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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149722/effects-of-middle-ear-quasi-static-stiffness-on-sound-transmission-quantified-by-a-novel-3-axis-optical-force-sensor
#1
Ivo Dobrev, Jae Hoon Sim, Baktash Aqtashi, Alexander M Huber, Thomas Linder, Christof Röösli
BACKGROUND: Intra-operative quantification of the ossicle mobility could provide valuable feedback for the current status of the patient's conductive hearing. However, current methods for evaluation of middle ear mobility are mostly limited to the surgeon's subjective impression through manual palpation of the ossicles. This study investigates how middle ear transfer function is affected by stapes quasi-static stiffness of the ossicular chain. The stiffness of the middle ear is induced by a) using a novel fiber-optic 3-axis force sensor to quantify the quasi-static stiffness of the middle ear, and b) by artificial reduction of stapes mobility due to drying of the middle ear...
November 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141878/lack-of-behavioural-responses-of-humpback-whales-megaptera-novaeangliae-indicate-limited-effectiveness-of-sonar-mitigation
#2
Paul J Wensveen, Petter H Kvadsheim, Frans-Peter A Lam, Alexander M von Benda-Beckmann, Lise D Sivle, Fleur Visser, Charlotte Curé, Peter L Tyack, Patrick J O Miller
Exposure to underwater sound can cause permanent hearing loss and other physiological effects in marine animals. To reduce this risk, naval sonars are sometimes gradually increased in intensity at the start of transmission ('ramp-up'). Here, we conducted experiments in which tagged humpback whales were approached with a ship to test whether a sonar operation preceded by ramp-up reduced three risk indicators - maximum sound pressure level (SPLmax), cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) and minimum source-whale range (Rmin) - compared with a sonar operation not preceded by ramp-up...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122417/the-effects-of-amplification-on-vocal-dose-in-teachers-with-dysphonia
#3
Joana Perpetuo Assad, Ana Cristina Côrtes Gama, Juliana Nunes Santos, Max de Castro Magalhães
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if voice amplification influenced vocal dose in female teachers with dysphonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an experimental study with comparative intrasubjects in which 15 individuals were compared in two different moments: condition 1 (C1) without voice amplification and condition 2 (C2) with voice amplification. All of them were female, kindergarten and elementary school teachers who presented organic or functional dysphonia...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121160/reproducibility-of-dual-microphone-voice-range-profile-equipment
#4
Trine Printz, Ellen Raben Pedersen, Peter Juhl, Troels Nielsen, Ågot Møller Grøntved, Christian Godballe
Purpose: The aim of this study was to add further knowledge about the usefulness of the Voice Range Profile (VRP) assessment in clinical settings and research by analyzing VRP dual-microphone equipment precision, reliability, and room effect. Method: Test-retest studies were conducted in an anechoic chamber and an office: (a) comparing sound pressure levels (SPLs) from a dual-microphone VRP device, the Voice Profiler, when given the same input repeatedly (test-retest reliability); (b) comparing SPLs from 3 devices when given the same input repeatedly (intervariation); and (c) assessing the room effect...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116094/underwater-sound-from-vessel-traffic-reduces-the-effective-communication-range-in-atlantic-cod-and-haddock
#5
Jenni A Stanley, Sofie M Van Parijs, Leila T Hatch
Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101633/numerical-study-of-dynamic-glottis-and-tidal-breathing-on-respiratory-sounds-in-a-human-upper-airway-model
#6
Jinxiang Xi, Zhaoxuan Wang, Khaled Talaat, Carri Glide-Hurst, Haibo Dong
BACKGROUND: Human snores are caused by vibrating anatomical structures in the upper airway. The glottis is a highly variable structure and a critical organ regulating inhaled flows. However, the effects of the glottis motion on airflow and breathing sound are not well understood, while static glottises have been implemented in most previous in silico studies. The objective of this study is to develop a computational acoustic model of human airways with a dynamic glottis and quantify the effects of glottis motion and tidal breathing on airflow and sound generation...
November 3, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092554/comparison-of-psychoacoustic-based-reverberance-parameters
#8
Doheon Lee, Jasper van Dorp Schuitman, Densil Cabrera, Xiaojun Qiu, Ian Burnett
This study compared psychoacoustic reverberance parameters to each other, as well as to reverberation time (RT) and early decay time (EDT) under various acoustic conditions. The psychoacoustic parameters were loudness-based RT (TN), loudness-based EDT [EDTN; Lee, Cabrera, and Martens, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 1194-1205 (2012a)], and parameter for reverberance [PREV; van Dorp Schuitman, de Vries, and Lindau., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1572-1585 (2013)]. For the comparisons, a wide range of sound pressure levels (SPLs) from 20 dB to 100 dB and RTs from 0...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092538/effects-of-exposure-to-sonar-playback-sounds-3-5-4-1%C3%A2-khz-on-harbor-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena-hearing
#9
Ronald A Kastelein, Lean Helder-Hoek, Shirley Van de Voorde
Safety criteria for naval sonar sounds are needed to protect harbor porpoise hearing. Two porpoises were exposed to sequences of AN/SQS-53C sonar playback sounds (3.5-4.1 kHz, without significant harmonics), at a mean received sound pressure level of 142 dB re 1 μPa, with a duty cycle of 96% (almost continuous). Behavioral hearing thresholds at 4 and 5.7 kHz were determined before and after exposure to the fatiguing sound, in order to quantify temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) and hearing recovery...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084088/intracochlear-measurements-of-interaural-time-and-level-differences-conveyed-by-bilateral-bone-conduction-systems
#10
Nyssa F Farrell, Renee M Banakis Hartl, Victor Benichoux, Andrew D Brown, Stephen P Cass, Daniel J Tollin
HYPOTHESIS: Intracochlear pressures (PIC) and stapes velocity (Vstap) elicited by bilaterally placed bone-anchored hearing devices (BAHD) will be systematically modulated by imposed interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD), demonstrating the potential for users of bilateral BAHD to access these binaural cues. BACKGROUND: BAHD are traditionally implanted unilaterally under the assumption that transcranial cross-talk limits interaural differences. Recent studies have demonstrated improvements in binaural and spatial performance with bilateral BAHD; however, objective measures of binaural cues from bilateral BAHDs are lacking...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075775/acoustics-of-clear-and-noise-adapted-speech-in-children-young-and-older-adults
#11
Rajka Smiljanic, Rachael C Gilbert
Purpose: This study investigated acoustic-phonetic modifications produced in noise-adapted speech (NAS) and clear speech (CS) by children, young adults, and older adults. Method: Ten children (11-13 years of age), 10 young adults (18-29 years of age), and 10 older adults (60-84 years of age) read sentences in conversational and clear speaking style in quiet and in noise. A number of acoustic measurements were obtained. Results: NAS and CS were characterized by a decrease in speaking rate and an increase in 1-3 kHz energy, sound pressure level (SPL), vowel space area (VSA), and harmonics-to-noise ratio...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041648/numerical-investigation-of-nonlinear-sound-propagation-of-photoacoustic-tomography-imaging
#12
Siyang Zhong, Alex Siu Hong Lau, Xun Huang
Almost all reconstruction methods in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) have been developed by assuming that sound propagation is linear, which is valid for ordinary PAT applications but would become inappropriate when the sound amplitude is higher than a certain threshold level. In the current study, we investigate the effect of nonlinear sound propagation on PAT by using a numerical method which utilizes the time-reversal (TR) technique. In the forward stage, the Euler equations are solved to simulate nonlinear sound propagation, and the flow variables (pressure, velocity and density) are recorded by an array of virtual sensors...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026261/prevention-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-from-recreational-firearms
#13
REVIEW
Deanna K Meinke, Donald S Finan, Gregory A Flamme, William J Murphy, Michael Stewart, James E Lankford, Stephen Tasko
In the United States and other parts of the world, recreational firearm shooting is a popular sport that puts the hearing of the shooter at risk. Peak sound pressure levels (SPLs) from firearms range from ∼140 to 175 dB. The majority of recreational firearms (excluding small-caliber 0.17 and 0.22 rifles and air rifles) generate between 150 and 165 dB peak SPLs. High-intensity impulse sounds will permanently damage delicate cochlear structures, and thus individuals who shoot firearms are at a higher risk of bilateral, high-frequency, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) than peer groups who do not shoot...
November 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983969/a-high-performance-gradient-insert-for-rapid-and-short-t2-imaging-at-full-duty-cycle
#14
Markus Weiger, Johan Overweg, Manuela Barbara Rösler, Romain Froidevaux, Franciszek Hennel, Bertram Jakob Wilm, Alexander Penn, Urs Sturzenegger, Wout Schuth, Menno Mathlener, Martino Borgo, Peter Börnert, Christoph Leussler, Roger Luechinger, Benjamin Emanuel Dietrich, Jonas Reber, David Otto Brunner, Thomas Schmid, Laetitia Vionnet, Klaas P Pruessmann
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to devise a gradient system for MRI in humans that reconciles cutting-edge gradient strength with rapid switching and brings up the duty cycle to 100% at full continuous amplitude. Aiming to advance neuroimaging and short-T2 techniques, the hardware design focused on the head and the extremities as target anatomies. METHODS: A boundary element method with minimization of power dissipation and stored magnetic energy was used to design anatomy-targeted gradient coils with maximally relaxed geometry constraints...
October 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972935/characteristics-of-an-ultrasonic-phased-array-transmitter-in-medium-range
#15
Sahdev Kumar, Hideo Furuhashi
An ultrasonic phased array transmitter (PAT) consisting of 12×12 elements was designed and fabricated to evaluate its experimental characteristic performance in the medium range of 2m-10m for its directivity, pulse width affect and sound pressure level (SPL) measurements as a function of distance from its center in the open air. The SPL was measured at 2 m, 5m, and 10m distances as 135dB, 126dB and 68dB, respectively. The experimentally measured directivity patterns were found in good agreement with the theoretical results obtained by using MATLAB simulations...
January 2018: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970596/blood-pressure-of-jordanian-workers-chronically-exposed-to-noise-in-industrial-plants
#16
Saed Nserat, Abdulhalim Al-Musa, Yousef S Khader, Ahmad Abu Slaih, Ibrahim Iblan
BACKGROUND: Occupational studies investigating the association between blood pressure and noise exposure are almost lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between occupational exposure to high level of noise and blood pressure among a group of workers in Jordan. METHODS: All workers who had been exposing to noise for at least 3 years in 3 plants in Madaba governorate in Jordan were included in this cross-sectional study...
October 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966337/influences-of-low-frequency-and-other-noises-produced-by-wind-turbines-an-epidemiological-literature-review
#17
Tatsuhiko Kubo, Hideki Hasunuma, Yoshitaka Morimatsu, Yoshihisa Fujino, Kunio Hara, Tatsuya Ishitake
Objectives Due to its' environment-friendly and clean energy characteristics, wind power has been increasingly used globally, particularly in advanced countries. However, concerns about health hazards, especially due to low-frequency and other noises generated from wind turbines, have been reported repeatedly. In order to manage adverse health effects appropriately, regulatory standards or guidelines that consider the health of residents need to be developed. To provide a scientific basis for the development of such regulatory standards and guidelines, this paper conducted a literature review to analyze epidemiological studies involving residents living in the vicinity of wind farms...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964048/relative-contributions-of-specific-frequency-bands-to-the-loudness-of-broadband-sounds
#18
Walt Jesteadt, Sara M Walker, Oluwaseye A Ogun, Brenda Ohlrich, Katyarina E Brunette, Marcin Wróblewski, Kendra K Schmid
Listeners with normal hearing (NH) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were asked to compare pairs of noise stimuli and choose the louder noise in each pair. Each noise was made up of 15, two-ERBN (equivalent rectangular bandwidth) wide frequency bands that varied independently over a 12-dB range from one presentation to the next. Mean levels of the bands followed the long-term average speech spectrum (LTASS) or were set to 43, 51, or 59 dB sound pressure level (SPL). The relative contribution of each band to the total loudness of the noise was determined by computing the correlation between the difference in levels for a given band on every trial and the listener's decision on that trial...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959175/evaluation-of-the-starting-point-of-the-lombard-effect
#19
Pasquale Bottalico, Ivano Ipsaro Passione, Simone Graetzer, Eric J Hunter
Speakers increase their vocal effort when their communication is disturbed by noise. This adaptation is termed the Lombard effect. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this effect has a starting point. Hence, the effects of noise at levels between 20 and 65 dB(A) on vocal effort (quantified by sound pressure level) and on both perceived noise disturbance and perceived vocal discomfort were evaluated. Results indicate that there is a Lombard effect change-point at a background noise level (Ln) of 43...
January 2017: Acta Acustica United with Acustica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953238/who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-a-systematic-review-on-environmental-noise-and-permanent-hearing-loss-and-tinnitus
#20
REVIEW
Mariola Śliwińska-Kowalska, Kamil Zaborowski
Background: Hearing loss is defined as worsening of hearing acuity and is usually expressed as an increase in the hearing threshold. Tinnitus, defined as "ringing in the ear", is a common and often disturbing accompaniment of hearing loss. Hearing loss and environmental exposures to noise are increasingly recognized health problems. Objectives: The objective was to assess whether the exposure-response relationship can be established between exposures to non-occupational noise and permanent hearing outcomes such as permanent hearing loss and tinnitus...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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