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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341653/quantum-nonlinear-optics-in-optomechanical-nanoscale-waveguides
#1
Hashem Zoubi, Klemens Hammerer
We show that strong nonlinearities at the few photon level can be achieved in optomechanical nanoscale waveguides. We consider the propagation of photons in cm-scale one-dimensional nanophotonic structures where stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is strongly enhanced by radiation pressure coupling. We introduce a configuration that allows slowing down photons by several orders of magnitude via SBS from sound waves using two pump fields. Slowly propagating photons can then experience strong nonlinear interactions through virtual off-resonant exchange of dispersionless phonons...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337760/using-thresholds-in-noise-to-identify-hidden-hearing-loss-in-humans
#2
Courtney L Ridley, Judy G Kopun, Stephen T Neely, Michael P Gorga, Daniel M Rasetshwane
OBJECTIVES: Recent animal studies suggest that noise-induced synaptopathy may underlie a phenomenon that has been labeled hidden hearing loss (HHL). Noise exposure preferentially damages low spontaneous-rate auditory nerve fibers, which are involved in the processing of moderate- to high-level sounds and are more resistant to masking by background noise. Therefore, the effect of synaptopathy may be more evident in suprathreshold measures of auditory function, especially in the presence of background noise...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336124/masking-treatment-and-its-effect-on-tinnitus-parameters
#3
Ismail Aytac, Elif Baysal, Secaattin Gulsen, Koray Tumuklu, Cengiz Durucu, Lütfi Semih Mumbuc, MUzaffer Kanlikama
OBJECTIVE: Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound without any external acoustic stimulation. Any pathology of auditory pathways or any system of the human body may result with tinnitus. The pathophysiology of tinnitus accompanying the disorders of auditory system is not fully understood and there is not any particular effective treatment method has been specified. Tinnitus masking therapy has been reported as an effective treatment modality in the treatment of tinnitus. In this study, the results of tinnitus masking treatment on the parameters were evaluated prospectively...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325856/is-insufficient-pulmonary-air-support-the-cause-of-dysphonia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Megahed M Hassan, Mona T Hussein, Ahmed Mamdouh Emam, Usama M Rashad, Ibrahim Rezk, Al Hussein Awad
OBJECTIVE: Optimal pulmonary air support is essential pre-requisite for efficient phonation. The objective is to correlate pulmonary and vocal functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to find out whether the reduced pulmonary function per se could induce dysphonia. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, sixty subjects with stable COPD underwent evaluation of pulmonary and vocal functions. The pulmonary functions measured include {Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)}...
January 8, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321507/multifunctional-device-based-on-phosphor-piezoelectric-pzt-lighting-speaking-and-mechanical-energy-harvesting
#5
Sunghoon Lee, Taewook Kang, Wunho Lee, Mohammad M Afandi, Jongho Ryu, Jongsu Kim
We demonstrated the tri-functional device based on all powder-processing methods by using ZnS powder as phosphor layer and piezoelectric material as dielectric layer. The fabricated device generated the electroluminescent (EL) light from phosphor and the sound from piezoelectric sheet under a supply of external electric power, and additionally harvested the reverse-piezoelectric energy to be converted into EL light. Under sinusoidal applied voltage, EL luminances were exponentially increased with a maximum luminous efficiency of 1...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315183/middle-fossa-approach-for-cochlear-implantation
#6
Wojciech Gawęcki, Michał Karlik, Łukasz Borucki, Maciej Wróbel, Olgierd Maciej Stieler, Witold Szyfter
OBJECTIVE: To present qualification criteria, surgery, and results of cochlear implantation via the middle fossa approach. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of medical charts of patients. SETTING: Cochlear implant program in academic medical center. PATIENTS: Six adults after middle ear surgery due to chronic otitis media with bilateral deafness or profound hearing loss. INTERVENTION: Analysis aimed to identify patients qualified for cochlear implantation via middle fossa approach and to present surgery and result...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314074/efficacy-of-type-i-thyroplasty-after-endoscopic-cordectomy-for-early-stage-glottic-cancer-literature-review
#7
Caitlin Bertelsen, Lindsay Reder
OBJECTIVE: As phonomicrosurgical techniques have evolved, endoscopic cordectomy (EC) has been used more commonly for early-stage glottic cancer. Patients undergoing more extensive surgery often experience significant postoperative dysphonia for which there is no standard treatment. Surgical options include injection laryngoplasty and thyroplasty. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the efficacy of thyroplasty after EC. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies of adults undergoing thyroplasty for dysphonia after EC for glottic cancer...
January 4, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309026/sound-exposure-of-healthcare-professionals-working-with-a-university-marching-band
#8
Jeffrey A Russell, Moegi Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Music-induced hearing disorders are known to result from exposure to excessive levels of music of different genres. Marching band music, with its heavy emphasis on brass and percussion, is one type that is a likely contributor to music-induced hearing disorders, although specific data on sound pressure levels of marching bands have not been widely studied. Furthermore, if marching band music does lead to music-induced hearing disorders, the musicians may not be the only individuals at risk...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299940/the-reduction-of-gunshot-noise-and-auditory-risk-through-the-use-of-firearm-suppressors-and-low-velocity-ammunition
#9
William J Murphy, Gregory A Flamme, Adam R Campbell, Edward L Zechmann, Stephen M Tasko, James E Lankford, Deanna K Meinke, Donald S Finan, Michael Stewart
OBJECTIVE: This research assessed the reduction of peak levels, equivalent energy and sound power of firearm suppressors. DESIGN: The first study evaluated the effect of three suppressors at four microphone positions around four firearms. The second study assessed the suppressor-related reduction of sound power with a 3 m hemispherical microphone array for two firearms. RESULTS: The suppressors reduced exposures at the ear between 17 and 24 dB peak sound pressure level and reduced the 8 h equivalent A-weighted energy between 9 and 21 dB depending upon the firearm and ammunition...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291112/sound-attenuation-in-the-ear-of-domestic-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus-as-a-result-of-beak-opening
#10
Pieter G G Muyshondt, Raf Claes, Peter Aerts, Joris J J Dirckx
Because the quadrate and the eardrum are connected, the hypothesis was tested that birds attenuate the transmission of sound through their ears by opening the bill, which potentially serves as an additional protective mechanism for self-generated vocalizations. In domestic chickens, it was examined if a difference exists between hens and roosters, given the difference in vocalization capacity between the sexes. To test the hypothesis, vibrations of the columellar footplate were measured ex vivo with laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) for closed and maximally opened beak conditions, with sounds introduced at the ear canal...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289410/respiratory-and-laryngeal-function-in-teachers-pre-and-postvocal-loading-challenge
#11
Nicole E Herndon, Anusha Sundarrajan, M Preeti Sivasankar, Jessica E Huber
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine laryngeal and respiratory physiological changes in teachers before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge. METHODS: Twelve teachers completed ratings of vocal tiredness, vocal effort, and produced a reading passage and monologue before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge (reading aloud in noise). Sound pressure level, lung volume parameters, cepstral peak prominence, and low/high spectral ratio were measured...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289093/compensating-for-evanescent-modes-and-estimating-characteristic-impedance-in-waveguide-acoustic-impedance-measurements
#12
Kren Rahbek Nørgaard, Efren Fernandez-Grande, Søren Laugesen
The ear-canal acoustic impedance and reflectance are useful for assessing conductive hearing disorders and calibrating stimulus levels in situ. However, such probe-based measurements are affected by errors due to the presence of evanescent modes and incorrect estimates or assumptions regarding characteristic impedance. This paper proposes a method to compensate for evanescent modes in measurements of acoustic impedance, reflectance, and sound pressure in waveguides, as well as estimating the characteristic impedance immediately in front of the probe...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246611/effect-of-lee-silverman-voice-treatment-lsvt-loud%C3%A2-on-swallowing-and-cough-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#13
Anna Miles, Marie Jardine, Felicity Johnston, Martin de Lisle, Philippa Friary, Jacqui Allen
PURPOSE: Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD®) is an effective therapy for phonation in Parkinson's Disease (PD) but little is known about any additional spread of effects to swallowing and cough function. This pilot study examined the effect of LSVT LOUD on pharyngeal swallowing parameters and reflexive cough strength. METHODS: Twenty participants (14 men, 6 women; mean 68years, SD3.5) with PD referred for LSVT LOUD with complaints of voice deterioration were recruited...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226244/transport-properties-of-carbonated-silicate-melt-at-high-pressure
#14
Dipta B Ghosh, Bijaya B Karki
Carbon dioxide, generally considered as the second most abundant volatile component in silicate magmas, is expected to significantly influence various melt properties. In particular, our knowledge about its dynamical effects is lacking over most of Earth's mantle pressure regime. Here, we report the first-principles molecular dynamics results on the transport properties of carbonated MgSiO3 liquid under conditions of mantle relevance. They show that dissolved CO2 systematically enhances the diffusion rates of all elements and lowers the melt viscosity on average by factors of 1...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214174/feasibility-of-round-window-stimulation-by-a-novel-electromagnetic-microactuator
#15
Wouter Johannes van Drunen, Mathias Mueller, Anatoly Glukhovskoy, Rolf Salcher, Marc Christopher Wurz, Thomas Lenarz, Hannes Maier
Introduction: Most implantable hearing aids currently available were developed to compensate the sensorineural hearing loss by driving middle ear structures (e.g., the ossicles). These devices are successfully used in round window (RW) stimulation clinically, although this was initially not the intended use. Here, a novel microactuator, specifically designed for RW stimulation, was tested in human temporal bones to determine actuator performance and applicability. Methods: Stapes footplate response to RW stimulation was determined experimentally in human temporal bones and the obtained sound pressure output level was estimated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212354/image-quality-assessment-of-silent-t2-propeller-sequence-for-brain-imaging-in-infants
#16
Hyun Gi Kim, Jin Wook Choi, Soo Han Yoon, Sieun Lee
OBJECTIVE: Infants are vulnerable to high acoustic noise. Acoustic noise generated by MR scanning can be reduced by a silent sequence. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of the conventional and silent T2 PROPELLER sequences for brain imaging in infants. METHODS: A total of 36 scans were acquired from 24 infants using a 3.0 T MR scanner. Each patient underwent both conventional and silent T2 PROPELLER sequences. Acoustic noise level was measured...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204608/magnitude-of-neck-surface-vibration-as-an-estimate-of-subglottal-pressure-during-modulations-of-vocal-effort-and-intensity-in-healthy-speakers
#17
Victoria S McKenna, Andres F Llico, Daryush D Mehta, Joseph S Perkell, Cara E Stepp
Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the magnitude of neck-surface vibration (NSVMag; transduced with an accelerometer) and intraoral estimates of subglottal pressure (P'sg) during variations in vocal effort at 3 intensity levels. Method: Twelve vocally healthy adults produced strings of /pɑ/ syllables in 3 vocal intensity conditions, while increasing vocal effort during each condition. Measures were made of P'sg (estimated during stop-consonant closure), NSVMag (measured during the following vowel), sound pressure level, and respiratory kinematics...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195435/consistent-modelling-of-wind-turbine-noise-propagation-from-source-to-receiver
#18
Emre Barlas, Wei Jun Zhu, Wen Zhong Shen, Kaya O Dag, Patrick Moriarty
The unsteady nature of wind turbine noise is a major reason for annoyance. The variation of far-field sound pressure levels is not only caused by the continuous change in wind turbine noise source levels but also by the unsteady flow field and the ground characteristics between the turbine and receiver. To take these phenomena into account, a consistent numerical technique that models the sound propagation from the source to receiver is developed. Large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique is employed for the flow modelling and the corresponding flow fields are used to simulate sound generation and propagation...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192617/the-effects-of-low-frequency-noise-on-rats-evidence-of-chromosomal-aberrations-in-the-bone-marrow-cells-and-the-release-of-low-molecular-weight-dna-in-the-blood-plasma
#19
Irina N Vasilyeva, Vladimir G Bespalov, Alexander L Semenov, Denis A Baranenko, Valery N Zinkin
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the effect of low-frequency noise (LFN) on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells and on the content of low-molecular-weight DNA (lmwDNA) in the blood plasma of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 male Wistar rats were exposed to either single (17 min session) or multiple (17 min session repeated five times a week for 13 weeks) LFN, with the maximum range below 250 Hz and the sound pressure levels (SPLs) at 120 and 150 dB, respectively...
March 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192613/a-health-based-metric-for-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-noise-barrier-mitigation-associated-with-transport-infrastructure-noise
#20
Geoffrey P Prendergast, Michael Staff
INTRODUCTION: This study examines the use of the number of night-time sleep disturbances as a health-based metric to assess the cost effectiveness of rail noise mitigation strategies for situations, wherein high-intensity noises dominate such as freight train pass-bys and wheel squeal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty residential properties adjacent to the existing and proposed rail tracks in a noise catchment area of the Epping to Thornleigh Third Track project were used as a case study...
March 2017: Noise & Health
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