of early extubation failure (EEF) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: A retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over five years. Neonates were intubated and mechanically ventilated on the first day of life, and early extubated within the first 3 days. EEF was defined as the need for re-intubation within 3 days of the first extubation...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408368/neonatal-airway-challenging-endotracheal-intubation-in-infants-with-tracheal-malformations-at-birth
#14
Arpan Agarwal, Masakazu Nakao, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Suresh Chandran
Intubating newborn infants can be exacting. We describe two cases of endotracheal intubations in infants born with tracheal malformations. A male infant aged 30 weeks required intubation at birth for respiratory distress. Repeated attempts at intubation failed to achieve an optimal endotracheal tube position as the tube could not advance beyond the vocal cords. Hence ventilation continued with suboptimal air entry in the lungs. Bronchoscopy and CT scan confirmed tracheal stenosis. Slide tracheoplasty was successfully executed on day 78 of life...
April 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408077/does-timing-of-gastroschisis-repair-matter-a-comparison-using-the-acs-nsqip-pediatric-database
#15
Lori A Gurien, Melvin S Dassinger, Jeffrey M Burford, Marie E Saylors, Samuel D Smith
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on optimal timing of gastroschisis repair. The 2012-2014 ACS NSQIP Pediatric Participant Use Data File was used to compare outcomes of primary versus staged gastroschisis repair. METHODS: Cases were divided into primary repair (0-1day) and staged repair (4-14days). Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared for primary versus staged closure using Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407823/-application-of-humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-neonates-with-meconium-aspiration-syndrome-and-pulmonary-hypertension-after-extubation
#16
Xiao-Yan Gao, Lin Feng, Yu-Fen Qiu, Xin-Nian Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) as a respiratory support after extubation by comparing it with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). METHODS: A total of 78 neonates with MAS and PPHN were randomly administered with HHFNC or NCPAP immediately after extubation. The following indices were compared between the two groups: blood gas parameters, duration of noninvasive ventilation, rate of extubation failure, and incidence of complications, such as nasal damage, abdominal distension, and intraventricular hemorrhage...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399847/evaluation-of-helping-babies-breathe-quality-improvement-cycle-hbb-qic-on-retention-of-neonatal-resuscitation-skills-six-months-after-training-in-nepal
#17
Ashish Kc, Johan Wrammert, Viktoria Nelin, Robert B Clark, Uwe Ewald, Stefan Peterson, Mats Målqvist
BACKGROUND: Each year 700,000 infants die due to intrapartum-related complications. Implementation of Helping Babies Breathe (HBB)-a simplified neonatal resuscitation protocol in low-resource clinical settings has shown to reduce intrapartum stillbirths and first-day neonatal mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the effect of different HBB implementation strategies to improve and sustain the clinical competency of health workers on bag-and-mask ventilation. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of multi-faceted implementation strategy for HBB, as a quality improvement cycle (HBB-QIC), on the retention of neonatal resuscitation skills in a tertiary hospital of Nepal...
April 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399457/cumulative-pain-related-stress-and-developmental-outcomes-among-low-risk-preterm-infants-at-one-year-corrected-age
#18
Iris Morag, Ifat Rotem, Mor Frisch, Israel Hendler, Michal J Simchen, Leah Leibovitz, Ayala Maayan-Metzger, Tzipora Strauss
BACKGROUND: Extensive exposure of preterm infants to pain-related stress (PRS) at a time of physiological immaturity and rapid brain development may contribute to altered neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between early PRS and neurodevelopmental outcomes among low-risk very preterm infants at the age of one year corrected age (CA). METHODS: Participants included 107 infants born <32weeks gestational age (GA) and monitored prospectively at 12...
April 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395175/oxygen-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-perinatal-period
#19
REVIEW
Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Anna Parra-Llorca, Angel Sánchez-Illana, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Julia Kuligowski, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás, María Cernada, Justo Escobar, Máximo Vento
Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage...
March 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392470/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-human-infant-brain-and-changes-in-the-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#20
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control. PACAP Knockout (KO) mice exhibit a SIDS-like phenotype, with an inability to overcome noxious insults, compression of baseline ventilation, and death in the early post-neonatal period. PAC1 KO demonstrate similar attributes to PACAP-null mice, but with the addition of increased pulmonary artery pressure, consequently leading to heart failure and death. This study establishes a detailed interpretation of the neuroanatomical distribution and localization of both PACAP and PAC1 in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, to determine whether any changes in expression are evident in infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and any relationships to risk factors of SIDS including smoke exposure and sleep related parameters...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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