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Diabetes mellitus dog

Saumya Menon, Gopalakrishna Rajesh, Vallath Balakrishnan
Diabetes mellitus has been a fascinating disease from the dawn of medical history. The first breakthrough in its treatment came in 1922, with the discovery of insulin which was extracted from the pancreas of a dog. Even earlier, a relationship between pancreas and diabetes mellitus had been suspected by medical scientists. However, the study of diabetes mellitus is much more than its relationship with the pancreas. On the other hand the pancreas has been known to be a very reclusive organ that is hidden away from physicians and surgeons for centuries...
October 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
C Gilor, S J M Niessen, E Furrow, S P DiBartola
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a syndrome caused by various etiologies. The clinical manifestations of DM are not indicative of the cause of the disease, but might be indicative of the stage and severity of the disease process. Accurately diagnosing and classifying diabetic dogs and cats by the underlying disease process is essential for current and future studies on early detection, prevention, and treatment of underlying disease. Here, we review the current etiology-based classification of DM and definitions of DM types in human medicine and discuss key points on the pathogenesis of each DM type and prediabetes...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Eric C Ledbetter, Patrick L McDonough, Kay Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, in vivo confocal microscopic, histopathologic, and microbiologic features of canine and feline cases of infectious crystalline keratopathy (ICK). ANIMALS STUDIED: Six dogs and two cats with naturally acquired ICK. PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs and cats with a clinical diagnosis of ICK were reviewed. Signalment, medical history, clinical findings, and diagnostic evaluations were retrieved, including corneal cytology, histopathology, in vivo confocal microscopy, and microbiology results...
June 29, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Sung-Ho Kim, Eunsoo Jung, Min Kyung Yoon, O Hwan Kwon, Dal-Mi Hwang, Dong-Wook Kim, Junghyun Kim, Sun-Mee Lee, Hyeon Joo Yim
Gemigliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor, is approved for use as a monotherapy or in combination therapy to treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological profiles of gemigliptin in vitro and in vivo and compared them to those of the other DPP-4 inhibitors. Gemigliptin was a reversible and competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 7.25±0.67nM. Similar potency was shown in plasma from humans, rats, dogs, and monkeys. The kinetics of DPP-4 inhibition by gemigliptin was characterized by a fast association and a slow dissociation rate compared to sitagliptin (fast on and fast off rate) or vildagliptin (slow on and slow off rate)...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Melissa Clark, Margarethe Hoenig
Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
David Spero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Diabetes Self-management
Yeray Brito-Casillas, Carlos Melián, Ana María Wägner
Most research in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conducted in animals, and their replacement is currently a chimera. As compared to when they started to be used by modern science in the 17th century, a very high number of animal models of diabetes is now available, and they provide new insights into almost every aspect of diabetes. Approaches combining human, in vitro, and animal studies are probably the best strategy to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes, and the choice of the best model to achieve such objective is crucial...
August 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Sofie J J Marynissen, Pascale M Y Smets, Liesbeth F E Ghys, Dominique Paepe, Joris Delanghe, Sara Galac, Evelyne Meyer, Hervé P Lefebvre, Sylvie Daminet
BACKGROUND: Serum cystatin C (sCysC) is used as biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on renal function in dogs are unclear. Some renal variables have been evaluated in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), but not sCysC. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was the validation of a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA) for measuring canine sCysC, and to assess renal function in dogs with DM or HAC. METHODS: A PENIA was analytically validated for canine sCysC by determining imprecision and linearity...
June 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Pengfei Xu, Yingjie Zhang, Xinghao Jiang, Junyan Li, Liying Song, Mir Hasson Khoso, Yunye Liu, Qiang Wu, Guiping Ren, Deshan Li
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21) has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively...
2016: PloS One
F Giancola, F Fracassi, A Gallucci, J Sadeghinezhad, G Polidoro, E Zini, M Asti, R Chiocchetti
Diabetes mellitus (DM) determines a wide array of severe clinical complications including gastrointestinal motility disorders. The present study investigates the effects of spontaneous DM on the intramural innervation and in particular on nitrergic neurons of the myenteric plexus (MP) of the canine gastric antrum and ileum. Specimens of antrum and ileum from eight control-dogs and five insulin-dependent DM-dogs were collected. MP neurons were immunohistochemically identified with the anti-HuC/HuD antibody, while nitrergic neurons were identified with the antibody anti-neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)...
May 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Peter F Kador, Milton Wyman, Peter J Oates
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem with devastating effects on ocular health in both industrialized and developing countries. The control of hyperglycemia is critical to minimizing the impact of DM on ocular tissues because inadequate glycemic control leads to ocular tissue changes that range from a temporary blurring of vision to permanent vision loss. The biochemical mechanisms that promote the development of diabetic complications have been extensively studied. As a result, a number of prominent biochemical pathways have been identified...
September 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
F E Hurrell, K J Drobatz, R S Hess
BACKGROUND: β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) concentrations have not been quantified in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate BOHB concentrations in dogs with AP. ANIMALS: A total of 154 client-owned dogs without DM. METHODS: Prospective clinical study. Dogs were enrolled into 1 of 3 groups: AP, sick without an AP diagnosis, or fasted. Dogs were diagnosed with AP (44) if they had vomiting or anorexia, and either ultrasonographic findings consistent with AP or increased pancreatic lipase...
May 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Elise Donzel, Léa Arti, Sabine Chahory
OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology and the clinical presentation of cataracts in a population of dogs in France. PROCEDURES: Records of dogs affected by a cataract presented at the Ophthalmology Unit of Alfort Veterinary School during 2009-2012 were reviewed. The etiology was determined for each dog. The signalment of affected dogs, their medical history, age of onset, stage of progression, location of opacities, and ocular lesions associated were evaluated for each etiology...
April 7, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Jong-Hyuk Kim, Eva Furrow, Michelle G Ritt, Paul J Utz, William H Robinson, Liping Yu, Andrea Eckert, Kathleen Stuebner, Timothy D O'Brien, Lawrence Steinman, Jaime F Modiano
Diabetes mellitus occurs spontaneously in dogs. Although canine diabetes shares many features with human type-1 diabetes, there are differences that have cast doubt on the immunologic origin of the canine disease. In this study, we examined whether peripheral immune responses directed against islet antigens were present in dogs with diabetes. Routine diagnostics were used to confirm diabetic status, and serum samples from dogs with (N = 15) and without (N = 15) diabetes were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against islet antigens (insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulinoma-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase, and islet beta-cell zinc cation efflux transporter) using standard radioassays...
2016: PloS One
Xin Hao, Zhongfei Han, Changjin Zhu
Diabetes mellitus is a major threat to global public health that requires long-term medical attention. In view of the potentially devastating effects of diabetes on ocular health, it highlights the urgent need of therapeutic drugs for the prevention and treatment of the diabetic complications. The patent described in this evaluation (WO2015026380A1) claimed a topical composition for treating diabetic cataracts both in animals and human beings. The composition containing a therapeutic amount of the 2R-methyl sorbinil, one of aldose reductase inhibitors, delivered to the dog's eye can exert a preventive, inhibitory, or prophylactic effect on diabetic cataracts in a statistically significant portion of the population being studied...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Marianna Karamanou, Athanase Protogerou, Gregory Tsoucalas, George Androutsos, Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases involving carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. It is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia which results from defects in insulin secretion, or action or both. Diabetes mellitus has been known since antiquity. Descriptions have been found in the Egyptian papyri, in ancient Indian and Chinese medical literature, as well as, in the work of ancient Greek and Arab physicians. In the 2(nd) century AD Aretaeus of Cappadocia provided the first accurate description of diabetes, coining the term diabetes, while in 17(th) century Thomas Willis added the term mellitus to the disease, in an attempt to describe the extremely sweet taste of the urine...
January 10, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
Nathaniel P Violette, Eric C Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features of dogs diagnosed with stromal intracorneal hemorrhage (ICH). ANIMALS STUDIED: Retrospective case series of 39 dogs (44 eyes) with ICH. PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs evaluated by the Cornell University ophthalmology service were searched to identify animals with a clinical diagnosis of ICH between 2005 and 2014. Signalment and clinical details, including concurrent ocular disease, concurrent systemic disease, diagnostic tests performed, outcome of hemorrhage, presenting client complaint, and treatment, were recorded...
January 8, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Maria Saiz Alvarez, Vicente Herrería-Bustillo, Artur Font Utset, Jorge Martínez
A 3 mo old, female, entire Labrador retriever presented with vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and stunted growth. Diagnostics revealed the presence of juvenile diabetes mellitus and concurrent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreatic histopathology showed severe pancreatic atrophy. Successful treatment was achieved with a combination of insulin and pancreatic enzymes. This report describes successful long-term treatment of juvenile diabetes mellitus and concurrent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a dog...
November 2015: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Ju-Hee Oh, Ji Eun Lee, Yu Jeong Kim, Tack-Oon Oh, SungKyun Han, Eun Kyung Jeon, Kyungmin Shin, Dong-Hyun Kim, Chi Hye Park, Young-Joo Lee
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a high risk of cardiovascular disease mainly caused by dyslipidemia. Metformin and atorvastatin are preferentially used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, respectively. The aim of this study was to develop a once-a-day fixed-dose combination tablet containing metformin and atorvastatin. For this purpose, we designed gastroretentive bilayer tablets consisting of 500 mg metformin in a sustained release layer and 10 mg atorvastatin in an immediate release layer...
2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Jean-François Chatal, François Rouzet, Ferid Haddad, Cécile Bourdeau, Cédric Mathieu, Dominique Le Guludec
Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with (99m)Tc-SPECT, (82)Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts...
2015: Frontiers in Medicine
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