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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#1
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917138/neural-elements-for-predictive-coding
#2
REVIEW
Stewart Shipp
Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many 'illusory' instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#3
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908798/platelets-are-responsible-for-the-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-blood-clots-inside-and-around-blood-vessels-in-mouse-brain-after-thrombosis
#4
Lilia Y Kucheryavykh, Josué Dávila-Rodríguez, David E Rivera-Aponte, Lidia V Zueva, A Valance Washington, Priscilla Sanabria, Mikhail Y Inyushin
INTRODUCTION: Platelets contain beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ peptide (Aβ) that can be released upon activation. During thrombosis, platelets are concentrated in clots and activated. METHODS: We used in vivo fluorescent analysis and electron microscopy in mice to determine to what degree platelets are concentrated in clots. We used immunostaining to visualize Aβ after photothrombosis in mouse brains. RESULTS: Both in vivo results and electron microscopy revealed that platelets were 300-500 times more concentrated in clots than in non-clotted blood...
November 28, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906169/automated-identification-of-mouse-visual-areas-with-intrinsic-signal-imaging
#5
Ashley L Juavinett, Ian Nauhaus, Marina E Garrett, Jun Zhuang, Edward M Callaway
Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISI) is a rapid and noninvasive method for observing brain activity in vivo over a large area of the cortex. Here we describe our protocol for mapping retinotopy to identify mouse visual cortical areas using ISI. First, surgery is performed to attach a head frame to the mouse skull (∼1 h). The next day, intrinsic activity across the visual cortex is recorded during the presentation of a full-field drifting bar in the horizontal and vertical directions (∼2 h). Horizontal and vertical retinotopic maps are generated by analyzing the response of each pixel during the period of the stimulus...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#6
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903724/a-comparison-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-awake-and-anesthetized-mice
#7
Séverine Durand, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Kenji Mizuseki, Saskia de Vries, Stefan Mihalas, R Clay Reid
: The cerebral cortex of the mouse has become one of the most important systems for studying information processing and the neural correlates of behavior. Multiple studies have examined the first stages of visual cortical processing: primary visual cortex (V1) and its thalamic inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but more rarely in the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in mice. Multiple single-unit surveys of dLGN and V1, both with electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging, have described receptive fields in anesthetized animals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891053/h3-and-h4-lysine-acetylation-correlates-with-developmental-and-experimentally-induced-adult-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#8
Gabriela Vierci, Bruno Pannunzio, Natalia Bornia, Francesco M Rossi
Histone posttranslational modifications play a fundamental role in orchestrating gene expression. In this work, we analyzed the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones (AcH3-AcH4) and its modulation by visual experience in the mouse visual cortex (VC) during normal development and in two experimental conditions that restore juvenile-like plasticity levels in adults (fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment). We found that AcH3-AcH4 declines with age and is upregulated by treatments restoring plasticity in the adult...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878138/measuring-process-dynamics-and-nuclear-migration-for-clones-of-neural-progenitor-cells
#9
Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Mark R Winter, Maria Apostolopoulou, Sally Temple, Andrew R Cohen
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs) generate processes that extend from the cell body in a dynamic manner. The NPC nucleus migrates along these processes with patterns believed to be tightly coupled to mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and cell fate determination. Here, we describe a new segmentation and tracking approach that allows NPC processes and nuclei to be reliably tracked across multiple rounds of cell division in phase-contrast microscopy images. Results are presented for mouse adult and embryonic NPCs from hundreds of clones, or lineage trees, containing tens of thousands of cells and millions of segmentations...
October 2016: Computer Vision—ECCV: European Conference on Computer Vision: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870612/the-population-tracking-model-a-simple-scalable-statistical-model-for-neural-population-data
#10
Cian O'Donnell, J Tiago Gonçalves, Nick Whiteley, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Terrence J Sejnowski
Our understanding of neural population coding has been limited by a lack of analysis methods to characterize spiking data from large populations. The biggest challenge comes from the fact that the number of possible network activity patterns scales exponentially with the number of neurons recorded ([Formula: see text]). Here we introduce a new statistical method for characterizing neural population activity that requires semi-independent fitting of only as many parameters as the square of the number of neurons, requiring drastically smaller data sets and minimal computation time...
November 21, 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864926/synaptic-distribution-of-individually-labeled-mitral-cells-in-the-external-plexiform-layer-of-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#11
Takeshi Matsuno, Emi Kiyokage, Kazunori Toida
Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To better understand output regulation of mitral cells, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, 3D-reconstructed with light microscopy, and serial-sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ≈ 200 µm from the somata), and primary dendrites...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852780/functional-organization-of-flash-induced-v1-offline-reactivation
#12
Kenta Funayama, Nobuhiro Hagura, Hiroshi Ban, Yuji Ikegaya
: The primary visual cortex exhibits a late, long response with a latency of >300 ms and an immediate early response that occurs ∼100 ms after a visual stimulus. The late response is thought to contribute to visual functions such as sensory perception, iconic memory, working memory, and forming connections between temporally separated stimuli. However, how the visual late response is generated and organized is not completely understood. In the mouse primary visual cortex in vivo, we isolated long-delayed responses by using a brief light-flash stimulus for which the stimulus late response occurred long after the stimulus offset and was not contaminated by the instantaneous response evoked by the stimulus...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814574/the-dendritic-tree-a-mathematical-integrator
#13
Lyes Bachatene, Vishal Bharmauria
Neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are sensitive to simple features of the visual scene such as contrast, spatial frequency or orientations. In higher mammals, they are organized into columns of orientation-preference, whereas such organization is absent in rodents. However, in both types of organization, neurons can be highly selective or poorly selective for a particular stimulus. In mouse V1, it has been shown that all stimuli are represented on the dendritic tree of single neurons. To what extent this concept is applicable in higher mammals? In this review, we discuss possible models of integrating visual information from visual cortical neurons...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803650/firing-frequency-maxima-of-fast-spiking-neurons-in-human-monkey-and-mouse-neocortex
#14
Bo Wang, Wei Ke, Jing Guang, Guang Chen, Luping Yin, Suixin Deng, Quansheng He, Yaping Liu, Ting He, Rui Zheng, Yanbo Jiang, Xiaoxue Zhang, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan, Haidong D Lu, Mingsha Zhang, Xiaohui Zhang, Yousheng Shu
Cortical fast-spiking (FS) neurons generate high-frequency action potentials (APs) without apparent frequency accommodation, thus providing fast and precise inhibition. However, the maximal firing frequency that they can reach, particularly in primate neocortex, remains unclear. Here, by recording in human, monkey, and mouse neocortical slices, we revealed that FS neurons in human association cortices (mostly temporal) could generate APs at a maximal mean frequency (Fmean) of 338 Hz and a maximal instantaneous frequency (Finst) of 453 Hz, and they increase with age...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798184/connectional-modularity-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-multimodal-inputs-to-the-lateral-cortex-of-the-mouse-inferior-colliculus
#15
Alexandria M H Lesicko, Teodora S Hristova, Kathleen C Maigler, Daniel A Llano
: The lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus receives information from both auditory and somatosensory structures and is thought to play a role in multisensory integration. Previous studies in the rat have shown that this nucleus contains a series of distinct anatomical modules that stain for GAD-67 as well as other neurochemical markers. In the present study, we sought to better characterize these modules in the mouse inferior colliculus and determine whether the connectivity of other neural structures with the lateral cortex is spatially related to the distribution of these neurochemical modules...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798181/nogo-receptor-1-confines-a-disinhibitory-microcircuit-to-the-critical-period-in-visual-cortex
#16
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Taruna Ikrar, Collins Nguyen, Xiangmin Xu, Aaron W McGee
: A characteristic of the developing mammalian visual system is a brief interval of plasticity, termed the "critical period," when the circuitry of primary visual cortex is most sensitive to perturbation of visual experience. Depriving one eye of vision (monocular deprivation [MD]) during the critical period alters ocular dominance (OD) by shifting the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex to favor the nondeprived eye. A disinhibitory microcircuit involving parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons initiates this OD plasticity...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767032/mixed-functional-microarchitectures-for-orientation-selectivity-in-the-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#17
Satoru Kondo, Takashi Yoshida, Kenichi Ohki
A minicolumn is the smallest anatomical module in the cortical architecture, but it is still in debate whether it serves as functional units for cortical processing. In the rodent primary visual cortex (V1), neurons with different preferred orientations are mixed horizontally in a salt and pepper manner, but vertical functional organization was not examined. In this study, we found that neurons with similar orientation preference are weakly but significantly clustered vertically in a short length and horizontally in the scale of a minicolumn...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759175/rabies-virus-mediated-oligodendrocyte-labeling-reveals-a-single-oligodendrocyte-myelinates-axons-from-distinct-brain-regions
#18
Yasuyuki Osanai, Takeshi Shimizu, Takuma Mori, Yumiko Yoshimura, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu, Yoshitaka Kimori, Shinsuke Koyama, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes myelinate neuronal axons during development and increase conduction velocity of neuronal impulses in the central nervous system. Neuronal axons extend from multiple brain regions and pass through the white matter; however, whether oligodendrocytes ensheath a particular set of axons or do so randomly within the mammalian brain remains unclear. We developed a novel method to visualize individual oligodendrocytes and axon derived from a particular brain region in mouse white matter using a combinational injection of attenuated rabies virus and adeno-associated virus...
October 19, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753225/photoacoustic-microscopy-of-electronic-acupuncture-ea-effect-in-small-animals
#19
Jinge Yang, Dan Wu, Yong Tang, Huabei Jiang
Acupuncture has been an effective treatment for various pain in China for several thousand years. However, the mechanisms underlying this mysterious ancient healing are still largely unknown. Here we applied photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to investigate brain hemodynamic changes in response to electronic acupuncture (EA) at ST36 (Zusanli). Due to the high optical absorption of blood at 532 nm, PAM could sensitively probe changes in hemoglobin concentration (HbT, i.e., cerebral blood volume [CBV]) of cortical regions in high resolution...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752542/cell-autonomous-regulation-of-dendritic-spine-density-by-pirb
#20
George S Vidal, Maja Djurisic, Kiana Brown, Richard W Sapp, Carla J Shatz
Synapse density on cortical pyramidal neurons is modulated by experience. This process is highest during developmental critical periods, when mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are fully engaged. In mouse visual cortex, the critical period for ocular dominance (OD) plasticity coincides with the developmental pruning of synapses. At this time, mice lacking paired Ig-like receptor B (PirB) have excess numbers of dendritic spines on L5 neurons; these spines persist and are thought to underlie the juvenile-like OD plasticity observed in adulthood...
September 2016: ENeuro
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