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Bone Contusion

Ines G Alamo, Kolenkode B Kannan, Harry Ramos, Tyler J Loftus, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Propranolol has been shown previously to restore bone marrow function and improve anemia after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that daily clonidine administration would inhibit central sympathetic outflow and restore bone marrow function in our rodent model of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic stress. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 6 days of restraint stress after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock during which the animals received clonidine (75 μg/kg) after the restraint stress...
October 11, 2016: Surgery
Rachel H C Ng
Cortical blindness as sequelae of trauma has been reported in literature but mostly in the setting of occipital cortex or visual tract damages. We present a case of transient cortical blindness in a child following a closed head injury with a non-displaced occipital bone fracture and underlying occipital lobe contusion. We discuss the pathophysiology behind Post-traumatic transient cortical blindness, relevant investigations, and current management.
October 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Devesh Jalan, Neginder Saini, Mohammad Zaidi, Alexandra Pallottie, Stella Elkabes, Robert F Heary
OBJECTIVE In acute traumatic brain injury, decompressive craniectomy is a common treatment that involves the removal of bone from the cranium to relieve intracranial pressure. The present study investigated whether neurological function following a severe spinal cord injury improves after utilizing either a durotomy to decompress the intradural space and/or a duraplasty to maintain proper flow of cerebrospinal fluid. METHODS Sixty-four adult female rats (n = 64) were randomly assigned to receive either a 3- or 5-level decompressive laminectomy (Groups A and B), laminectomy + durotomy (Groups C and D), or laminectomy + duraplasty with graft (Group E and F) at 24 hours following a severe thoracic contusion injury (200 kilodynes)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Tomonori Morita, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Masahito Nakazaki, Hiroshi Nagahama, Shinichi Oka, Tsutomu Oshigiri, Tsuneo Takebayashi, Toshihiko Yamashita, Jeffery D Kocsis, Osamu Honmou
Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult bone marrow improves behavioral function in rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, most studies have focused on the acute or subacute phase of SCI. In the present study, MSCs derived from bone marrow of rats were intravenously infused 10weeks after the induction of a severe contusive SCI. Open field locomotor function was assessed weekly until 20weeks post-SCI. Motor recovery was greater in the MSC-treated group with rapid improvement beginning in earlier post-infusion times than in the vehicle-treated group...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann, Paulo Henrique Ruschel, Rodrigo Guimarães Huyer
Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Zin Z Khaing, Lindsay N Cates, Amanda E Fischedick, Abbi M McClintic, Pierre D Mourad, Christoph P Hofstetter
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to permanent neurological impairment. Currently, the only clinically effective intervention for patients with acute SCI is surgical decompression by removal of impinging bone fragments within 24 hours after injury. Recent clinical studies suggest that elevated intraparenchymal spinal pressure (ISP) limits functional recovery following SCI. Here, we report on the temporal and spatial patterns of elevated ISP following a moderate rodent contusion SCI. Compared to physiological ISP in the intact cord (2...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Margaret N Deane, Michael Gregory, Maurice Mars, Linda Bester
This study reports our experience in developing a simple, minor injury. After reviewing the literature, a 'drop-mass' method was selected where a 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped up to 15 times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis of New Zealand white rabbits. To determine the extent of injury and degree of healing, biopsies were obtained six days after injury from the healing vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH) and examined by light microscopy (LM)...
2013: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Prakash Singh, G S Misra, Amarjit Singh, Mgk Murthy
During a period of one year, from Jan 99 to Dec 99, 60 cases of missile injuries were treated at our centre. 59 were males and one was a female and their average age was 25 years. 43 patients had suffered splinter injuries, 12 had gunshot wounds and 5 had suffered injuries by improvised explosive devices. Glasgow coma scale was < 5 in 8 patients, 5-8 in 14, 8-12 in 30 and 13-15 in 8 patients. Extensive comminution of skull bones was found in 10 patients. 35 patients had more or less clear penetration of the skull and the rest had orbito-cranial or facio-cranial wounds...
October 2003: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
L Ressel, U Hetzel, E Ricci
Veterinary pathologists commonly encounter lesions of blunt trauma. The development of lesions is affected by the object's mass, velocity, size, shape, and angle of impact and by the plasticity and mobility of the impacted organ. Scrape, impact, and pattern abrasions cause localized epidermal loss and sometimes broken hairs and implanted foreign material. Contusions are best identified after reflecting the skin, and must be differentiated from coagulopathies and livor mortis. Lacerations-traumatic tissue tears-may have irregular margins, bridging by more resilient tissue, deviation of the wound tail, crushed hairs, and unilateral abrasion...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Kulamani Sahoo, Ashish Garg, Pramod Saha, Jainesh Valjibhai Dodia, Vinay Rajappa Raj, Shweta Jagadish Bhairagond
INTRODUCTION: The knee is a major weight bearing joint that provides mobility and stability during physical activity as well as balance while standing. If the knee is exposed to forces beyond its physiologic range, risk of injury to bone or soft tissue structures increases. A thorough understanding of knee injury patterns and their mechanisms may help in achieving more accurate assessment of injuries. AIM: To identify imaging pattern in bone marrow oedema and to correlate the pattern of bone marrow oedema retrospectively with type of knee injury from clinical history...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Guan-Yang Song, Hui Zhang, Qian-Qian Wang, Jin Zhang, Yue Li, Hua Feng
PURPOSE: To examine the associated findings with bone contusions in patients after acute noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. METHODS: From January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, patients who underwent ACL reconstructions performed by the senior author (H.F.) were retrospectively analyzed. Presence and severity of bone contusion were determined from preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each anatomic site including the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), lateral tibial plateau (LTP), medial femoral condyle (MFC), and medial tibial plateau (MTP)...
May 10, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Yong-Whee Bahk, Yong-An Chung, U-Young Lee, Sang In Park
The aim of this rat experiment using gamma correction pinhole bone scan (GCPBS) was two-fold: first, to confirm whether specific unwashed micro Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (Tc-HDP) uptake occurs in trabecular contusion (TC) and washed out uptake occurs in edema and/or hemorrhage-irritated trabeculae, and, second, to histopathologically identify the tissue in which the Tc-HDP uptake is unwashed. Five young Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the contusion model and one rat was used as a control. Trauma was inflicted on the femoral shaft with a free-falling iron ball...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Chao Wang, Dongling Shi, Xinghui Song, Yingying Chen, Linlin Wang, Xiaoming Zhang
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) therapy for tissue repair is limited by low survival of cells transplanted in the recipient sites after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated the effects of a calpain inhibitor (MDL28170) on BMSCs survival by a rat model of spinal cord injury in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned medium from hypoxia injured VSC4.1 motor neurons (Hypoxia-CM) were collected to mimic the micro-environment of injured spinal cord. Tunicamycin was also applied to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in BMSCs...
July 2016: Neurochemistry International
Scott A Myers, Andrew N Bankston, Darlene A Burke, Sujata Saraswat Ohri, Scott R Whittemore
This article reviews all historical literature in which rodent-derived myelinating cells have been engrafted into the contused adult rodent spinal cord. From 2500 initial PubMed citations identified, human cells grafts, bone mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, non-myelinating cell grafts, and rodent grafts into hemisection or transection models were excluded, resulting in the 67 studies encompassed in this review. Forty five of those involved central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells, including neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), neural restricted precursor cells (NRPs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and 22 studies involved Schwann cells (SC)...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Elizaveta Kon, Mario Ronga, Giuseppe Filardo, Jack Farr, Henning Madry, Giuseppe Milano, Luca Andriolo, Nogah Shabshin
Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) around the knee are a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. However, despite the growing interest on BMLs in multiple pathological conditions, they remain controversial not only for the still unknown role in the etiopathological processes, but also in terms of clinical impact and treatment. The differential diagnosis includes a wide range of conditions: traumatic contusion and fractures, cyst formation and erosions, hematopoietic and infiltrated marrow, developmental chondroses, disuse and overuse, transient bone marrow oedema syndrome and, lastly, subchondral insufficiency fractures and true osteonecrosis...
June 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
R Schmitt, H Rosenthal
Up to 30 % of acute scaphoid fractures are missed in conventional radiography. CT and MRI should be early performed in the diagnostic workflow, when radiograms (dorsopalmar, lateral and Stecher's views) are negative or inconclusive in fracture detection. Significance of CT is different from that of MRI: Sensitivity of CT imaging (85 to 95 %) is superior to conventional radiography (about 70 %), but inferior to MRI (almost 100 %). However, CT (specificity 95 to 100 %) is able to provide more detailed anatomic information of the fracture pattern when compared to MRI (specificity 80 to 90 %)...
May 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Xiujun Tang, Bo Wang, Zairong Wei, Dali Wang, Wenjie Han, Wenduo Zhang, Shujun Li
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of V-Y advanced sense-remained posterior tibial artery perforator flap in repairing wound around the ankle. METHODS Between March 2012 and January 2015, 11 patients with wounds around the ankle were treated by V-Y advanced sense-remained posterior tibial artery perforator flap. There were 6 males and 5 females with a median age of 37 years (range, 21-56 years). The causes were traffic accident injury in 3 cases, thermal injury in 2 cases, burn in 2 cases, iatrogenic wounds in 2 cases, and local contusion in 2 cases...
December 2015: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Ishwar Singh, Seema Rohilla, Saquib Azad Siddiqui, Prashant Kumar
BACKGROUND: Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication of pediatric head trauma and causes delayed onset neurological deficits and cranial defect. GSF usually develops following linear fracture with underlying dural tear resulting in herniation of the brain. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid complications. However, there are no clear-cut guidelines for the early diagnosis of GSF. The present study was conducted to identify the criteria for the early diagnosis of GSF...
June 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Seok Voon White, Chris E Czisch, May H Han, Christine D Plant, Alan R Harvey, Giles W Plant
Cellular transplantation strategies utilizing intraspinal injection of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) have been reported as beneficial for spinal cord injuries. However, intraspinal injection is not only technically challenging, but requires invasive surgical procedures for patients. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and potential benefits of noninvasive intravenous injection of MPCs in two models of cervical spinal cord injury, unilateral C5 contusion and complete unilateral C5 hemisection. MPCs isolated from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-luciferase transgenic mice compact bone (1 × 10(6) cells), or vehicle Hank's Buffered Saline Solution (HBSS), were intravenously injected via the tail vein at D1, D3, D7, D10, or D14...
July 2016: Stem Cells
Toshiko Tanaka, Hiroaki Sato, Kentaro Kasai
This report aimed to present the postmortem finding of toluene in a homicide victim buried under the ground for six years. The bones of the skull and limbs were exposed, and the remainder of the subcutaneous tissues, brain and heart had formed into adipocere. There were numerous fractures in the skull and the anterior side of the ribs. A cardiac contusion extending into the cavity of the right ventricle was also observed. No other obvious injuries were identified on the body. The concentration of toluene in the bone marrow within the head of the humerus was 58...
March 2016: Legal Medicine
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