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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735419/modulation-of-human-kv4-3-kchip2-channel-inactivation-kinetics-by-cytoplasmic-ca-2
#1
Christiane Groen, Robert Bähring
The transient outward current (I to) in the human heart is mediated by Kv4.3 channels complexed with Kv channel interacting protein (KChIP) 2, a cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand protein known to modulate Kv4.3 inactivation gating upon heterologous co-expression. We studied Kv4.3 channels co-expressed with wild-type (wt) or EF-hand-mutated (ΔEF) KChIP2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Co-expression took place in the absence or presence of BAPTA-AM, and macroscopic currents were recorded in the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration with different free Ca(2+) concentrations in the patch-pipette...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733679/increased-overall-cortical-connectivity-with-syndrome-specific-local-decreases-suggested-by-atypical-sleep-eeg-synchronization-in-williams-syndrome
#2
Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, Ilona Kovács
Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#3
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#4
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721555/the-value-of-physical-performance-measurements-alongside-assessment-of-sarcopenia-in-predicting-receipt-and-completion-of-planned-treatment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-observational-exploratory-study
#5
Jemima T Collins, Simon Noble, John Chester, Helen E Davies, William D Evans, Daniel Farewell, Jason F Lester, Diane Parry, Rebecca Pettit, Anthony Byrne
INTRODUCTION: The presence of muscle mass depletion is associated with poor outcomes and survival in cancer. Alongside muscle mass, assessment of muscle strength or physical performance is essential for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prevalent form of cancer with high mortality, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS) is commonly used to assess patients' suitability for treatment. However, a significant proportion of patients with good PS are unable to complete multidisciplinary team (MDT)-planned treatment...
July 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714121/acetylcholine-dependent-upregulation-of-task-1-channels-in-thalamic-interneurons-by-a-smooth-muscle-like-signalling-pathway
#6
Michael Leist, Susanne Rinné, Maia Datunashvili, Ania Aissaoui, Hans-Christian Pape, Niels Decher, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
The dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the main thalamic site for state-dependent transmission of visual information. Non-retinal inputs from the ascending arousal system and inhibition provided by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic local circuit interneurons (INs) control neuronal activity within the dLGN. In particular, acetylcholine (ACh) depolarizes thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by inhibiting two-pore domain potassium (K2P ) channels. Conversely, ACh also hyperpolarizes INs via an as-yet-unknown mechanism...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713023/an-extended-mathematical-model-of-tumor-growth-and-its-interaction-with-the-immune-system-to-be-used-for-developing-an-optimized-immunotherapy-treatment-protocol
#7
Milad Qomlaqi, Fariba Bahrami, Maryam Ajami, Jamshid Hajati
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is usually known as the main modality for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of chronic cancers could not be treated with chemotherapy alone. Immunotherapy is a new modality for cancer treatment that is effective for early stages of cancer and it has fewer side effects compared to chemotherapy, specifically for those types of cancer that are resistant to it. METHOD: This work presents an extended mathematical model to depict interactions between cancerous and adaptive immune system in mouse...
July 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711243/genetic-correlations-between-the-cumulative-pseudo-survival-rate-milk-yield-and-somatic-cell-score-during-lactation-in-holstein-cattle-in-japan-using-a-random-regression-model
#8
O Sasaki, M Aihara, A Nishiura, H Takeda
Trends in genetic correlations between longevity, milk yield, and somatic cell score (SCS) during lactation in cows are difficult to trace. In this study, changes in the genetic correlations between milk yield, SCS, and cumulative pseudo-survival rate (PSR) during lactation were examined, and the effect of milk yield and SCS information on the reliability of estimated breeding value (EBV) of PSR were determined. Test day milk yield, SCS, and PSR records were obtained for Holstein cows in Japan from 2004 to 2013...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710446/the-movement-of-small-insects-in-the-convective-boundary-layer-linking-patterns-to-processes
#9
Charlotte E Wainwright, Phillip M Stepanian, Don R Reynolds, Andy M Reynolds
In fine warm weather, the daytime convective atmosphere over land areas is full of small migrant insects, among them serious pests (e.g. some species of aphid), but also many beneficial species (e.g. natural enemies of pests). For many years intensive aerial trapping studies were the only way of determining the density profiles of these small insects, and for taxon-specific studies trapping is still necessary. However, if we wish to determine generic behavioural responses to air movements shown by small day-migrating insects as a whole, the combination of millimetre-wavelength 'cloud radars' and Doppler lidar now provides virtually ideal instrumentation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709442/can-recurrences-be-predicted-in-craniopharyngiomas-%C3%AE-catenin-coexisting-with-stem-cells-markers-and-p-atm-in-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-45cases
#10
Elia Guadagno, Oreste de Divitiis, Domenico Solari, Giorgio Borrelli, Umberto Marcello Bracale, Alberto Di Somma, Paolo Cappabianca, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
BACKGROUND: Recurrence is a common feature of craniopharyngiomas, benign tumors that origin from squamous epithelial remnants of Rathke's pouch- arising at any segment of its whole course. There are two histotypes, showing different morphology and clinical behavior: adamantinomatous(adaCP) and papillary (papCP). An univocal strategy of management has not yet been defined, being considered the combination of surgery and radiotherapy the most effective, especially in case of incomplete resection...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701322/functional-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-angiotensin-type-1a-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-of-the-mouse
#11
David A Carter, Yan-Ting Choong, Angela A Connelly, Jaspreet K Bassi, Nicole O Hunter, Nattaya Thongsepee, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Angelina Y Fong, Stuart James McDougall, Andrew Mark Allen
Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the CNS, with the type 1A receptor (AT1AR) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT1R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT1R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT1AR-expressing NTS neurons are not known...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689982/network-level-control-of-frequency-tuning-in-auditory-cortex
#12
Hiroyuki K Kato, Samuel K Asinof, Jeffry S Isaacson
Lateral inhibition is a fundamental circuit operation that sharpens the tuning properties of cortical neurons. This operation is classically attributed to an increase in GABAergic synaptic input triggered by non-preferred stimuli. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recording and two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in awake mice to show that lateral inhibition shapes frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex via an unconventional mechanism: non-preferred tones suppress both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto layer 2/3 cells ("network suppression")...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689969/ancestral-reconstruction-approach-to-acetylcholine-receptor-structure-and-function
#13
Jethro E Prinston, Johnathon R Emlaw, Mathieu F Dextraze, Christian J G Tessier, F Javier Pérez-Areales, Melissa S McNulty, Corrie J B daCosta
Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are members of a superfamily of proteins called pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, which are found in almost all forms of life and thus have a rich evolutionary history. Muscle-type AChRs are heteropentameric complexes assembled from four related subunits (α, β, δ, and ɛ). Here we reconstruct the amino acid sequence of a β subunit ancestor shared by humans and cartilaginous fishes (i.e., Torpedo). Then, by resurrecting this ancestral β subunit and co-expressing it with human α, δ, and ɛ subunits, we show that despite 132 substitutions, the ancestral subunit is capable of forming human/ancestral hybrid AChRs...
June 30, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685393/side-effects-of-long-term-continuous-intra-arterial-nimodipine-infusion-in-patients-with-severe-refractory-cerebral-vasospasm-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Martin Kieninger, Julia Flessa, Nicole Lindenberg, Sylvia Bele, Andreas Redel, André Schneiker, Gerhard Schuierer, Christina Wendl, Bernhard Graf, Vera Silbereisen
BACKGROUND: Long-term continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion (CIAN) is a rescue therapy option in cases of severe refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, CIAN therapy can be associated with relevant side effects. Available studies focus on intracerebral complications, whereas extracerebral side effects are rarely examined. Aim of the present study was to generate descriptive data on the clinical course during CIAN therapy and expectable extracerebral side effects...
July 6, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683095/computer-algorithms-for-automated-detection-and-analysis-of-local-ca2-releases-in-spontaneously-beating-cardiac-pacemaker-cells
#15
Alexander V Maltsev, Sean P Parsons, Mary S Kim, Kenta Tsutsui, Michael D Stern, Edward G Lakatta, Victor A Maltsev, Oliver Monfredi
Local Ca2+ Releases (LCRs) are crucial events involved in cardiac pacemaker cell function. However, specific algorithms for automatic LCR detection and analysis have not been developed in live, spontaneously beating pacemaker cells. In the present study we measured LCRs using a high-speed 2D-camera in spontaneously contracting sinoatrial (SA) node cells isolated from rabbit and guinea pig and developed a new algorithm capable of detecting and analyzing the LCRs spatially in two-dimensions, and in time. Our algorithm tracks points along the midline of the contracting cell...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681396/association-of-atopy-and-tentative-diagnosis-of-skin-cancer-results-from-occupational-skin-cancer-screenings
#16
I Schäfer, P Mohr, N Zander, R Fölster-Holst, M Augustin
BACKGROUND: The relationship between atopic conditions and carcinoma of the skin has been described inconsistently. Population-based data providing information on atopic diseases as well as on skin-cancer are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between atopy and prevalence of precanceroses, nonmelanoma skin-cancer and malignant melanoma (MM), while taking into account known risk factors for skin cancer. METHODS: Data from occupational skin cancer screenings were analysed in a cross-sectional study...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680877/metabolic-products-of-linalool-and-modulation-of-gabaa-receptors
#17
Sinem Milanos, Shaimaa A Elsharif, Dieter Janzen, Andrea Buettner, Carmen Villmann
Terpenoids are major subcomponents in aroma substances which harbor sedative physiological potential. We have demonstrated that various monoterpenoids such as the acyclic linalool enhance GABAergic currents in an allosteric manner in vitro upon overexpression of inhibitory α1β2 GABAA receptors in various expression systems. However, in plants or humans, i.e., following intake via inhalation or ingestion, linalool undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680392/direct-anandamide-activation-of-trpv1-produces-divergent-calcium-and-current-responses
#18
Axel J Fenwick, Daniel K Fowler, Shaw-Wen Wu, Forrest J Shaffer, Jonathan E M Lindberg, Dallas C Kinch, James H Peters
In the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), primary vagal afferent neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) at their central terminals where it contributes to quantal forms of glutamate release. The endogenous membrane lipid anandamide (AEA) is a putative TRPV1 agonist in the brain, yet the extent to which AEA activation of TRPV1 has a neurophysiological consequence is not well established. We investigated the ability of AEA to activate TRPV1 in vagal afferent neurons in comparison to capsaicin (CAP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679385/q-a-using-patch-seq-to-profile-single-cells
#19
Cathryn R Cadwell, Rickard Sandberg, Xiaolong Jiang, Andreas S Tolias
Individual neurons vary widely in terms of their gene expression, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. While many techniques exist to study single-cell variability along one or two of these dimensions, very few techniques can assess all three features for a single cell. We recently developed Patch-seq, which combines whole-cell patch clamp recording with single-cell RNA-sequencing and immunohistochemistry to comprehensively profile the transcriptomic, morphologic, and physiologic features of individual neurons...
July 6, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678348/nacl-and-osmolarity-produce-different-responses-in-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-neurons-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#20
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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