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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104407/metabotropic-glutamate-and-gaba-receptors-modulate-cellular-excitability-and-glutamatergic-transmission-in-chicken-cochlear-nucleus-angularis-neurons
#1
Wei Shi, Yong Lu
Neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) receive glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve, and GABAergic input from the superior olivary nucleus. Physiologically heterogeneous, NA neurons perform multiple functions including encoding sound intensity information. Using in vitro whole-cell patch recordings from acute brain slices and immunohistochemistry staining, we investigated neuromodulation mediated by metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors (mGluRs and GABABRs) in NA neurons. Based on their intrinsic firing patterns in response to somatic current injections, NA neurons were classified into one-spike (onset), damped, and tonic cells...
January 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102743/expression-and-alteration-of-bkca-channels-in-the-sphincter-of-oddi-s-from-rabbits-with-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Dan Feng, Haiyan Nan, Wen Wang, Linfeng Yan, Pang Du, Lin Zuo, Kun Zhang, Minggao Zhao, Guangbin Cui
This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of BKCa channels in the Sphincter of Oddi (SO) in a rabbit model of hypercholesterolemia (HC). New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the control group was fed standard chow (n = 18) whereas the high-cholesterol group was fed cholesterol-enriched chow containing 1.5% cholesterol (n = 18). The serum cholesterol level was significantly greater in the HC groups than in the control group, but there was no significant difference in body weight between the control and HC groups...
January 19, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#3
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099880/modifications-of-inhibitory-transmission-onto-pyramidal-neurons-by-postnatal-exposure-to-mk-801-effects-of-enriched-environment
#4
Amir Shojaei, Afsaneh Kamali Anaraki, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Nafiseh Atapour
Early enriched environment (EE) prevents several deficits associated with postnatal MK-801 [N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] treatment such as cognitive and locomotor deficits. We sought physiological correlates to such changes by looking at inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal cells in a prefrontal cortex slice preparation. Pharmacologically isolated γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor-mediated currents were measured using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Wistar rats were raised in standard or EE from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 (1mg/kg) on postnatal days (P) 6-10...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#5
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093336/peripheral-nerve-injury-potentiates-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#6
Kambiz Rohampour, Hossein Azizi, Yaghoub Fathollahi, Saeed Semnanian
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is believed to cause maladaptive changes at synaptic level, leading to neuropathic pain which is difficult to treat with common analgesic drugs. Noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons have a crucial role in neuropathic pain modulation. In this study we examined whether chronic constriction injury (CCI) could affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission in LC neurons. CCI was performed on P10 to P12 Sprague Dawley pups. Seven days after CCI, horizontal slices of brainstem (300μm thick) were prepared and whole-cell patch clamp recording was performed...
January 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#7
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078759/bufalin-a-bufanolide-steroid-from-the-parotoid-glands-of-the-chinese-toad-inhibits-l-type-ca-2-channels-and-contractility-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#8
Tao Song, Xi Chu, Xuan Zhang, Qiong Tao Song, Ying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xue Han, Jianping Zhang, Li Chu
Bufalin is a bufanolide steroid compound in Chan Su. Chan Su is a traditional Chinese medicine prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of toads, and has been used as an Oriental drug. However, the effect of bufalin on cardiac function and its underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we explore the cellular mechanisms of bufalin on myocardial protection via the whole-cell patch-clamp recording and video-based edge detection system. Exposure to bufalin resulted in a concentrated-dependent blockade of ICa-L , with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 60 μM and the maximal inhibitory effect of 71...
January 11, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078126/gastrointestinal-lymphoma-in-western-algeria-pattern-of-distribution-and-histological-subtypes-retrospective-study
#9
Soumia Zeggai, Noria Harir, Abdenacer Tou, Miloud Medjamia, Khaira Guenaoui
BACKGROUND: Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas (GIL) are uncommon diseases that can involve the whole GI tract. Considerable variation exists in the literature with respect to incidence of the various histological subtypes and sites of involvement. This study was undertaken to establish the anatomic distribution, histological subtypes and sites of GI lymphomas of patients from Western Algeria. METHODS: The case records of 58 consecutive patients with GIL diagnosed at the Pathologies Departments of Algerian west region (the Military Hospital of Oran city and the Central University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes city) from January 2006 to December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated for epidemiology and histopathology report...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077663/temporally-precise-control-of-single-neuron-spiking-by-juxtacellular-nanostimulation
#10
Maik Christopher Stüttgen, Lourens Jp Nonkes, Hans-Rüdiger Ap Geis, Paul H Tiesinga, Arthur R Houweling
Temporal patterns of action potentials influence a variety of activity-dependent intra- and inter-cellular processes and play an important role in theories of neural coding. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these phenomena requires imposing spike trains with precisely defined patterns, but this has been challenging due to the limitations of existing stimulation techniques. Here we present a new nanostimulation method providing control over the action potential output of individual cortical neurons. Spikes are elicited through the juxtacellular application of short-duration fluctuating currents ('kurzpulses'), allowing for the sub-millisecond precise and reproducible induction of arbitrary patterns of action potentials at all physiologically relevant firing frequencies (<120 Hz), including minute-long spike trains recorded in freely moving animals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075010/stimulatory-actions-of-a-novel-thiourea-derivative-on-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#11
Sheng-Nan Wu, Jyh-Haur Chern, Santai Shen, Hwei-Hisen Chen, Ying-Ting Hsu, Chih-Chin Lee, Ming-Huan Chan, Ming-Chi Lai, Feng-Shiun Shie
AIM: In this study, we examine whether an anti-inflammatory thiourea derivative, compound #326, actions on ion channels. METHODS: The effects of compound #326 on Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels were evaluated by patch-clamp recordings obtained in cell-attached, inside-out or whole-cell configuration. RESULTS: In pituitary GH3 cells, compound #326 increased the amplitude of Ca(2+) -activated K(+) currents (IK(Ca) ) with an EC50 value of 11...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072834/a-computational-model-based-on-multi-regional-calcium-imaging-represents-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-sensory-neuron
#12
Masahiro Kuramochi, Motomichi Doi
Due to the huge number of neuronal cells in the brain and their complex circuit formation, computer simulation of neuronal activity is indispensable to understanding whole brain dynamics. Recently, various computational models have been developed based on whole-brain calcium imaging data. However, these analyses monitor only the activity of neuronal cell bodies and treat the cells as point unit. This point-neuron model is inexpensive in computational costs, but the model is unrealistically simplistic at representing intact neural activities in the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069411/age-related-alterations-of-neuronal-excitability-and-voltage-dependent-ca-2-current-in-a-spontaneous-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Hua-Long Wang, Xiao-Hui Xian, Qiao-Yun Song, Chao Pang, Jia-Lei Wang, Ming-Wei Wang, Wen-Bin Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a progressive dysfunction of central neurons, and senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), a spontaneous AD mouse model, appears to be an excellent model to investigate the process of AD. Previous studies have indicated that neuronal excitability is impaired in transgenic AD mice. In this study, the cognition of SAMP8 mice was tested using the passive avoidance task and Morris water maze; whole-cell current-clamp recordings were used to evaluate the neuronal excitability, including the resting membrane potential, the number of action potentials, and after-hyperpolarization; and the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current in hippocampal slices was measured using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings...
January 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069353/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-low-dose-thip-on-brainstem-neuronal-excitability-in-mouse-models-of-rett-syndrome-evidence-from-symptomatic-females
#14
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher Mychal Johnson, Ningren Cui, Hao Xing, Yang Wu, Chun Jiang
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations of the MECP2 gene, affecting predominantly females. One of the characteristic features of the disease is defective brainstem autonomic function. In Mecp2(-/Y) mice, several groups of brainstem neurons are overly excitable, which causes destabilization of neuronal networks for the autonomic control. We have previously shown that the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP relieves many RTT-like symptoms in Mecp2(-/Y) mice. Although neuronal activity is inhibited by acute THIP exposure, how a chronic treatment affects neuronal excitability remains elusive...
January 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066143/acepromazine-inhibits-herg-potassium-ion-channels-expressed-in-human-embryonic-kidney-293-cells
#15
Young Shin Joo, Hong Joon Lee, Jin-Sung Choi, Ki-Wug Sung
The effects of acepromazine on human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels were investigated using whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells transfected with hERG. The hERG currents were recorded with or without acepromazine, and the steady-state and peak tail currents were analyzed for the evaluating the drug effects. Acepromazine inhibited the hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.5 µM and Hill coefficient of 1.1. Acepromazine blocked hERG currents in a voltage-dependent manner between -40 and +10 mV...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062393/proportion-of-tubal-factor-infertility-due-to-chlamydia-finite-mixture-modeling-of-serum-antibody-titers
#16
A E Ades, M J Price, D Kounali, V A Akande, G S Wills, M O McClure, P Muir, P J Horner
In this study, we examined whether the proportion of tubal factor infertility (TFI) that is attributable to Chlamydia trachomatis, the population excess fraction (PEF), can be estimated from serological data using finite mixture modeling. Whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence serum antibody titers were recorded among infertile women seen at St. Michael's Hospital in Bristol, United Kingdom, during the period 1985-1995. Women were classified as TFI cases or controls based on laparoscopic examination. Finite mixture models were used to identify the number of component titer distributions and the proportion of serum samples in each, from which estimates of PEF were derived...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057842/cyclic-amp-reverses-the-effects-of-aging-on-pacemaker-activity-and-if-in-sinoatrial-node-myocytes
#17
Emily J Sharpe, Eric D Larson, Catherine Proenza
Aerobic capacity decreases with age, in part because of an age-dependent decline in maximum heart rate (mHR) and a reduction in the intrinsic pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node of the heart. Isolated sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs) from aged mice have slower spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rates and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation of the "funny current," If Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a critical modulator of both AP firing rate and If in SAMs. Here, we test the ability of endogenous and exogenous cAMP to overcome age-dependent changes in acutely isolated murine SAMs...
January 5, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053242/nitric-oxide-promotes-gaba-release-by-activating-a-voltage-independent-ca2-influx-pathway-in-retinal-amacrine-cells
#18
John Wesley Maddox, Evanna L Gleason
Retinal amacrine cells express nitric oxide synthase and produce nitric oxide (NO), making NO available to regulate the function of amacrine cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that NO can alter the GABAergic synaptic output of amacrine cells. We investigate this using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings and Ca(2+) imaging of cultured chick retinal amacrine cells. When recording from amacrine cells receiving synaptic input from other amacrine cells, we find that NO increases GABAergic spontaneous postsynaptic current (sPSC) frequency...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052704/conflicting-effects-by-antibodies-against-connexin36-during-the-action-of-intracellular-cyclic-amp-onto-electrical-synapses-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#19
Soh Hidaka
Alpha-type retinal ganglion cells (alpha cells) of the same class in mammalian retina are connected by gap junctions. Electrical synapses between alpha cells were examined using combined techniques of dual patch-clamp recordings, intracellular labeling and electron microscopy in the albino rat retina. In simultaneous dual whole-cell recordings from pairs of neighboring alpha cells, bidirectional electrical synapses with symmetrical junction conductance were observed in pairs with cells of the same morphological type...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052244/brain-state-dependence-of-hippocampal-subthreshold-activity-in-awake-mice
#20
Brad K Hulse, Evgueniy V Lubenov, Athanassios G Siapas
Monitoring the membrane potential of individual neurons has uncovered how single-cell properties contribute to network processing across different brain states in neocortex. In contrast, the subthreshold modulation of hippocampal neurons by brain state has not been systematically characterized. To address this, we combined whole-cell recordings from dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons with multisite extracellular recordings and behavioral measurements in awake mice. We show that the average membrane potential, amplitude of subthreshold fluctuations, and distance to spike threshold are all modulated by brain state...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
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