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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033205/differential-regulation-of-evoked-and-spontaneous-release-by-presynaptic-nmda-receptors
#1
Therése Abrahamsson, Christina You Chien Chou, Si Ying Li, Adamo Mancino, Rui Ponte Costa, Jennifer Anne Brock, Erin Nuro, Katherine Anne Buchanan, Dale Elgar, Arne Vladimir Blackman, Adam Tudor-Jones, Julia Oyrer, William Todd Farmer, Keith Kazuo Murai, Per Jesper Sjöström
Presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) control synaptic release, but it is not well understood how. Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs) provide scaffolding at presynaptic active zones and are involved in vesicle priming. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in regulation of spontaneous release. We demonstrate that, at connected layer 5 pyramidal cell pairs of developing mouse visual cortex, Mg(2+)-sensitive preNMDAR signaling upregulates replenishment of the readily releasable vesicle pool during high-frequency firing...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031852/inhibition-of-cdk5-rejuvenates-inhibitory-circuits-and-restores-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-adult-visual-cortex
#2
Yue Li, Laijian Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Mengyao Huang, Sitong Li, Xinxing Wang, Lin Chen, Bin Jiang, Yupeng Yang
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) acts as an essential modulator for neural development and neurological disorders. Here we show that Cdk5 plays a pivotal role in modulating GABAergic signaling and the maturation of visual system. In adult mouse primary visual cortex, Cdk5 formed complex with the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase GAD67, but not with GAD65. In addition to enhancement in the surface level of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, inhibition of Cdk5 reduced the protein levels of GADs and Otx2, while leaving intact the expression of vesicular GABA transporter and subunits of GABAA or AMPA receptors...
October 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029071/visual-cortex-limits-pop-out-in-the-superior-colliculus-of-awake-mice
#3
Mehran Ahmadlou, Azadeh Tafreshiha, J Alexander Heimel
We detect objects more readily if they differ from their surroundings in motion, color, or texture. This increased saliency is thought to be related to increased responses in the visual cortex. The superior colliculus is another brain area involved in vision and especially in directing gaze and attention. In this study, we show that differences in texture orientation also increase responses in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that receive retinal and cortical input. We found that gratings evoke more neural response when surrounded by orthogonal gratings than when surrounded by parallel gratings, particularly in the awake mouse...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020625/overproduction-of-neurons-is-correlated-with-enhanced-cortical-ensembles-and-increased-perceptual-discrimination
#4
Wei-Qun Fang, Rafael Yuste
Brains vary greatly in neuronal number and density, even across individuals within the same species, yet it remains unclear whether such variation leads to differences in brain function or behavior. By imaging cortical activity of a mouse model in which neuronal production is moderately enhanced in utero, we find that animals with more cortical neurons also develop enhanced functional correlations and more distinct neuronal ensembles in primary visual cortex. These mice also have sharper orientation discrimination in their visual behavior...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979189/uncorrelated-neural-firing-in-mouse-visual-cortex-during-spontaneous-retinal-waves
#5
Matthew T Colonnese, Jing Shen, Yasunobu Murata
Synchronous firing among the elements of forming circuits is critical for stabilization of synapses. Understanding the nature of these local network interactions during development can inform models of circuit formation. Within cortex, spontaneous activity changes throughout development. Unlike the adult, early spontaneous activity occurs in discontinuous population bursts separated by long silent periods, suggesting a high degree of local synchrony. However, whether the micro-patterning of activity within early bursts is unique to this early age and specifically tuned for early development is poorly understood, particularly within the column...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966979/developmental-disruption-of-gabaar-meditated-inhibition-in-cntnap2-ko-mice
#6
Morgan S Bridi, Su Mi Park, Shiyong Huang
GABA released from presynaptic sites induces short-lived phasic inhibition mediated by synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and longer-duration tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA or GABAB receptors (GABABRs). A number of studies have found that contactin-associated protein 2 (Cntnap2) knockout (KO) mice, a well-established mouse model of autism, exhibit reduced interneuron numbers and aberrant phasic inhibition. However, little is known about whether tonic inhibition is disrupted in Cntnap2 KO mice and when the disruption of inhibition begins to occur during postnatal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965507/thalamocortical-processing-in-vision
#7
Reece Mazade, Jose Manuel Alonso
Visual information reaches the cerebral cortex through a major thalamocortical pathway that connects the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus with the primary visual area of the cortex (area V1). In humans, ∼3.4 million afferents from the LGN are distributed within a V1 surface of ∼2400 mm2, an afferent number that is reduced by half in the macaque and by more than two orders of magnitude in the mouse. Thalamocortical afferents are sorted in visual cortex based on the spatial position of their receptive fields to form a map of visual space...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965501/organization-of-the-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-in-the-mouse
#8
Daniel Kerschensteiner, William Guido
The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus is the principal conduit for visual information from retina to visual cortex. Viewed initially as a simple relay, recent studies in the mouse reveal far greater complexity in the way input from the retina is combined, transmitted, and processed in dLGN. Here we consider the structural and functional organization of the mouse retinogeniculate pathway by examining the patterns of retinal projections to dLGN and how they converge onto thalamocortical neurons to shape the flow of visual information to visual cortex...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951447/experience-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-v1-occurs-without-microglial-cx3cr1
#9
Rachel W Schecter, Erin E Maher, Christina A Welsh, Beth Stevens, Alev Erisir, Mark F Bear
Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) and reduces the density of thalamic synapses in layer 4 of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We found that microglial lysosome content is also increased as a result of MD. Previous studies have shown that the microglial fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is involved in synaptic development and hippocampal plasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that neuron-to-microglial communication via CX3CR1 is an essential component of visual cortical development and plasticity in male mice...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931608/non-uniform-surround-suppression-of-visual-responses-in-mouse-v1
#10
Jason M Samonds, Berquin D Feese, Tai Sing Lee, Sandra Kuhlman
Complex receptive field characteristics, distributed across a population of neurons, are thought to be critical for solving perceptual inference problems that arise during motion and image segmentation. For example, in a class of neurons referred to as 'end-stopped', increasing the length of stimuli outside of the bar-responsive region into the surround suppresses responsiveness. It is unknown whether these properties exist for receptive field surrounds in the mouse. We examined surround modulation in layer 2/3 neurons of the primary visual cortex in mice using two-photon calcium imaging...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924236/in-vivo-mouse-and-live-cell-sted-microscopy-of-neuronal-actin-plasticity-using-far-red-emitting-fluorescent-proteins
#11
Waja Wegner, Peter Ilgen, Carola Gregor, Joris van Dort, Alexander C Mott, Heinz Steffens, Katrin I Willig
The study of proteins in dendritic processes within the living brain is mainly hampered by the diffraction limit of light. STED microscopy is so far the only far-field light microscopy technique to overcome the diffraction limit and resolve dendritic spine plasticity at superresolution (nanoscopy) in the living mouse. After having tested several far-red fluorescent proteins in cell culture we report here STED microscopy of the far-red fluorescent protein mNeptune2, which showed best results for our application to superresolve actin filaments at a resolution of ~80 nm, and to observe morphological changes of actin in the cortex of a living mouse...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924011/contralateral-bias-of-high-spatial-frequency-tuning-and-cardinal-direction-selectivity-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#12
Kirstie J Salinas, Dario X Figueroa Velez, Jack H Zeitoun, Hyungtae Kim, Sunil P Gandhi
Binocular mechanisms for visual processing are thought to enhance spatial acuity by combining matched input from the two eyes. Studies in the primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates have confirmed that eye-specific neuronal response properties are largely matched. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a prominent model for binocular visual processing, yet little is known about the spatial frequency tuning of binocular responses in mouse visual cortex. Using calcium imaging in awake mice of both sexes, we show that the spatial frequency preference of cortical responses to the contralateral eye is ∼35% higher than responses to the ipsilateral eye...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918300/dynamical-properties-of-lfps-from-mice-with-unilateral-injection-of-tent
#13
Eleonora Vannini, Matteo Caleo, Santi Chillemi, Angelo Di Garbo
Local field potential (LFP) recordings were performed from the visual cortex (V1) of a focal epilepsy mouse model. Epilepsy was induced by a unilateral injection of the synaptic blocker tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). LFP signals were simultaneously recorded from V1 of both hemispheres of each animal under acute and chronic conditions (i.e. during and after the period of TeNT action). All data were analysed by using nonlinear time series methods. Suitable values of the lag time and embedding dimension for phase space reconstruction were estimated by employing well-known methods...
September 13, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#14
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910624/a-sensorimotor-circuit-in-mouse-cortex-for-visual-flow-predictions
#15
Marcus Leinweber, Daniel R Ward, Jan M Sobczak, Alexander Attinger, Georg B Keller
The cortex is organized as a hierarchical processing structure. Feedback from higher levels of the hierarchy, known as top-down signals, have been shown to be involved in attentional and contextual modulation of sensory responses. Here we argue that top-down input to the primary visual cortex (V1) from A24b and the adjacent secondary motor cortex (M2) signals a prediction of visual flow based on motor output. A24b/M2 sends a dense and topographically organized projection to V1 that targets most neurons in layer 2/3...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893999/cortically-coordinated-nrem-thalamocortical-oscillations-play-an-essential-instructive-role-in-visual-system-plasticity
#16
Jaclyn Durkin, Aneesha K Suresh, Julie Colbath, Christopher Broussard, Jiaxing Wu, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Two long-standing questions in neuroscience are how sleep promotes brain plasticity and why some forms of plasticity occur preferentially during sleep vs. wake. Establishing causal relationships between specific features of sleep (e.g., network oscillations) and sleep-dependent plasticity has been difficult. Here we demonstrate that presentation of a novel visual stimulus (a single oriented grating) causes immediate, instructive changes in the firing of mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons, leading to increased firing-rate responses to the presented stimulus orientation (relative to other orientations)...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884467/cre-expressing-neurons-in-visual-cortex-of-ntsr1-cre-gn220-mice-are-corticothalamic-and-are-depolarized-by-acetylcholine
#17
Sofie Charlotte Sundberg, Sarah Helen Lindström, Gonzalo Manuel Sanchez, Björn Granseth
The Ntsr1-Cre GN220 mouse expresses Cre-recombinase in corticothalamic (CT) neurons in neocortical layer 6. It is not known if the other major types of pyramidal neurons in this layer also express this enzyme. By electrophysiological recordings in slices and histological analysis of the uptake of retrogradely transported beads we show that Cre-positive neurons are corticothalamic and not corticocortical or cortico-claustral types. Furthermore, we show that Ntsr1-Cre-positive cells are immuno-positive for the nuclear transcription factor Forkhead box protein P2 (FoxP2)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878631/a-laminar-organization-for-selective-cortico-cortical-communication
#18
REVIEW
Rinaldo D D'Souza, Andreas Burkhalter
The neocortex is central to mammalian cognitive ability, playing critical roles in sensory perception, motor skills and executive function. This thin, layered structure comprises distinct, functionally specialized areas that communicate with each other through the axons of pyramidal neurons. For the hundreds of such cortico-cortical pathways to underlie diverse functions, their cellular and synaptic architectures must differ so that they result in distinct computations at the target projection neurons. In what ways do these pathways differ? By originating and terminating in different laminae, and by selectively targeting specific populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, these "interareal" pathways can differentially control the timing and strength of synaptic inputs onto individual neurons, resulting in layer-specific computations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877482/high-yield-methods-for-accurate-two-alternative-visual-psychophysics-in-head-fixed-mice
#19
Christopher P Burgess, Armin Lak, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Peter Zatka-Haas, Charu Bai Reddy, Elina A K Jacobs, Jennifer F Linden, Joseph J Paton, Adam Ranson, Sylvia Schröder, Sofia Soares, Miles J Wells, Lauren E Wool, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Research in neuroscience increasingly relies on the mouse, a mammalian species that affords unparalleled genetic tractability and brain atlases. Here, we introduce high-yield methods for probing mouse visual decisions. Mice are head-fixed, facilitating repeatable visual stimulation, eye tracking, and brain access. They turn a steering wheel to make two alternative choices, forced or unforced. Learning is rapid thanks to intuitive coupling of stimuli to wheel position. The mouse decisions deliver high-quality psychometric curves for detection and discrimination and conform to the predictions of a simple probabilistic observer model...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875930/light-reintroduction-after-dark-exposure-reactivates-plasticity-in-adults-via-perisynaptic-activation-of-mmp-9
#20
Sachiko Murase, Crystal L Lantz, Elizabeth M Quinlan
The sensitivity of ocular dominance to regulation by monocular deprivation is the canonical model of plasticity confined to a critical period. However, we have previously shown that visual deprivation through dark exposure (DE) reactivates critical period plasticity in adults. Previous work assumed that the elimination of visual input was sufficient to enhance plasticity in the adult mouse visual cortex. In contrast, here we show that light reintroduction (LRx) after DE is responsible for the reactivation of plasticity...
September 6, 2017: ELife
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