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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219725/planar-implantable-sensor-for-in-vivo-measurement-of-cellular-oxygen-metabolism-in-brain-tissue
#1
Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Fatih Akkenti, Elena Pumbo, Qinggong Tang, Yu Chen, Reha S Erzurumlu, Dmitri B Papkovsky
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging methods are continually improving. Imaging of the cerebral cortex is widely used in both animal experiments and charting human brain function in health and disease. Among the animal models, the rodent cerebral cortex has been widely used because of patterned neural representation of the whiskers on the snout and relative ease of activating cortical tissue with whisker stimulation. NEW METHOD: We tested a new planar solid-state oxygen sensor comprising a polymeric film with a phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive coating on the working side, to monitor dynamics of oxygen metabolism in the cerebral cortex following sensory stimulation...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#2
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194008/genetic-otx2-mis-localization-delays-critical-period-plasticity-across-brain-regions
#3
H H C Lee, C Bernard, Z Ye, D Acampora, A Simeone, A Prochiantz, A A Di Nardo, T K Hensch
Accumulation of non-cell autonomous Otx2 homeoprotein in postnatal mouse visual cortex (V1) has been implicated in both the onset and closure of critical period (CP) plasticity. Here, we show that a genetic point mutation in the glycosaminoglycan recognition motif of Otx2 broadly delays the maturation of pivotal parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons not only in V1 but also in the primary auditory (A1) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Consequently, not only visual, but also auditory plasticity is delayed, including the experience-dependent expansion of tonotopic maps in A1 and the acquisition of acoustic preferences in mPFC, which mitigates anxious behavior...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177526/segregated-fronto-cortical-and-midbrain-connections-in-the-mouse-and-their-relation-to-approach-and-avoidance-orienting-behaviors
#4
Michael Anthony Savage, Richard McQuade, Alexander Thiele
The orchestration of orienting behaviors requires the interaction of many cortical and subcortical areas, for example the Superior Colliculus (SC), as well as prefrontal areas responsible for top-down control. Orienting involves different behaviors, such as approach and avoidance. In the rat, these behaviors are at least partially mapped onto different SC subdomains, the lateral (SCl) and medial (SCm), respectively. To delineate the circuitry involved in the two types of orienting behavior in mice, we injected retrograde tracer into the intermediate and deep layers of the medial and lateral SC (SCm and SCl), and thereby determined the main input structures to these subdomains...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144216/a-tool-for-brain-wide-quantitative-analysis-of-molecular-data-upon-projection-into-a-planar-view-of-choice
#5
Samme Vreysen, Isabelle Scheyltjens, Marie-Eve Laramée, Lutgarde Arckens
Several techniques, allowing the reconstruction and visualization of functional, anatomical or molecular information from tissue and organ slices, have been developed over the years. Yet none allow direct comparison without reprocessing the same slices. Alternative methods using publicly available reference maps like the Allen Brain Atlas lack flexibility with respect to age and species. We propose a new approach to reconstruct a segmented region of interest from serial slices by projecting the optical density values representing a given molecular signal to a plane of view of choice, and to generalize the results into a reference map, which is built from the individual maps of all animals under study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130922/stimulus-relevance-modulates-contrast-adaptation-in-visual-cortex
#6
Andreas J Keller, Rachael Houlton, Björn M Kampa, Nicholas A Lesica, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Georg B Keller, Fritjof Helmchen
A general principle of sensory processing is that neurons adapt to sustained stimuli by reducing their response over time. Most of our knowledge on adaptation in single cells is based on experiments in anesthetized animals. How responses adapt in awake animals, when stimuli may be behaviorally relevant or not, remains unclear. Here we show that contrast adaptation in mouse primary visual cortex depends on the behavioral relevance of the stimulus. Cells that adapted to contrast under anesthesia maintained or even increased their activity in awake naïve mice...
January 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123079/zika-virus-targeting-in-the-developing-brain
#7
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Yang Yang, Sara Ornaghi, John N Davis
: Zika virus (ZIKV), a positive-sense RNA flavivirus, has attracted considerable attention recently for its potential to cause serious neurological problems including microcephaly, cortical thinning and blindness during early development. Recent findings suggest that ZIKV infection of the brain can occur not only during very early stages of development, but also in later fetal/early neonatal stages of maturation. Surprisingly, after peripheral inoculation of immunocompetent mice on the day of birth, the first cells targeted throughout the brain were isolated astrocytes...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123018/contribution-of-innate-cortical-mechanisms-to-the-maturation-of-orientation-selectivity-in-parvalbumin-interneurons
#8
Dario X Figueroa Velez, Kyle L Ellefsen, Ethan R Hathaway, Mathew C Carathedathu, Sunil P Gandhi
: The maturation of cortical parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons depends on the interaction of innate and experience-dependent factors. Dark-rearing experiments suggest that visual experience determines when broad orientation selectivity emerges in visual cortical PV interneurons. Here, using neural transplantation and in vivo calcium imaging of mouse visual cortex, we investigated whether innate mechanisms contribute to the maturation of orientation selectivity in PV interneurons...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122240/experience-dependent-equilibration-of-ampar-mediated-synaptic-transmission-during-the-critical-period
#9
Kyung-Seok Han, Samuel F Cooke, Weifeng Xu
Experience-dependent synapse refinement is essential for functional optimization of neural circuits. However, how sensory experience sculpts excitatory synaptic transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that despite substantial remodeling of synaptic connectivity, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission remains at equilibrium during the critical period in the mouse primary visual cortex. The maintenance of this equilibrium requires neurogranin (Ng), a postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein important for synaptic plasticity...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122235/stability-and-plasticity-of-contextual-modulation-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#10
Adam Ranson
Activity of neurons in primary visual cortex is shaped by sensory and behavioral context. However, the long-term stability of the influence of contextual factors in the mature cortex remains poorly understood. To investigate this, we used two-photon calcium imaging to track the influence of surround suppression and locomotion on individual neurons over 14 days. We found that highly active excitatory neurons and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons exhibited relatively stable modulation by visual context...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114886/application-of-hairless-mouse-strain-to-bioluminescence-imaging-of-arc-expression-in-mouse-brain
#11
Hironori Izumi, Tetsuya Ishimoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hisashi Mori
BACKGROUND: Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial dynamics of gene expression in the mouse brain. However, the black fur, skin pigmentation and hair regrowth after depilation of mouse interfere with BLI during developmental and daily examination. The aim of this study was to extend the application of Arc-Luc transgenic (Tg) mice to the BLI of neuronal activity in the mouse brain by introducing the hairless (HL) gene and to examine Arc-Luc expression at various developmental stages without interference from black fur, skin pigmentation, and hair regrowth...
January 23, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112643/layer-specific-chromatin-accessibility-landscapes-reveal-regulatory-networks-in-adult-mouse-visual-cortex
#12
Lucas T Gray, Zizhen Yao, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Tae Kyung Kim, Hongkui Zeng, Bosiljka Tasic
Mammalian cortex is a laminar structure, with each layer composed of a characteristic set of cell types with different morphological, electrophysiological, and connectional properties. Here, we define chromatin accessibility landscapes of major, layer-specific excitatory classes of neurons, and compare them to each other and to inhibitory cortical neurons using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq). We identify a large number of layer-specific accessible sites, and significant association with genes that are expressed in specific cortical layers...
January 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111339/touch-screen-visual-reversal-learning-is-mediated-by-value-encoding-and-signal-propagation-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#13
Kristin Marquardt, Rahul Sigdel, Jonathan L Brigman
Behavioral inflexibility is a common symptom of neuropsychiatric disorders which can have a major detrimental impact on quality of life. While the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been strongly implicated in behavioral flexibility in rodents across paradigms, our understanding of how the OFC mediates these behaviors is rapidly adapting. Here we examined neuronal activity during reversal learning by coupling in vivo electrophysiological recording with a mouse touch-screen learning paradigm to further elucidate the role of the OFC in updating reward value...
January 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103479/subcortical-source-and-modulation-of-the-narrowband-gamma-oscillation-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#14
Aman B Saleem, Anthony D Lien, Michael Krumin, Bilal Haider, Miroslav Román Rosón, Asli Ayaz, Kimberly Reinhold, Laura Busse, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris
Primary visual cortex exhibits two types of gamma rhythm: broadband activity in the 30-90 Hz range and a narrowband oscillation seen in mice at frequencies close to 60 Hz. We investigated the sources of the narrowband gamma oscillation, the factors modulating its strength, and its relationship to broadband gamma activity. Narrowband and broadband gamma power were uncorrelated. Increasing visual contrast had opposite effects on the two rhythms: it increased broadband activity, but suppressed the narrowband oscillation...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103471/new-light-on-gamma-oscillations
#15
Cristin G Welle, Diego Contreras
Two papers in this issue of Neuron by Saleem et al. (2017) and Storchi et al. (2017) show that increases in background light intensity trigger proportional increases in narrowband gamma oscillations with a peak at 60 Hz in retina, lateral geniculate, and primary visual cortex of the mouse visual system.
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#16
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100658/maps-of-cone-opsin-input-to-mouse-v1-and-higher-visual-areas
#17
Issac Rhim, Gabriela Coello-Reyes, Hee-Kyoung Ko, Ian Nauhaus
Studies in the mouse retina have characterized the spatial distribution of an anisotropic ganglion cell and photoreceptor mosaic, which provides a solid foundation to study how the cortex pools from afferent parallel color channels. In particular, the mouse's retinal mosaic exhibits a gradient of wavelength sensitivity along its dorsoventral axis. Cones at the ventral extreme mainly express S-opsin, which is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Then, moving toward the retina's dorsal extreme, there is a transition to M-opsin dominance...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093561/homeostatic-plasticity-mechanisms-in-mouse-v1
#18
REVIEW
Megumi Kaneko, Michael P Stryker
Mechanisms thought of as homeostatic must exist to maintain neuronal activity in the brain within the dynamic range in which neurons can signal. Several distinct mechanisms have been demonstrated experimentally. Three mechanisms that act to restore levels of activity in the primary visual cortex of mice after occlusion and restoration of vision in one eye, which give rise to the phenomenon of ocular dominance plasticity, are discussed. The existence of different mechanisms raises the issue of how these mechanisms operate together to converge on the same set points of activity...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093553/enhancement-of-visual-cortex-plasticity-by-dark-exposure
#19
Irina Erchova, Asta Vasalauskaite, Valentina Longo, Frank Sengpiel
Dark rearing is known to delay the time course of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity in the visual cortex. Recent evidence suggests that a period of dark exposure (DE) may enhance or reinstate plasticity even after closure of the critical period, mediated through modification of the excitatory-inhibitory balance and/or removal of structural brakes on plasticity. Here, we investigated the effects of a week of DE on the recovery from a month of monocular deprivation (MD) in the primary visual cortex (V1) of juvenile mice...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093546/time-course-and-mechanisms-of-homeostatic-plasticity-in-layers-2-3-and-5-of-the-barrel-cortex
#20
Stanislaw Glazewski, Stuart Greenhill, Kevin Fox
Recent studies have shown that ocular dominance plasticity in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex exhibits a form of homeostatic plasticity that is related to synaptic scaling and depends on TNFα. In this study, we tested whether a similar form of plasticity was present in layer 2/3 of the barrel cortex and, therefore, whether the mechanism was likely to be a general property of cortical neurons. We found that whisker deprivation could induce homeostatic plasticity in layer 2/3 of barrel cortex, but not in a mouse strain lacking synaptic scaling...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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