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coronary arteries

Y Berlin-Broner, M Febbraio, L Levin
A systematic review was conducted to assess the association between apical periodontitis (AP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies published from the earliest date available until September 2015 were retrieved from the Medline, PubMed and Embase databases. The included studies reported the results from observational studies and assessed the link between AP and CVD as confirmed by one of the following criteria: diagnosed coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality caused by cardiac pathology...
October 21, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
K L Yew, Z Kang, A Anum
Coronary artery anomalies are often discovered incidentally during cardiac catheterization or computed tomography coronary angiography and may involve the affected coronary artery origin and its course. Coronary artery anomalies are associated with congenital heart disease. The affected coronary arteries may have an unusual high take off origin, origin from contralateral or non-coronary sinus, origin from the pulmonary artery, single coronary system or coronary artery fistula.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Shigemiki Omiya, Yosuke Omori, Manabu Taneike, Andrea Protti, Osamu Yamaguchi, Shizuo Akira, Ajay M Shah, Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
We have reported that the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of pressure overload-induced inflammatory responses and heart failure. However, its role in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction has not been elucidated.TLR9-deficient and control C57Bl/6 wild-type mice were subjected to left coronary artery ligation. The survival rate 14 days post-operation was significantly lower in TLR9-deficient mice than that in wild-type mice with evidence of cardiac rupture in all dead mice...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Marty D Spranger, Jasdeep Kaur, Javier A Sala-Mercado, Abhinav C Krishnan, Rania Abu-Hamdah, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Robert A Augustyniak, Donal S O'Leary
Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise is, in part, a function of muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA). As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction during mild treadmill exercise with MMA (elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Anne-Maree Kelly, Sharon Klim
BACKGROUND: To determine the rate of all cause and cardiac death, new myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularisation at over three years from index visit in emergency department chest pain patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) at index presentation who had a negative electrocardiogram (ECG) and biomarker workup for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: An unplanned sub-study of a prospective observational study of consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED with atraumatic chest pain (or equivalents)...
September 13, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Helle Precht, Pieter H Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Jouke Dijkstra, Oke Gerke, Jesper Thygesen, Kenneth Egstrup, Jess Lambrechtsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
S Pscherer, A Nüssler, C Bahrs, M Reumann, C Ihle, U Stöckle, S Ehnert, T Freude, B G Ochs, I Flesch, P Ziegler
Background: The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is also reflected in the patient population of a trauma and orthopaedic centre. Diabetics also exhibit more comorbidities than non-diabetics. In addition to surgical problems in these patients, hospitalisation is often accompanied by complications, which can prolong treatment and increase costs. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse hospitalisation of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, as well as differences in treatment costs, depending on associated age and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Alessandro Mantovani, Lucia Mingolla, Riccardo Rigolon, Isabella Pichiri, Valentina Cavalieri, Giacomo Zoppini, Giuseppe Lippi, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes. We assessed whether NAFLD also predicts the risk of incident CVD events in type 1 diabetic adults. METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 286 type 1 diabetic outpatients (mean age 43±14years; median duration of diabetes 17 [10-30] years) without secondary causes of chronic liver diseases, who were followed for a mean period of 5...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Zhaoyang Hu, Sheng Hu, Shuai Yang, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning stimuli conducted in remote organs can protect the heart against subsequent ischemic injury, but effects on arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in vivo, and determined the potential role of ERK/GSK-3βsignaling. METHODS/RESULTS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated, control, or RLIPC groups...
2016: PloS One
Mala Ganesan, Sheikh Nizamuddin, Shiva Krishna Katkam, Konda Kumaraswami, Uday Kumar Hosad, Limmy Loret Lobo, Vijay Kumar Kutala, Kumarasamy Thangaraj
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. It is a multi-factorial disease and several studies have demonstrated that the genetic factors play a major role in CAD. Although variations in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene are reported to be associated with CAD, this gene has not been studied in South Indian populations. Hence we evaluated the CETP gene variations in CAD patients of South Indian origin. METHODS: We sequenced all the exons, exon-intron boundaries and UTRs of CETP in 323 CAD patients along with 300 ethnically and age matched controls...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Verdini, Daniel Vargas, Anderson Kuo, Brian Ghoshhajra, Phillip Kim, Horacio Murillo, Jacobo Kirsch, Michael Lane, Carlos Restrepo
PURPOSE: Coronary-pulmonary arterial fistulas (CPAFs) are rare coronary artery anomalies that have been described only in limited case reports. This study aims to evaluate the clinical presentation and imaging findings of CPAFs collected from 6 participating medical centers along with CPAFs reported in the literature, to discern any general trends present in CPAFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 cases of CPAF diagnosed by coronary computed tomography angiography were collected across 6 participating institutions...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Vivian L Bishay, Derek M Biederman, Thomas J Ward, Imramsjah Martijn J van der Bom, Rahul S Patel, Edward Kim, Francis S Nowakowski, Robert A Lookstein, Aaron M Fischman
OBJECTIVE: The transradial approach (TRA) has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with arterial coronary interventions. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) performed via the TRA can enhance patient comfort, compared with the traditional transfemoral approach (TFA), by allowing immediate ambulation and precluding potential complications associated with the TFA, such as closure device injury or retroperitoneal hematoma. We report our initial experience with and technique for using the TRA for SIRT...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Satish Chirde
A 45 yrs male presented with angina. ECG showed transient CHB, T wave inversion in V3 to V6 and inferior leads. It was difficult to predict the culprit vessel based on ECG. Coronary angiography showed thrombotic lesions in LAD, LCX and OM which can potentially impact identification of culprit vessel and hence affect the management with primary PCI.
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Debjani S Goswami, Tanuja P Manohar
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the major cause of morbidity and mortality in most of the developing countries including India. Cardiometabolic risk factors play a vital role in causation of coronary artery disease. Present study was carried out to investigate the role of various risk factors in the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in population from Central India. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a hospital-based age and sex matched case-control study, carried out at Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
C Roehrig, M Govier, J Robinson, A Aneman
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether measuring carotid arterial flow by the time velocity integral using vascular Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor cardiac output and volume responsiveness. METHODS: The carotid Doppler flow (time velocity integral and peak flow velocity variation) was assessed in triplicate by an intensivist with formal vascular ultrasound training. Thirty-three patients admitted following coronary by-pass surgery were studied before and after a passive leg-raising manoeuvre to investigate volume responsiveness (more than 10% increase in cardiac output) along with indices of arterial load measuring cardiac output by thermodilution...
October 21, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Joseph M Blankush, Robbie Freeman, Joy McIlvaine, Trung Tran, Stephen Nassani, I Michael Leitman
Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Cosmo Godino, Antonio Colombo, Alberto Margonato
Heart rate is an established prognostic marker for longevity and is an important contributor in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Most ischemic episodes are triggered by an increase in heart rate, which causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption. In addition, increased heart rate is a modifiable risk factor for chronic heart failure. Ivabradine, an inhibitor of If ion channels, is an approved second-line anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Ana Claudia Gomes Pereira Petisco, Jorge Eduardo Assef, Carlos Alberto de Jesus, Mohamed Hassan Saleh, Jose Eduardo Martins Barbosa, David Costa de Souza Le Bihan, Ibraim Masciarelli França Pinto, Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos Barretto, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego Sousa
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among women in several countries. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) could enable the adoption of preventive measures to avoid cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1 ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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