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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916748/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-mediated-inhibition-in-the-central-amygdala-blocks-fear-conditioning
#1
N M Holmes, J W Crane, M Tang, J Fam, R F Westbrook, A J Delaney
The central amygdala is critical for the acquisition and expression of fear memories. This region receives a dense innervation from brainstem noradrenergic cell groups and has a high level of α2-adrenoceptor expression. Using whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from rat brain slices, we characterise the role of pre-synaptic α2-adrenoceptor in modulating discrete inhibitory and excitatory connections within both the lateral and medial division of the central amygdala. The selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine blocked the excitatory input from the pontine parabrachial neurons onto neurons of the lateral central amygdala...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916636/electrophysiological-heterogeneity-of-pacemaker-cells-in-rabbit-intercaval-region-including-sa-node-insights-from-recording-multiple-ion-currents-in-each-cell
#2
Oliver Monfredi, Kenta Tsutsui, Bruce D Ziman, Michael D Stern, Edward G Lakatta, Victor A Maltsev
Cardiac pacemaker cells, including cells of the sinoatrial node, are heterogeneous in size, morphology and electrophysiological characteristics. The exact extent to which these cells differ electrophysiologically is unclear, yet is critical to understanding their functioning. We examined major ionic currents in individual intercaval pacemaker cells (IPC) sampled from the para-cristal, inter-caval region (including the sinoatrial node) that were spontaneously beating after enzymatic isolation from rabbit hearts...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915686/evaluation-on-efficacy-and-safety-of-the-addition-of-x-knife-therapy-to-gefitinib-in-nsclc-patients-with-symptomatic-brain-metastases
#3
Linbo Cai, Xiaoguang Qiu, Haihong Yang, Mingyao Lai, Changguo Shan, Weiping Hong, Juan Li, Longhui Luo, Ping Zhang, Lichao Wang
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a widely used therapy for brain metastases(BMs) in Non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). However, its role in symptomatic patients with EGFR mutation remains unclear. We have retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients with symptomatic BMs whom received SRS as a salvage approach and concurrent gifitinib therapy. METHODS: Seven patients with primary NSCLC, symptomatic BMs, and EGFR mutation were identified in a retrospective review of patients treated with SRS using X-knife at Guangdong 999 Brain Hospital between 1 January 2012 and 31 August 2014...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913780/anxiolytic-like-effects-of-%C3%AE-asarone-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-pain
#4
Jiao Tian, Zhen Tian, Shu-Li Qin, Pu-Yu Zhao, Xun Jiang, Zhen Tian
α-asarone (ASR) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and it has extensive biological effects. Clinically, anxiety disorder is a common comorbidity of chronic pain. However, limited information is available regarding the effects of ASR on chronic pain-related anxiety. This study aims to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of ASR in chronic pain mice. Chronic inflammatory pain was induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Behavioral tests, western-blot analysis and whole-cell patch recordings were performed to evaluate the subsequent events...
September 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910447/orexin-a-suppresses-signal-transmission-to-dopaminergic-amacrine-cells-from-outer-and-inner-retinal-photoreceptors
#6
Sheng-Nan Qiao, Wei Zhou, Lei-Lei Liu, Dao-Qi Zhang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Purpose: The neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina; however, their role in visual function is unclear. This study investigates whether and how orexins modulate signal transmission to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) from both outer retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) and inner retinal photoreceptors (melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells [ipRGCs]). Methods: A whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record light-induced responses from genetically labeled DACs in flat-mount mouse retinas...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904098/characterization-of-ion-channels-and-o2-sensitivity-in-gill-neuroepithelial-cells-of-the-anoxia-tolerant-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#7
Peter C Zachar, Wen Pan, Michael G Jonz
The neuroepithelial cell (NEC) of the fish gill is an important model for O2 sensing in vertebrates; however, a complete picture of the chemosensory mechanisms in NECs is lacking, and O2 chemoreception in vertebrates that are tolerant to anoxia has yet not been explored. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we characterized four types of ion channels in NECs isolated from the anoxia-tolerant goldfish. A Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current (IKCa) peaked at ~20 mV, was potentiated by increased intracellular Ca(2+), and was reduced by 100 μM Cd(2+) A voltage-dependent inward current in Ba(2+) solution, with peak at 0 mV, confirmed the presence of Ca(2+) channels...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902436/neuroprotective-effect-of-amantadine-on-corticosterone-induced-abnormal-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-of-ca3-ca1-pathway-in-rat-s-hippocampal-slices
#8
Xi Xiao, Hui Zhang, Hui Wang, Qun Li, Tao Zhang
Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway...
September 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901191/hypoxic-culture-promotes-dopaminergic-neuronal-differentiation-of-nasal-olfactory-mucosa-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-upregulation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE
#9
Yi Zhuo, Lei Wang, Lite Ge, Xuan Li, Da Duan, Xiaohua Teng, Miao Jiang, Kai Liu, Ting Yuan, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Yujia Deng, Huali Xie, Ping Chen, Ying Xia, Ming Lu
Olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) display significant clonogenic activity and may be easily propagated for Parkinson's disease therapies. Methods of inducing OM-MSCs to differentiate into dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons using olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are thus an attractive topic of research. We designed a hypoxic induction protocol to generate DAergic neurons from OM-MSCs using a physiological oxygen (O2) level of 3% and OEC-conditioned medium (OCM; HI group). The normal induction (NI) group was cultured in O2 at ambient air level (21%)...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898995/uncovering-the-arrhythmogenic-potential-of-trpm4-activation-in-atrial-derived-hl-1-cells-using-novel-recording-and-numerical-approaches
#10
Yaopeng Hu, Yubin Duan, Ayako Takeuchi, Lin Hai-Kurahara, Jun Ichikawa, Keizo Hiraishi, Tomohiro Numata, Hiroki Ohara, Gentaro Iribe, Michio Nakaya, Masayuki X Mori, Satoshi Matsuoka, Genshan Ma, Ryuji Inoue
Aims: Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily melastatin member 4 (TRPM4), a Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channel abundantly expressed in the heart, has been implicated in conduction block and other arrhythmic propensities associated with cardiac remodelling and injury. The present study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the arrhythmogenic potential of TRPM4. Methods and results: Patch clamp and biochemical analyses were performed using expression system and an immortalized atrial cardiomyocyte cell line (HL-1), and numerical model simulation was employed...
August 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895268/lithium-reduces-the-span-of-g-protein-activated-k-girk-channel-inhibition-in-hippocampal-neurons
#11
Nathan Dascal, Moran Rubinstein
OBJECTIVES: Lithium (Li(+) ) is one of the most widely used treatments for bipolar disorder (BD). However, the molecular and neuronal basis of BD, as well as the mechanisms of Li(+) actions are poorly understood. Cellular and biochemical studies identified G proteins as being among the cellular targets for Li(+) action, while genetic studies indicated an association with the KCNJ3 gene, which encodes the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels. GIRK channels regulate neuronal excitability by mediating the inhibitory effects of multiple neurotransmitters and contribute to the resting potassium conductance...
September 12, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893310/effect-of-long-term-storage-in-safe-cell-extender-on-boar-sperm-dna-integrity-and-other-key-sperm-parameters
#12
Wiesław Bielas, Wojciech Niżański, Agnieszka Partyka, Anna Rząsa, Ryszard Mordak
BACKGROUND: There is some controversy about the extent of changes in different sperm cell features in stored boar semen, especially regarding the potential role of the DNA fragmentation assay for assessment of sperm fertilizing ability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time of storage and the dynamic changes in sperm cell characteristics in normospermic boar semen stored in long-term extender, in order to determine the susceptibility to damage of particular structures of spermatozoa during cooling and storage at 17 °C for 240 h post collection...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890050/modulation-of-hippocampal-synapse-maturation-by-activity-regulated-e3-ligase-via-non-canonical-pathway
#13
Pushpa Kumari, Balakumar Srinivasan, Sourav Banerjee
Development of functional synapses is crucial for the transmission and storage of information in the brain. Post establishment of the initial synaptic contact, synapses are stabilized through neuronal activity-induced signals. Emerging studies have implicated ubiquitination; a reversible posttranslational modification, as a key regulatory switch that modulates synapse development through proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination of proteins is precisely regulated by E3 ligases, a set of enzymes that bind to specific substrates to facilitate the conjugation of monomeric or polymeric ubiquitin...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888400/characterization-of-inflammasome-related-genes-in-urine-sediments-of-patients-receiving-intravesical-bcg-therapy
#14
Giulia Poli, Giovanni Cochetti, Andrea Boni, Maria Giulia Egidi, Stefano Brancorsini, Ettore Mearini
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation is the method of choice for the postsurgical treatment of high-grade nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer , to reduce both recurrence rate and risk of progression. BCG is hypothesized to correct the immune system disequilibrium occurring during carcinogenesis, through an immunostimulation with detrimental effects for tumoral cells. Inflammation plays a crucial role in tumor progression. The deregulation of inflammasomes upon carcinogenesis underlines its importance both in physiologic and pathologic human conditions...
September 6, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882563/adenosine-a1-receptor-potentiated-glycinergic-transmission-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-of-rats-after-peripheral-inflammation
#15
Hu-Hu Bai, Jiang-Ping Liu, Li Yang, Ji-Yuan Zhao, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
Adenosine is present at the extracellular space within spinal cord dorsal horn and engaged in the processing of nociceptive sensory signals. Systemic or spinal administration of exogenous adenosine produces a potent analgesia against pathological pain. Here we found that inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission was an important target for adenosine regulation. In spinal cord slices from intact rats, adenosine increased the inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs). In spinal slices from Complete Freund's Adjuvant-injected rats, adenosine potentiated glycinergic transmission to a more degree than in control rats...
September 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878623/mechanisms-of-spontaneous-climbing-fiber-discharge-evoked-pauses-and-output-modulation-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cell-in-mice
#16
Xian-Hua Jin, Hong-Wei Wang, Xin-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Ping Chu, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Song-Biao Cui, De-Lai Qiu
Climbing fiber (CF) afferents modulate the frequency and patterns of cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) simple spike (SS) activity, but its mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of spontaneous CF discharge-evoked pauses and the output modulation of cerebellar PCs in urethane-anesthetized mice using in vivo whole-cell recording techniques and pharmacological methods. Under voltage-clamp recording conditions, spontaneous CF discharge evoked strong inward currents followed by small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that mediated outward currents...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874448/glycinergic-input-to-the-mouse-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#17
Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Balázs Pál, Áron Kőszeghy, Tamás Wilheim, Masahiko Watanabe, László Záborszky, Zsolt Liposits, Imre Kalló
The basal forebrain (BF) receives afferents from brain stem ascending pathways, which has been implicated first by Moruzzi and Magoun (Moruzzi and Magoun, 1949) to induce forebrain activation and cortical arousal/waking behavior; however, it is very little known about how brain stem inhibitory inputs affect cholinergic functions. In the current study, glycine, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of brain stem neurons, and gliotransmitter of local glial cells, was tested for potential interaction with basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons in male mice...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872712/regulation-of-hypothalamic-crh-neuron-excitability-by-oxytocin
#18
Bradley B Jamieson, Betina B Nair, Karl J Iremonger
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide that exerts multiple actions throughout the brain and periphery. Within the brain, OT regulates diverse neural populations, including neural networks controlling responses to stress. Local release of OT within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has been suggested to regulate stress responses by modulating the excitability of neighboring corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. However, the mechanisms by which OT regulates CRH neuron excitability are unclear...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871229/gabapentin-modulates-hcn4-channel-voltage-dependence
#19
Han-Shen Tae, Kelly M Smith, A Marie Phillips, Kieran A Boyle, Melody Li, Ian C Forster, Robert J Hatch, Robert Richardson, David I Hughes, Brett A Graham, Steven Petrou, Christopher A Reid
Gabapentin (GBP) is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV(+)) or calretinin positive (CR(+)) inhibitory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870570/effects-of-naftopidil-on-inhibitory-transmission-in-substantia-gelatinosa-neurons-of-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-vitro
#20
Daisuke Uta, Du-Jie Xie, Tsuyoshi Hattori, Ken-Ichi Kasahara, Megumu Yoshimura
OBJECTIVE: Naftopidil is used clinically for the treatment of voiding disorders in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Previous in vivo experiments in which naftopidil was applied intrathecally abolished rhythmic bladder contraction, suggesting that naftopidil might inhibit a voiding reflex through interaction with spinal dorsal horn neurons. Here we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of naftopidil on dorsal horn neurons. METHODS: Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed using substantia gelatinosa neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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