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Pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412967/factors-associated-with-lingual-tonsil-hypertrophy-in-canadian-adults
#1
Matthew S Harris, Brian W Rotenberg, Kathryn Roth, Leigh J Sowerby
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophy of the lingual tonsil tissue in the adult patient is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. The underlying etiology of lingual tonsil hypertrophy (LTH) in the adult patient is unclear and likely multifactorial. Previous studies have suggested that the lingual tonsils may undergo compensatory hyperplasia post-tonsillectomy in children, although it is unknown if this occurs or persists into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors are associated with LTH in a population of Canadian adults...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408696/assessment-of-tongue-mechanical-properties-using-different-contraction-tasks
#2
Wen-Yang Li, Simon Gakwaya, Didier Saey, Frédéric Sériès
Inadequate UA dilator muscle function may play an important role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, tongue mechanical properties have been mainly assessed using protrusion protocol with conflicting results, while performance during elevation task among patients with OSA remains unknown. This study was aimed to assess tongue muscle strength, strength stability, endurance time, fatigue indices and muscle total work, using elevation and protrusion tasks with repetitive isometric fatiguing contractions during awake in 12 normal+mild, 17 moderate and 11 severe patients with OSA, and to assess the influence of BMI and age...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401379/kidney-lung-pathophysiological-crosstalk-its-characteristics-and-importance
#3
REVIEW
Pilar Domenech, Tomas Perez, Agustina Saldarini, Pedro Uad, Carlos G Musso
Crosstalk between the lung and the kidney is based on the similarities that these organs share. This is why different diseases that affect one organ can have repercussions on the other. Patients with acute kidney injury can present complications such as pulmonary edema and require mechanical ventilation in respiratory failure. This interaction occurs due to the increase in systemic immune mediators that cause inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, and an increase in vascular permeability in the lung. With regard to lung-induced renal damage, the kidney can also be affected by chemical mediators, which are translocated into the bloodstream...
April 11, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394772/obstructive-sleep-apnea-increases-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressure-variability-in-hypertensive-patients
#4
Jing Shi, Jingyan Piao, Bin Liu, Yujiao Pan, Yongtai Gong, Xianzhu Deng, Weiyan Sun, Shuang Lu, Yue Li
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as the most common secondary contributing factor for the development and worsening of hypertension. However, the underlying relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and OSA are still not very clear. Therefore, we investigated the influences of OSA on BPV in hypertensive patients and explored the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring was carried out and polysomnography was performed to detect sleep apnea...
April 7, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390595/obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-a-5-month-old-with-tonsillar-hypertrophy-secondary-to-congenital-neutropenia-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
O G Ahmed, E M Lambert
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the primary surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (TAH). We present the case of a 5-month old male with congenital neutropenia who developed severe TAH during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). He had severe OSA, decreased oral intake, and failure to thrive (FTT) which all improved after undergoing a successful intracapsular T&A. We describe a successful procedure to help alleviate symptoms of OSA and FTT in this young infant with congenital neutropenia who developed TAH during treatment with G-CSF...
May 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366339/prevalence-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-a-population-of-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia
#6
L Buratti, C Petrelli, E Potente, A Plutino, G Viticchi, L Falsetti, L Provinciali, M Silvestrini
OBJECTIVE: The etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is largely undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), a condition associated with subtle changes in brain structures involved in memory processes, increases in subjects who have previously experienced a TGA episode. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients who had had a TGA episode were included. A case-control model was used, matching cases with controls by sex, age, and body mass index category...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362150/the-cornerstone-of-the-aberrant-pathophysiology-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-tissue-responses-to-chronic-sustained-versus-intermittent-hypoxia
#7
Krishna M Sundar, Josef T Prchal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289401/sleep-disorders-is-the-trigemino-cardiac-reflex-a-missing-link
#8
REVIEW
Tumul Chowdhury, Barkha Bindu, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Bernhard Schaller
Trigeminal innervated areas in face, nasolacrimal, and nasal mucosa can produce a wide array of cardiorespiratory manifestations that include apnea, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension, and arrhythmias. This reflex is a well-known entity called "trigemino-cardiac reflex" (TCR). The role of TCR is investigated in various pathophysiological conditions especially in neurosurgical, but also skull base surgery procedures. Additionally, its significance in various sleep-related disorders has also been highlighted recently...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282995/understanding-copd-overlap-syndromes
#9
Tuang Yeow Poh, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Adrian Kwok Wai Chan, Anthony Chau Ang Yii, Valerie Fei Lee Yong, Pei Yee Tiew, Mariko Siyue Koh, Sanjay Haresh Chotirmall
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accounts for a large burden of lung disease. It can 'overlap' with other respiratory diseases including bronchiectasis, fibrosis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). While COPD alone confers morbidity and mortality, common features with contrasting clinical outcomes can occur in COPD 'overlap syndromes'. Areas covered: Given the large degree of heterogeneity in COPD, individual variation to treatment is adopted based on its observed phenotype, which in turn overlaps with features of other respiratory disease states such as asthma...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268774/distinguishing-obstructive-from-central-sleep-apneas-and-hypopneas-using-linear-svm-and-acoustic-features
#10
Richard Hummel, T Douglas Bradley, Devin Packer, Hisham Alshaer
Sleep Apnea (SA) is a very common but underdiagnosed respiratory disorder. SA has 2 main types, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). The distinction between the 2 types is important for proper clinical management. Our aim in this study was to deploy acoustic analysis of breath sounds to distinguish central from obstructive events. We recorded breath sounds from 29 patients from which 45 segments with obstructive only and 40 segments with central only respiratory events were isolated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255159/high-intensity-aerobic-exercise-training-improves-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-insulin-resistance-without-basal-autophagy-modulation
#11
Marion Pauly, Allan Assense, Aurélie Rondon, Amandine Thomas, Hervé Dubouchaud, Damien Freyssenet, Henri Benoit, Josiane Castells, Patrice Flore
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21-5% FiO2, 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT)...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238099/phenotyping-based-treatment-improves-obstructive-sleep-apnea-symptoms-and-severity-a-pilot-study
#12
Ludovico Messineo, Roberto Magri, Luciano Corda, Laura Pini, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Claudio Tantucci
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder characterized by multiple pathogenetic roots. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is almost always prescribed as the first-line treatment to all patients regardless of the heterogeneous pathophysiology, because it mechanically splints the airways open and reduces the collapsibility of the upper airway. Despite its high efficacy, CPAP is burdened by poor adherence and compliance rates. In this pilot study, we treated OSA patients with composite approaches different than CPAP, tailoring the therapeutic choice on OSA phenotypic traits...
February 25, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226965/distinguishing-obstructive-from-central-sleep-apneas-and-hypopneas-using-linear-svm-and-acoustic-features
#13
Richard Hummel, T Douglas Bradley, Devin Packer, Hisham Alshaer, Richard Hummel, T Douglas Bradley, Devin Packer, Hisham Alshaer, Devin Packer, T Douglas Bradley, Hisham Alshaer, Richard Hummel
Sleep Apnea (SA) is a very common but underdiagnosed respiratory disorder. SA has 2 main types, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). The distinction between the 2 types is important for proper clinical management. Our aim in this study was to deploy acoustic analysis of breath sounds to distinguish central from obstructive events. We recorded breath sounds from 29 patients from which 45 segments with obstructive only and 40 segments with central only respiratory events were isolated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218220/establishment-of-a-rabbit-model-of-chronic-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-application-in-cardiovascular-consequences
#14
Li-Fang Xu, Xiu-Fang Zhou, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Yu-Chuan Luo, Wen Lu
BACKGROUND: Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications and its clinical features are well characterized, it is difficult to replicate the OSA hypoxic model in humans. We aimed to establish an experimental rabbit model for chronic OSA and to explore its application to measure blood pressure (BP), myocardial systolic function, and oxidative stress. METHODS: The rabbit model for OSA was established by repeatedly closing the airway and then reopening it...
February 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215270/decreased-cerebral-vasomotor-reactivity-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#15
Oguzhan Oz, Serdar Tasdemir, Hakan Akgun, Murat Erdem, Adem Balikci, Ahmet Cetiz, Mehmet Yucel, Umit Hidir Ulas, Seref Demirkaya, Yasar Kutukcu, Fuat Özgen
OBJECTIVE: In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), any of the activated neural, vascular, hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and thrombotic mechanisms may be related to increased cerebrovascular disease and risk of death; however, the possible pathophysiological process between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and stroke has not been clearly explained. We hypothesize that alterations in vasomotor reactivity in patients may be responsible for their altered cerebral blood flow, and may contribute to the increased risk of ischemic stroke...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213776/the-importance-of-drug-induced-sedation-endoscopy-d-i-s-e-techniques-in-surgical-decision-making-conventional-versus-target-controlled-infusion-techniques-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study-and-a-retrospective-surgical-outcomes-analysis
#16
Andrea De Vito, Vanni Agnoletti, Gianluca Zani, Ruggero Massimo Corso, Giovanni D'Agostino, Elisabetta Firinu, Chiara Marchi, Ying-Shuo Hsu, Stefano Maitan, Claudio Vicini
Drug-Induced Sedation Endoscopy (DISE) consists of the direct observation of the upper airways during sedative-induced sleep, allowing the identification of the sites of pharyngeal collapse, which is the main pathological event in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The Authors have compared Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) sedation endoscopy (TCI-DISE) technique to conventional DISE (CDISE), performed by a manual bolus injection of sedative agent, to recreate accurately and safely snoring and apnea patterns comparable to natural sleep...
February 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169105/current-evidence-on-prevalence-and-clinical-outcomes-of-co-morbid-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Md Shajedur R Shawon, Jennifer L Perret, Chamara V Senaratna, Caroline Lodge, Garun S Hamilton, Shyamali C Dharmage
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the evidence on prevalence, polysomnographic findings and clinical outcomes of co-morbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - known as the "overlap syndrome". We systematically searched PubMed on 1 December 2015 using appropriate medical subject headings (MeSH) and text words to capture prevalence studies and comparative studies of any observational design examining the clinical outcomes in patients with co-existent COPD and OSA...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167000/urine-cysteinyl-leukotriene-levels-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-before-and-after-adenotonsillectomy
#18
A Satdhabudha, P Sritipsukho, S Manochantr, W Chanvimalueng, U Chaumrattanakul, P Chaumphol
OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common problem in children and is associated with increased cardiovascular, neurobehavioral and somatic growth consequences. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play a major role with local and systemic relations to the pathophysiology of OSA. The level of CysLTs in urine, blood, exhaled breath and adenotonsillar tissue of OSA children are increased. However it remains unclear whether inflammatory marker levels are alleviated after adenotonsillectomy...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154583/renal-denervation-for-chronic-heart-failure-background-and-pathophysiological-rationale
#19
REVIEW
Michael Böhm, Sebastian Ewen, Felix Mahfoud
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system...
January 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126503/-pathophysiology-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-its-cardiometabolic-consequences
#20
Marie Destors, Renaud Tamisier, Louis-Marie Galerneau, Patrick Lévy, Jean-Louis Pepin
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent partial or complete pharyngeal collapses during sleep. The pathophysiology of OSAS is complex and multifactorial. Factors influencing upper airway patency include a reduction in upper airway dimensions that can result from both anatomical and functional alterations (obesity, fluid shift or maxillo-facial structural changes), and increased pharyngeal collapsibility owing to reduced neuromuscular compensation and lack of the pharyngeal protective reflex during sleep...
January 23, 2017: La Presse Médicale
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