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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458067/fluctuations-of-extracellular-glucose-and-lactate-in-the-mouse-primary-visual-cortex-during-visual-stimulation
#1
Alexandria Béland-Millar, Claude Messier
We measured the extracellular glucose and lactate in the primary visual cortex in the CD-1 mouse using electrochemical electrodes. To gain some additional information on brain metabolism, we examined the impact of systemic injections of lactate and fructose on the brain extracellular glucose and lactate changes observed during visual stimulation. We found that simple stimulation using a flashlight produced a decrease in visual cortex extracellular glucose and an increase in extracellular lactate. Similar results were observed following visual stimulation with an animated movie without soundtrack or the presentation of a novel object...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440554/visual-information-present-in-infragranular-layers-of-mouse-auditory-cortex
#2
Ryan J Morrill, Andrea R Hasenstaub
The cerebral cortex is a major hub for the convergence and integration of signals from across the sensory modalities; sensory cortices, including primary regions, are no exception. Here we show that visual stimuli influence neural firing in the auditory cortex of awake male and female mice, using multisite probes to sample single-units across multiple cortical layers. We demonstrate that visual stimuli influence firing in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. We then determine the laminar location of recording sites through electrode track tracing with fluorescent dye and optogenetic identification using layer-specific markers...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430585/dendritic-cell-factor-1-knockout-results-in-visual-deficit-through-the-gaba-system-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#3
Jieyun Shi, Qian Li, Tieqiao Wen
The visual system plays an important role in our daily life. In this study, we found that loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) in the primary visual cortex (V1) caused a sight deficit in mice and induced an abnormal increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma aminobutyric acid and CO2, particularly in layer 5. In vivo electrophysiological recordings confirmed a decrease in delta, theta, and beta oscillation power in DCF1-knockout mice. This study presents a previously unknown function of DCF1 in V1, suggests an unknown contact between DCF1 and GABA systems, and provides insight into the mechanism and treatment of visual deficits...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427808/adaptive-optical-microscopy-for-neurobiology
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Rodríguez, Na Ji
With the ability to correct for the aberrations introduced by biological specimens, adaptive optics-a method originally developed for astronomical telescopes-has been applied to optical microscopy to recover diffraction-limited imaging performance deep within living tissue. In particular, this technology has been used to improve image quality and provide a more accurate characterization of both structure and function of neurons in a variety of living organisms. Among its many highlights, adaptive optical microscopy has made it possible to image large volumes with diffraction-limited resolution in zebrafish larval brains, to resolve dendritic spines over 600μm deep in the mouse brain, and to more accurately characterize the orientation tuning properties of thalamic boutons in the primary visual cortex of awake mice...
February 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414938/teneurin-3-controls-topographic-circuit-assembly-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Dominic S Berns, Laura A DeNardo, Daniel T Pederick, Liqun Luo
Brain functions rely on specific patterns of connectivity. Teneurins are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that instruct synaptic partner matching in Drosophila and are required for vertebrate visual system development. The roles of vertebrate teneurins in connectivity beyond the visual system remain largely unknown and their mechanisms of action have not been demonstrated. Here we show that mouse teneurin-3 is expressed in multiple topographically interconnected areas of the hippocampal region, including proximal CA1, distal subiculum, and medial entorhinal cortex...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412138/simultaneous-two-photon-optogenetics-and-imaging-of-cortical-circuits-in-three-dimensions
#6
Weijian Yang, Luis Carrillo-Reid, Yuki Bando, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
The simultaneously imaging and manipulating of neural activity in three-dimensions could enable the functional dissection of neural circuits. Here we have combined two-photon optogenetics with simultaneous volumetric two-photon calcium imaging to manipulate neural activity in mouse neocortex in vivo in 3D, while maintaining cellular resolution. Using a hybrid holographic approach, we simultaneously photostimulate more than 80 neurons over 150 μm in depth in cortical layer 2/3 from mouse visual cortex. We validate the usefulness of the microscope by photoactivating in 3D selected groups of interneurons, suppressing the response of nearby pyramidal neurons to visual stimuli...
February 7, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404932/neuronal-activities-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex-predict-patterns-of-sensory-stimuli
#7
Lei Cai, Bian Wu, Shuiwang Ji
Visual cortex forms the basis of visual processing and plays important roles in visual encoding. By using the recently published Allen Brain Observatory dataset consisting of large-scale calcium imaging of mouse V1 activities under visual stimuli, we were able to obtain high-quality data capturing simultaneous neuronal activities at multiple sub-areas and cortical depths of V1. Using prediction models, we analyzed the activity profiles related to static and drifting grating stimuli. We conducted a comprehensive survey of the coding ability of multiple cortical locations toward different stimulus attributes...
February 5, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379877/long-term-visual-training-increases-visual-acuity-and-long-term-monocular-deprivation-promotes-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-adult-standard-cage-raised-mice
#8
Leon Hosang, Rashad Yusifov, Siegrid Löwel
For routine behavioral tasks, mice predominantly rely on olfactory cues and tactile information. In contrast, their visual capabilities appear rather restricted, raising the question whether they can improve if vision gets more behaviorally relevant. We therefore performed long-term training using the visual water task (VWT): adult standard cage (SC)-raised mice were trained to swim toward a rewarded grating stimulus so that using visual information avoided excessive swimming toward nonrewarded stimuli. Indeed, and in contrast to old mice raised in a generally enriched environment (Greifzu et al...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372324/transient-and-localized-optogenetic-activation-of-somatostatin-interneurons-in-mouse-visual-cortex-abolishes-long-term-cortical-plasticity-due-to-vision-loss
#9
Isabelle Scheyltjens, Samme Vreysen, Chris Van den Haute, Victor Sabanov, Detlef Balschun, Veerle Baekelandt, Lutgarde Arckens
Unilateral vision loss through monocular enucleation (ME) results in partial reallocation of visual cortical territory to another sense in adult mice. The functional recovery of the visual cortex occurs through a combination of spared-eye potentiation and cross-modal reactivation driven by whisker-related, somatosensory inputs. Brain region-specific intracortical inhibition was recently recognized as a crucial regulator of the cross-modal component, yet the contribution of specific inhibitory neuron subpopulations remains poorly understood...
January 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358739/mice-use-robust-and-common-strategies-to-discriminate-natural-scenes
#10
Yiyi Yu, Riichiro Hira, Jeffrey N Stirman, Waylin Yu, Ikuko T Smith, Spencer L Smith
Mice use vision to navigate and avoid predators in natural environments. However, their visual systems are compact compared to other mammals, and it is unclear how well mice can discriminate ethologically relevant scenes. Here, we examined natural scene discrimination in mice using an automated touch-screen system. We estimated the discrimination difficulty using the computational metric structural similarity (SSIM), and constructed psychometric curves. However, the performance of each mouse was better predicted by the mean performance of other mice than SSIM...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357122/adaptation-to-stimulus-orientation-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#11
Jillian L King, Nathan A Crowder
Information processing in the visual system is shaped by recent stimulus history, such that prolonged viewing of an adapting stimulus can alter the perception of subsequently presented test stimuli. In the tilt-after-effect, the perceived orientation of a grating is often repelled away from the orientation of a previously viewed adapting grating. A possible neural correlate for the tilt-after-effect has been described in cat and macaque primary visual cortex (V1), where adaptation produces repulsive shifts in the orientation tuning curves of V1 neurons...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346758/size-dependent-axonal-bouton-dynamics-following-visual-deprivation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324900/internal-carotid-artery-stenosis-a-novel-surgical-model-for-moyamoya-syndrome
#13
Jill M Roberts, Michael E Maniskas, Justin F Fraser, Gregory J Bix
Moyamoya is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. There are two forms: Disease and Syndrome, with each characterized by the sub-population it affects. Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is more prominent in adults in their 20's-40's, and is often associated with autoimmune diseases. Currently, there are no surgical models for inducing moyamoya syndrome, so our aim was to develop a new animal model to study this relatively unknown cerebrovascular disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317733/in-vivo-sted-microscopy-visualizes-psd95-sub-structures-and-morphological-changes-over-several-hours-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#14
Waja Wegner, Alexander C Mott, Seth G N Grant, Heinz Steffens, Katrin I Willig
The post-synaptic density (PSD) is an electron dense region consisting of ~1000 proteins, found at the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses, which varies in size depending upon synaptic strength. PSD95 is an abundant scaffolding protein in the PSD and assembles a family of supercomplexes comprised of neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, as well as signalling and structural proteins. We use superresolution STED (STimulated Emission Depletion) nanoscopy to determine the size and shape of PSD95 in the anaesthetised mouse visual cortex...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313982/layer-specific-e-i-balances-during-neuronal-synchronization-in-the-visual-cortex
#15
Hillel Adesnik
Rhythmic activity can synchronize neural ensembles within and across cortical layers. While gamma band rhythmicity has been observed in all layers, the laminar sources and functional impacts of neuronal synchronization in the cortex remain incompletely understood. Here, layer-specific optogenetic stimulation demonstrates that populations of excitatory neurons in any cortical layer of the mouse's primary visual cortex are sufficient to powerfully entrain neuronal oscillations in the gamma band. Within each layer, inhibition balances excitation and keeps activity in check...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306053/cd38-is-required-for-dendritic-organisation-in-visual-cortex-and-hippocampus
#16
Thom P Nelissen, Rosemary A Bamford, Shiro Tochitani, Kamuran Akkus, Aurimas Kudzinskas, Kenichiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, J Peter H Burbach, Hideo Matsuzaki, Asami Oguro-Ando
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioural deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behaviour. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioural phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behaviour. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and these behavioural phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioural phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276127/feature-specific-organization-of-feedback-pathways-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#17
Carey Y L Huh, John P Peach, Corbett Bennett, Roxana M Vega, Shaul Hestrin
Higher and lower cortical areas in the visual hierarchy are reciprocally connected [1]. Although much is known about how feedforward pathways shape receptive field properties of visual neurons, relatively little is known about the role of feedback pathways in visual processing. Feedback pathways are thought to carry top-down signals, including information about context (e.g., figure-ground segmentation and surround suppression) [2-5], and feedback has been demonstrated to sharpen orientation tuning of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) [6, 7]...
December 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249941/correlating-anatomy-and-function-with-gene-expression-in-individual-neurons-by-combining-in-vivo-labeling-patch-clamp-and-single-cell-rna-seq
#18
Carsten K Pfeffer, Riccardo Beltramo
The classification of neurons into distinct types is an ongoing effort aimed at revealing and understanding the diversity of the components of the nervous system. Recently available methods allow us to determine the gene expression pattern of individual neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex to generate powerful categorization schemes. For a thorough understanding of neuronal diversity such genetic categorization schemes need to be combined with traditional classification parameters like position, axonal projection or response properties to sensory stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240769/specific-excitatory-connectivity-for-feature-integration-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#19
Dylan R Muir, Patricia Molina-Luna, Morgane M Roth, Fritjof Helmchen, Björn M Kampa
Local excitatory connections in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) are stronger and more prevalent between neurons that share similar functional response features. However, the details of how functional rules for local connectivity shape neuronal responses in V1 remain unknown. We hypothesised that complex responses to visual stimuli may arise as a consequence of rules for selective excitatory connectivity within the local network in the superficial layers of mouse V1. In mouse V1 many neurons respond to overlapping grating stimuli (plaid stimuli) with highly selective and facilitatory responses, which are not simply predicted by responses to single gratings presented alone...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234064/homeostatic-plasticity-and-synaptic-scaling-in-the-adult-mouse-auditory-cortex
#20
Manuel Teichert, Lutz Liebmann, Christian A Hübner, Jürgen Bolz
It has been demonstrated that sensory deprivation results in homeostatic adjustments recovering neuronal activity of the deprived cortex. For example, deprived vision multiplicatively scales up mEPSC amplitudes in the primary visual cortex, commonly referred to as synaptic scaling. However, whether synaptic scaling also occurs in auditory cortex after auditory deprivation remains elusive. Using periodic intrinsic optical imaging in adult mice, we show that conductive hearing loss (CHL), initially led to a reduction of primary auditory cortex (A1) responsiveness to sounds...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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