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Planck time

Carolyn M Malmstrom, H Scott Butterfield, Laura Planck, Christopher W Long, Valerie T Eviner
Invasive weeds threaten the biodiversity and forage productivity of grasslands worldwide. However, management of these weeds is constrained by the practical difficulty of detecting small-scale infestations across large landscapes and by limits in understanding of landscape-scale invasion dynamics, including mechanisms that enable patches to expand, contract, or remain stable. While high-end hyperspectral remote sensing systems can effectively map vegetation cover, these systems are currently too costly and limited in availability for most land managers...
2017: PloS One
Jean-Philippe Péraud, Andrew J Nonaka, John B Bell, Aleksandar Donev, Alejandro L Garcia
We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. We show that the fluctuating Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for charged multispecies diffusion coupled with the fluctuating fluid momentum equation result in enhanced charge transport via a mechanism distinct from the well-known enhancement of mass transport that accompanies giant fluctuations. Although the mass and charge transport occurs by advection by thermal velocity fluctuations, it can macroscopically be represented as electrodiffusion with renormalized electric conductivity and a nonzero cation-anion diffusion coefficient...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Terry Elliott
Memory models based on synapses with discrete and bounded strengths store new memories by forgetting old ones. Memory lifetimes in such memory systems may be defined in a variety of ways. A mean first passage time (MFPT) definition overcomes much of the arbitrariness and many of the problems associated with the more usual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) definition. We have previously computed MFPT lifetimes for simple, binary-strength synapses that lack internal, plasticity-related states. In simulation we have also seen that for multistate synapses, optimality conditions based on SNR lifetimes are absent with MFPT lifetimes, suggesting that such conditions may be artifactual...
September 28, 2017: Neural Computation
Yogita Sharma, Partha Sharathi Dutta
Gene expression is a noisy process that leads to regime shifts between alternative steady states among individual living cells, inducing phenotypic variability. The effects of white noise on the regime shift in bistable systems have been well characterized, however little is known about such effects of colored noise (noise with nonzero correlation time). Here, we show that noise correlation time, by considering a genetic circuit of autoactivation, can have a significant effect on the regime shift between distinct phenotypic states in gene expression...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Paul C Bressloff, Bhargav R Karamched, Sean D Lawley, Ethan Levien
We analyze a population of Brownian particles moving in a spatially uniform environment with stochastically gated absorption. The state of the environment at time t is represented by a discrete stochastic variable k(t)∈{0,1} such that the rate of absorption is γ[1-k(t)], with γ a positive constant. The variable k(t) evolves according to a two-state Markov chain. We focus on how stochastic gating affects the attenuation of particle absorption with distance from a localized source in a one-dimensional domain...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Robert F Stout, Aditya S Khair
Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Stefano Bo, Ralf Eichhorn
We study the diffusive dynamics of a Brownian particle in the proximity of a flat surface under nonequilibrium conditions, which are created by an anisotropic thermal environment with different temperatures being active along distinct spatial directions. By presenting the exact time-dependent solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for this problem, we demonstrate that the interplay between anisotropic diffusion and hard-core interaction with the plain wall rectifies the thermal fluctuations and induces directed particle transport parallel to the surface, without any deterministic forces being applied in that direction...
August 11, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Duan Chen
In this work, we propose a fractional Poisson-Nernst-Planck model to describe ion permeation in gated ion channels. Due to the intrinsic conformational changes, crowdedness in narrow channel pores, binding and trapping introduced by functioning units of channel proteins, ionic transport in the channel exhibits a power-law-like anomalous diffusion dynamics. We start from continuous-time random walk model for a single ion and use a long-tailed density distribution function for the particle jump waiting time, to derive the fractional Fokker-Planck equation...
September 22, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
G Aprilis, C Strohm, I Kupenko, S Linhardt, A Laskin, D M Vasiukov, V Cerantola, E G Koemets, C McCammon, A Kurnosov, A I Chumakov, R Rüffer, N Dubrovinskaia, L Dubrovinsky
A portable double-sided pulsed laser heating system for diamond anvil cells has been developed that is able to stably produce laser pulses as short as a few microseconds with repetition frequencies up to 100 kHz. In situ temperature determination is possible by collecting and fitting the thermal radiation spectrum for a specific wavelength range (particularly, between 650 nm and 850 nm) to the Planck radiation function. Surface temperature information can also be time-resolved by using a gated detector that is synchronized with the laser pulse modulation and space-resolved with the implementation of a multi-point thermal radiation collection technique...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Duc Thanh Tran, Alexandre Dauphin, Adolfo G Grushin, Peter Zoller, Nathan Goldman
We reveal an intriguing manifestation of topology, which appears in the depletion rate of topological states of matter in response to an external drive. This phenomenon is presented by analyzing the response of a generic two-dimensional (2D) Chern insulator subjected to a circular time-periodic perturbation. Because of the system's chiral nature, the depletion rate is shown to depend on the orientation of the circular shake; taking the difference between the rates obtained from two opposite orientations of the drive, and integrating over a proper drive-frequency range, provides a direct measure of the topological Chern number (ν) of the populated band: This "differential integrated rate" is directly related to the strength of the driving field through the quantized coefficient η0 = ν/ℏ(2), where h = 2π ℏ is Planck's constant...
August 2017: Science Advances
Vitaly A Shneidman
The classical description of nucleation of cavities in a stretched fluid relies on a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) in the space of their sizes r, with the diffusion coefficient D(r) constructed for all r from macroscopic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, as shown by Zeldovich. When additional variables (e.g., vapor pressure) are required to describe the state of a bubble, a similar approach to construct a diffusion tensor D^ generally works only in the direct vicinity of the thermodynamic saddle point corresponding to the critical nucleus...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alejandra Christen, M Angélica Maulén-Yañez, Eduardo González-Olivares, Michel Curé
In this paper a stochastic susceptible-infectious (SI) epidemic model is analysed, which is based on the model proposed by Roberts and Saha (Appl Math Lett 12: 37-41, 1999), considering a hyperbolic type nonlinear incidence rate. Assuming the proportion of infected population varies with time, our new model is described by an ordinary differential equation, which is analogous to the equation that describes the double Allee effect. The limit of the solution of this equation (deterministic model) is found when time tends to infinity...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Timur E Gureyev, Alexander Kozlov, Yakov I Nesterets, David M Paganin, Harry M Quiney
An uncertainty inequality is presented that establishes a lower limit for the product of the variance of the time-averaged intensity of a mode of a quantized electromagnetic field and the degree of its spatial localization. The lower limit is determined by the vacuum fluctuations within the volume corresponding to the width of the mode. This result also leads to a generalized form of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for boson fields in which the lower limit for the product of uncertainties in the spatial and momentum localization of a mode is equal to the product of Planck's constant and a dimensionless functional which reflects the joint signal-to-noise ratio of the position and momentum of vacuum fluctuations in the region of the phase space occupied by the mode...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wilhelm Braun, Rüdiger Thul, André Longtin
The theoretical description of nonrenewal stochastic systems is a challenge. Analytical results are often not available or can be obtained only under strong conditions, limiting their applicability. Also, numerical results have mostly been obtained by ad hoc Monte Carlo simulations, which are usually computationally expensive when a high degree of accuracy is needed. To gain quantitative insight into these systems under general conditions, we here introduce a numerical iterated first-passage time approach based on solving the time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) to describe the statistics of nonrenewal stochastic systems...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Prasenjit Das, Sanjay Puri, Moshe Schwartz
We study the Brownian dynamics of a solid particle on a vibrating solid surface. Phenomenologically, the interaction between the two solid surfaces is modeled by solid friction, and the Gaussian white noise models the vibration of the solid surface. The solid friction force is proportional to the sign of relative velocity. We derive the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the time-dependent probability distribution to find the particle at a given location. We calculate analytically the steady state velocity distribution function, mean-square velocity and diffusion coefficient in d-dimensions...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Jiaye Su, Yunzhen Zhao, Chang Fang, Yue Shi
Understanding the water permeation through a cell membrane is of primary importance for biological activities and a key step to capture its shape transformation in salt solution. In this work, we reveal the dynamical behaviors of osmotically driven transport of water molecules across a vesicle membrane by molecular dynamics simulations. Of particular interest is that the water transport in and out of vesicles is highly distinguishable given the osmotic force are the same, suggesting an asymmetric osmotic transportation...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
E Boujo, N Noiray
We present a model-based output-only method for identifying from time series the parameters governing the dynamics of stochastically forced oscillators. In this context, suitable models of the oscillator's damping and stiffness properties are postulated, guided by physical understanding of the oscillatory phenomena. The temporal dynamics and the probability density function of the oscillation amplitude are described by a Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation, respectively. One method consists in fitting the postulated analytical drift and diffusion coefficients with their estimated values, obtained from data processing by taking the short-time limit of the first two transition moments...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
D de Labrouhe, L Plancke, A Amad, C-L Charrel, D Touitou, M Bodon-Bruzel, P Thomas, T Fovet
BACKGROUND: In France, special full-time inpatient hospital units (UHSA) have been created for inmates with psychiatric disorders. Since they were established in 2010, the quality of care in such units has not been studied. Particularly, no patient satisfaction survey has been conducted yet. The main objective of this study was to assess the patients' satisfaction about their hospitalization in UHSA. METHODS: A descriptive study has been performed in two hospitals (UHSA of Villejuif and UHSA of Lille-Seclin)...
May 2, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Filip Poelaert, Caroline Verbaeys, Bernard Rappe, Bart Kimpe, Ignace Billiet, Hendrik Plancke, Karel Decaestecker, Valérie Fonteyne, Sarah Buelens, Nicolaas Lumen
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer in the context of the LoMP trial (which investigates the role of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy [cRP] in addition to standard of care [SoC]) and to provide a preliminary analysis of patient's characteristics, safety of cRP, and early local symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: cRP was performed in asymptomatic patients with a resectable tumor and who were fit to undergo surgery (group A, n = 17)...
August 2017: Urology
Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi, Andrea Puglisi, Claudio Maggi
Methods of stochastic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are applied to a recently introduced model of active particles. The model consists of an overdamped particle subject to Gaussian coloured noise. Inspired by stochastic thermodynamics, we derive from the system's Fokker-Planck equation the average exchanges of heat and work with the active bath and the associated entropy production. We show that a Clausius inequality holds, with the local (non-uniform) temperature of the active bath replacing the uniform temperature usually encountered in equilibrium systems...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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