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Sound pressure level

Nesibe Gül Yüksel Aslıer, Selhan Gürkan, Mustafa Aslıer, Günay Kirkim, Enis Alpin Güneri, Ahmet Ömer Ikiz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective case-control study is to evaluate the sound energy absorbance characteristics of cartilage grafts in patients, who have undergone type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. METHODS: Thirty-four operated ears of 32 patients and 70 ears of 35 control subjects were included. Differences of pure-tone audiometry thresholds and wideband ambient-pressure absorbance ratios with respect to the graft material, graft thickness, cartilage surface area ratio and elapsed time after surgery were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Martin Pienkowski
Hearing loss changes the auditory brain, sometimes maladaptively. When deprived of cochlear input, central auditory neurons become more active spontaneously and begin to respond more strongly and synchronously to better preserved sound frequencies. This spontaneous and sound-evoked central hyperactivity has been postulated to trigger tinnitus and hyperacusis, respectively. Localized hyperactivity has also been observed after long-term exposure to noise levels that do not damage the cochlea. Adult animals exposed to bands of nondamaging noise exhibited suppressed spontaneous and sound-evoked activity in the area of primary auditory cortex (A1) stimulated by the exposure band but had increased spontaneous and evoked activity in neighboring A1 areas...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Witold Mikulski
BACKGROUND: Noise in open plan offices should not exceed acceptable levels for the hearing protection. Its major negative effects on employees are nuisance and impediment in execution of work. Specific technical solutions should be introduced to provide proper acoustic conditions for work performance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acoustic evaluation of a typical open plan office was presented in the article published in "Medycyna Pracy" 5/2016. None of the rooms meets all the criteria, therefore, in this article one of the rooms was chosen to apply different technical solutions to check the possibility of reaching proper acoustic conditions...
March 8, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
A L Gesing, F D P Alves, S Paul, J A Cordioli
The presence of external elements is a major limitation of current hearing aids and cochlear implants, as they lead to discomfort and inconvenience. Totally implantable hearing devices have been proposed as a solution to mitigate these constraints, which has led to challenges in designing implantable sensors. This work presents a feasibility analysis of a MEMS piezoelectric accelerometer coupled to the ossicular chain as an alternative sensor. The main requirements of the sensor include small size, low internal noise, low power consumption, and large bandwidth...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michele M Moraes, Patrícia C R Rabelo, Valéria A Pinto, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Raphael E Szawka, Danusa D Soares
Listening to melodic music is regarded as a non-pharmacological intervention that ameliorates various disease symptoms, likely by changing the activity of brain monoaminergic systems. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to melodic music on the concentrations of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their respective metabolites in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), areas linked to reward and motor control. Male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group or a group exposed to music...
February 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Heather A Kreft, Magdalena Wojtczak, Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory enhancement, where a target sound within a masker is rendered more audible by the prior presentation of the masker alone, may play an important role in auditory perception under variable everyday acoustic conditions. Cochlear hearing loss may reduce enhancement effects, potentially contributing to the difficulties experienced by hearing-impaired (HI) individuals in noisy and reverberant environments. However, it remains unknown whether, and by how much, enhancement under simultaneous masking is reduced in HI listeners...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jaume Segura-Garcia, Juan Miguel Navarro-Ruiz, Juan J Perez-Solano, Jose Montoya-Belmonte, Santiago Felici-Castell, Maximo Cobos, Ana M Torres-Aranda
Sound pleasantness or annoyance perceived in urban soundscapes is a major concern in environmental acoustics. Binaural psychoacoustic parameters are helpful to describe generic acoustic environments, as it is stated within the ISO 12913 framework. In this paper, the application of a Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network (WASN) to evaluate the spatial distribution and the evolution of urban acoustic environments is described. Two experiments are presented using an indoor and an outdoor deployment of a WASN with several nodes using an Internet of Things (IoT) environment to collect audio data and calculate meaningful parameters such as the sound pressure level, binaural loudness and binaural sharpness...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
YanLi Ma, RuiQing Wang, Yu Zhang, Jiazhen Le, PeiYun Zhuang, Allyson C Pulvermacher
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of optimal surgical procedures in ex vivo simulated bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP). STUDY DESIGN: Four surgical stages were sequentially performed on 10 excised canine larynges with simulated BVFP: (1) transverse cordotomy, (2) medial arytenoidectomy, (3) subtotal arytenoidectomy, and (4) total arytenoidectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sound pressure level, the signal-to-noise ratio, the glottal resistance, the glottal airflow (GF), the maximal glottal area (MGA), and spectrograms were measured after each stage...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Kerstin Johansson, Åke Seiger, Malin Forsén, Jeanette Holmgren Nilsson, Lena Hartelius, Ellika Schalling
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle impairment following cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) may lead to reduced voice function, although the individual variation is large. Voice problems in this population may not always receive attention since individuals with CSCI face other, more acute and life-threatening issues that need/receive attention. Currently there is no consensus on the tasks suitable to identify the specific voice impairments and functional voice changes experienced by individuals with CSCI...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Greg D Watkins, Brett A Swanson, Gregg J Suaning
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategies are usually evaluated in clinical studies involving experienced implant recipients. Metrics which estimate the capacity to perceive speech for a given set of audio and processing conditions provide an alternative means to assess the effectiveness of processing strategies. The aim of this research was to assess the ability of the output signal to noise ratio (OSNR) to accurately predict speech perception. It was hypothesized that compared with the other metrics evaluated in this study (1) OSNR would have equivalent or better accuracy and (2) OSNR would be the most accurate in the presence of variable levels of speech presentation...
February 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Judi A Lapsley Miller, Charlotte M Reed, Sarah R Robinson, Zachary D Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clinical pure-tone audiometry is conducted using stimuli delivered through supra-aural headphones or insert earphones. The stimuli are calibrated in an acoustic (average ear) coupler. Deviations in individual-ear acoustics from the coupler acoustics affect test validity, and variations in probe insertion and headphone placement affect both test validity and test-retest reliability. Using an insert earphone designed for otoacoustic emission testing, which contains a microphone and loudspeaker, an individualized in-the-ear calibration can be calculated from the ear-canal sound pressure measured at the microphone...
February 21, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Amanda I Rodriguez, Megan L A Thomas, Denis Fitzpatrick, Kristen L Janky
OBJECTIVES: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing is increasingly utilized in pediatric vestibular evaluations due to its diagnostic capability to identify otolith dysfunction and feasibility of testing. However, there is evidence demonstrating that the high-intensity stimulation level required to elicit a reliable VEMP response causes acoustic trauma in adults. Despite utility of VEMP testing in children, similar findings are unknown. It is hypothesized that increased sound exposure may exist in children because differences in ear-canal volume (ECV) compared with adults, and the effect of stimulus parameters (e...
March 2018: Ear and Hearing
Daniela Kühn, Martin Ptok, Michael Jungheim
OBJECTIVE: In about one-third of brass instrumentalists, there are stress-related insufficiencies of velopharyngeal closure (VPC), i. e. the intraoral pressure exceeds the barrier formed by the VPC. Here, it was the aim to measure the VPC closing pressure while playing a trumpet and to evaluate the influence of a 30 minute stress sequence on the muscular activities in the VPC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sample: 6 healthy volunteers; task: to play the sound h1 for 5 seconds with 85 dB(A) and with 100 dB(A)...
February 20, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Konstantinos Kostarakos, Heiner Römer
Males of the katydid Sphagniana sphagnorum maintain inter-male distances from one another using agonistic song interactions with a frequency-modulated song that consists of alternating audio and ultrasonic parts. We studied the neuronal representation of this song in auditory receptors and interneurons of receivers, using playbacks of songs that mimicked the absolute and relative sound pressure levels of the two song modes varying with distance. The tuning and sensitivity of both receptors and interneurons strongly determine their responses to the two song modes at different distances...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Guo-Qing Di, Zhao-Qi Qin
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of combined traffic noise (CTN) on the ability of learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed to CTN from highways and high-speed railways for 42 days, whose day-night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn ) was 70 dB(A). On the basis of behavioral reactions in Morris water maze (MWM) and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, the impacts of CTN on learning and memory in mice were examined...
January 2018: Noise & Health
Jan G Švec, Svante Granqvist
Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to improve their accuracy and reproducibility. Method: Basic information is put together from standards, technical, voice and speech literature, and practical experience of the authors and is explained for nontechnical readers...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Lijie Liu, Cong Fang, Jing Yang, Hongyu Zhang, Yi Huang, Chuanying Xuan, Yongfang Wang, Shengwei Li, Jun Sha, Mingming Zha, Min Guo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that noise exposure may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and experimental studies have demonstrated that noise exposure can induce insulin resistance in rodents. The aim of the present study was to explore noise-induced processes underlying impaired insulin sensitivity in mice. METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group without noise exposure and three noise groups exposed to white noise at a 95-dB sound pressure level for 4 h/day for 1, 10, or 20 days (N1D, N10D, and N20D, respectively)...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Ankit Mittal, Animesh Ray, Ram Manohar Talupula, Rita Sood
A 50-year-old woman presented with progressive dyspnoea and oedema with rapid deterioration over the last few days. Clinical examination revealed hypotension with cold clammy skin, raised jugular venous pressure and muffled heart sounds and was diagnosed to have cardiac tamponade, later confirmed on two-dimensional echocardiography. However, patient had bradycardia, and the other striking examination findings were coarse facies with pallor, madarosis, absent axillary and pubic hair and breast atrophy. Her blood sugar level was also low...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Cristina Rigato, Sabine Reinfeldt, Bo Håkansson, Karl-Johan Fredén Jansson, Erik Renvall, Måns Eeg-Olofsson
Active transcutaneous bone conduction devices, where the transducer is implanted, are used for rehabilitation of hearing impaired patients by directly stimulating the skull bone. The transducer and the way it is attached to the bone play a central role in the design of such devices. The actual effect of varying the contact to bone has not been addressed yet. The aim of this study is therefore to compare how different attachment methods of the transducer to the bone for direct stimulation affect the ear canal sound pressure and vibration transmission to the ipsilateral cochlea...
January 31, 2018: Hearing Research
Laura Hallett, Marcus Tatum, Geb Thomas, Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Thomas Peters
Noise is a pervasive workplace hazard that varies spatially and temporally. The cost of direct-reading instruments for noise hampers their use in a network. The objectives for this work were to (1) develop an inexpensive noise sensor (<$100) that measures A-weighted sound pressure levels within ±2 dBA of a Type 2 sound level meter (SLM, ∼$1,800); and (2) evaluate 50 noise sensors for use in an inexpensive sensor network. The inexpensive noise sensor consists of an electret condenser microphone, an amplifier circuit, and a microcontroller with a small form factor (28 mm by 47 mm by 9 mm) than can be operated as a stand-alone unit...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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