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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230054/single-cell-analysis-of-experience-dependent-transcriptomic-states-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Sinisa Hrvatin, Daniel R Hochbaum, M Aurel Nagy, Marcelo Cicconet, Keiramarie Robertson, Lucas Cheadle, Rapolas Zilionis, Alex Ratner, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Allon M Klein, Bernardo L Sabatini, Michael E Greenberg
Activity-dependent transcriptional responses shape cortical function. However, a comprehensive understanding of the diversity of these responses across the full range of cortical cell types, and how these changes contribute to neuronal plasticity and disease, is lacking. To investigate the breadth of transcriptional changes that occur across cell types in the mouse visual cortex after exposure to light, we applied high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified significant and divergent transcriptional responses to stimulation in each of the 30 cell types characterized, thus revealing 611 stimulus-responsive genes...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227249/eye-opening-differentially-modulates-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-developing-visual-cortex
#2
Wuqiang Guan, Jun-Wei Cao, Lin-Yun Liu, Zhi-Hao Zhao, Yinghui Fu, Yong-Chun Yu
Eye opening, a natural and timed event during animal development, influences cortical circuit assembly and maturation; yet, little is known about its precise effect on inhibitory synaptic connections. Here we show that coinciding with eye opening, the strength of unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) from somatostatin-expressing interneurons (Sst-INs) to nearby excitatory neurons, but not interneurons, sharply decreases in layer 2/3 of the mouse visual cortex. In contrast, the strength of uIPSCs from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs) to excitatory neurons significantly increases during eye opening...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216453/a-sensorimotor-circuit-in-mouse-cortex-for-visual-flow-predictions
#3
Marcus Leinweber, Daniel R Ward, Jan M Sobczak, Alexander Attinger, Georg B Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207268/cortical-processing-how-mice-predict-the-visual-effects-of-locomotion
#4
Marina Fridman, Leopoldo Petreanu
New research identifies a frontal area in the mouse neocortex that sends predictions of locomotion-coupled visual flow to visual cortex. The findings support predictive coding theories of cortical processing.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196320/inhibition-in-simple-cell-receptive-fields-is-broad-and-off-subregion-biased
#5
M Morgan Taylor, Madineh Sedigh-Sarvestani, Leif Vigeland, Larry A Palmer, Diego Contreras
Inhibition in thalamorecipient layer 4 simple cells of primary visual cortex is believed to play important roles in establishing visual response properties and integrating visual inputs across their receptive fields (RFs). Simple cell RFs are characterized by non-overlapping, spatially restricted subregions in which visual stimuli can either increase or decrease the cell's firing rate, depending on contrast. Inhibition is believed to be triggered exclusively from visual stimulation of individual RF subregions...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184199/thalamic-inhibition-regulates-critical-period-plasticity-in-visual-cortex-and-thalamus
#6
Jean-Pierre Sommeijer, Mehran Ahmadlou, M Hadi Saiepour, Koen Seignette, Rogier Min, J Alexander Heimel, Christiaan N Levelt
During critical periods of development, experience shapes cortical circuits, resulting in the acquisition of functions used throughout life. The classic example of critical-period plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, which optimizes binocular vision but can reduce the responsiveness of the primary visual cortex (V1) to an eye providing low-grade visual input. The onset of the critical period of OD plasticity involves the maturation of inhibitory synapses within V1, specifically those containing the GABAA receptor α1 subunit...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175956/the-mouse-pulvinar-nucleus-links-the-lateral-extrastriate-cortex-striatum-and-amygdala
#7
N Zhou, S P Masterson, J K Damron, W Guido, M E Bickford
The pulvinar nucleus is a large thalamic structure involved in the integration of visual and motor signals. The pulvinar forms extensive connections with striate and extrastriate cortical areas, but the impact of these connections on cortical circuits has not previously been directly tested. Using a variety of anatomical, optogenetic, and in vitro physiological techniques in male and female mice, we show that pulvinocortical terminals are densely distributed in the extrastriate cortex where they form synaptic connections with spines and small diameter dendrites...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160952/transit-time-mapping-in-the-mouse-brain-using-time-encoded-pcasl
#8
Lydiane Hirschler, Leon P Munting, Artem Khmelinskii, Wouter M Teeuwisse, Ernst Suidgeest, Jan M Warnking, Louise van der Weerd, Emmanuel L Barbier, Matthias J P van Osch
The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a potential biomarker for neurological disease. However, the arterial transit time (ATT) of the labeled blood is known to potentially affect CBF quantification. Furthermore, ATT could be an interesting biomarker in itself, as it may reflect underlying macro- and microvascular pathologies. Currently, no optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence exists to measure ATT in mice. Recently, time-encoded labeling schemes have been implemented in rats and humans, enabling ATT mapping with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and shorter scan time than multi-delay arterial spin labeling (ASL)...
November 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157313/calpain-5-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-eye-and-brain
#9
Kellie Schaefer, MaryAnn Mahajan, Anuradha Gore, Stephen H Tsang, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize CAPN5 gene expression in the mouse central nervous system. Mouse brain and eye sections were probed with two high-affinity RNA oligonucleotide analogs designed to bind CAPN5 RNA and one scramble, control oligonucleotide. Images were captured in brightfield. RESULTS: CAPN5 RNA probes were validated on mouse breast cancer tumor tissue. In the eye, CAPN5 was expressed in the ganglion cell, inner nuclear and outer nuclear layers of the retina...
November 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145823/dbmdega-a-database-for-meta-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Shuyun Zhang, Libin Deng, Qiyue Jia, Shaoting Huang, Junwang Gu, Fankun Zhou, Meng Gao, Xinyi Sun, Chang Feng, Guangqin Fan
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are hereditary, heterogeneous and biologically complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Individual studies on gene expression in ASD cannot provide clear consensus conclusions. Therefore, a systematic review to synthesize the current findings from brain tissues and a search tool to share the meta-analysis results are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain gene expression profiles in the current reported human ASD expression datasets (with 84 frozen male cortex samples, 17 female cortex samples, 32 cerebellum samples and 4 formalin fixed samples) and knock-out mouse ASD model expression datasets (with 80 collective brain samples)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118195/binocular-deprivation-induces-both-age-dependent-and-age-independent-forms-of-plasticity-in-parvalbumin-inhibitory-neuron-visual-response-properties
#11
Berquin D Feese, Diego E Pafundo, Meredith N Schmehl, Sandra J Kuhlman
Activity of cortical inhibitory interneurons is rapidly reduced in response to monocular deprivation during the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity and in response to salient events encountered during learning. In the case of primary sensory cortex, a decrease in mean evoked firing rate of parvalbumin-positive (PV) inhibitory neurons is causally linked to a reorganization of excitatory networks following sensory perturbation. Converging evidence indicates that it is deprivation, and not an imbalance between open and closed eye inputs, that triggers rapid plasticity in PV neurons...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110094/mapping-gpr88-venus-illuminates-a-novel-role-for-gpr88-in-sensory-processing
#12
Aliza T Ehrlich, Meriem Semache, Julie Bailly, Stefan Wojcik, Tanzil M Arefin, Christine Colley, Christian Le Gouill, Florence Gross, Viktoriya Lukasheva, Mireille Hogue, Emmanuel Darcq, Laura-Adela Harsan, Michel Bouvier, Brigitte L Kieffer
GPR88 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor originally characterized as a striatal-enriched transcript and is a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders. At present, gene knockout studies in the mouse have essentially focused on striatal-related functions and a comprehensive knowledge of GPR88 protein distribution and function in the brain is still lacking. Here, we first created Gpr88-Venus knock-in mice expressing a functional fluorescent receptor to fine-map GPR88 localization in the brain. The receptor protein was detected in neuronal soma, fibers and primary cilia depending on the brain region, and remarkably, whole-brain mapping revealed a yet unreported layer-4 cortical lamination pattern specifically in sensory processing areas...
November 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107520/deprivation-induced-homeostatic-spine-scaling-in%C3%A2-vivo-is-localized-to-dendritic-branches-that-have-undergone-recent-spine-loss
#13
Samuel J Barnes, Eleonora Franzoni, R Irene Jacobsen, Ferenc Erdelyi, Gabor Szabo, Claudia Clopath, Georg B Keller, Tara Keck
Synaptic scaling is a key homeostatic plasticity mechanism and is thought to be involved in the regulation of cortical activity levels. Here we investigated the spatial scale of homeostatic changes in spine size following sensory deprivation in a subset of inhibitory (layer 2/3 GAD65-positive) and excitatory (layer 5 Thy1-positive) neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using repeated in vivo two-photon imaging, we find that increases in spine size are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) dependent and thus are likely associated with synaptic scaling...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106504/parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-regulate-neuronal-ensembles-in-visual-cortex
#14
Masakazu Agetsuma, Jordan P Hamm, Kentaro Tao, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa, Rafael Yuste
For efficient cortical processing, neural circuit dynamics must be spatially and temporally regulated with great precision. Although parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons can control network synchrony, it remains unclear how they contribute to spatio-temporal patterning of activity. We investigated this by optogenetic inactivation of PV cells with simultaneous two-photon Ca2+ imaging from populations of neurons in mouse visual cortex in vivo. For both spontaneous and visually evoked activity, PV interneuron inactivation decreased network synchrony...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073219/environmental-enrichment-accelerates-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-mouse-visual-cortex-whereas-transfer-to-standard-cages-resulted-in-a-rapid-loss-of-increased-plasticity
#15
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Siegrid Löwel
In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) rapidly declines with age: in postnatal day 25-35 (critical period) mice, 4 days of monocular deprivation (MD) are sufficient to induce OD-shifts towards the open eye; thereafter, 7 days of MD are needed. Beyond postnatal day 110, even 14 days of MD failed to induce OD-plasticity in mouse V1. In contrast, mice raised in a so-called "enriched environment" (EE), exhibit lifelong OD-plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060068/imaging-of-population-spikes-induced-by-repetitive-stimulus-pulses-in-mouse-cerebral-slices-in-vitro
#16
Tomohiro Nomoto, Yuta Tanaka, Yuki Hayashida, Tetsuya Yagi
Effects of the repetitive current pulses of microstimulation on spatio-temporal neuronal excitations in the primary visual cortex in mouse cerebral slices in vitro were examined by utilizing the voltage-sensitive dye imaging technique. The amplitude and spatial extent of the population spike directly induced by the stimulus pulse was significantly reduced in response to successive stimulus pulses at 200 Hz. This suggested that the high-frequency microstimulation may not be efficient for inducing the neuronal spiking, at least, in vitro...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033205/differential-regulation-of-evoked-and-spontaneous-release-by-presynaptic-nmda-receptors
#17
Therése Abrahamsson, Christina You Chien Chou, Si Ying Li, Adamo Mancino, Rui Ponte Costa, Jennifer Anne Brock, Erin Nuro, Katherine Anne Buchanan, Dale Elgar, Arne Vladimir Blackman, Adam Tudor-Jones, Julia Oyrer, William Todd Farmer, Keith Kazuo Murai, Per Jesper Sjöström
Presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) control synaptic release, but it is not well understood how. Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs) provide scaffolding at presynaptic active zones and are involved in vesicle priming. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in regulation of spontaneous release. We demonstrate that, at connected layer 5 pyramidal cell pairs of developing mouse visual cortex, Mg(2+)-sensitive preNMDAR signaling upregulates replenishment of the readily releasable vesicle pool during high-frequency firing...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031852/inhibition-of-cdk5-rejuvenates-inhibitory-circuits-and-restores-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-adult-visual-cortex
#18
Yue Li, Laijian Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Mengyao Huang, Sitong Li, Xinxing Wang, Lin Chen, Bin Jiang, Yupeng Yang
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) acts as an essential modulator for neural development and neurological disorders. Here we show that Cdk5 plays a pivotal role in modulating GABAergic signaling and the maturation of visual system. In adult mouse primary visual cortex, Cdk5 formed complex with the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase GAD67, but not with GAD65. In addition to enhancement in the surface level of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, inhibition of Cdk5 reduced the protein levels of GADs and Otx2, while leaving intact the expression of vesicular GABA transporter and subunits of GABAA or AMPA receptors...
October 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029071/visual-cortex-limits-pop-out-in-the-superior-colliculus-of-awake-mice
#19
Mehran Ahmadlou, Azadeh Tafreshiha, J Alexander Heimel
We detect objects more readily if they differ from their surroundings in motion, color, or texture. This increased saliency is thought to be related to increased responses in the visual cortex. The superior colliculus is another brain area involved in vision and especially in directing gaze and attention. In this study, we show that differences in texture orientation also increase responses in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that receive retinal and cortical input. We found that gratings evoke more neural response when surrounded by orthogonal gratings than when surrounded by parallel gratings, particularly in the awake mouse...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020625/overproduction-of-neurons-is-correlated-with-enhanced-cortical-ensembles-and-increased-perceptual-discrimination
#20
Wei-Qun Fang, Rafael Yuste
Brains vary greatly in neuronal number and density, even across individuals within the same species, yet it remains unclear whether such variation leads to differences in brain function or behavior. By imaging cortical activity of a mouse model in which neuronal production is moderately enhanced in utero, we find that animals with more cortical neurons also develop enhanced functional correlations and more distinct neuronal ensembles in primary visual cortex. These mice also have sharper orientation discrimination in their visual behavior...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
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