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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763628/whole-snake-venoms-cytotoxic-anti-metastatic-and-antiangiogenic-properties
#1
Harald Kerkkamp, Christoph Bagowski, Jeroen Kool, Babette van Soolingen, Freek Vonk, Daniëlle Vlecken
Currently, biological and organic substances are screened in order to find a new generation of therapeutics active against cancer. Previous research has identified promising candidate peptides in snake venom. In this study, venoms from different snake species (Naja annulifera, Naja kaouthia, Ophiophagus hannah and Echis carinatus) were screened for potential anti-cancer properties using pancreatic tumour cells as the assay system. The cells were incubated with venom and then subjected to the following analyses: (i) in vitro cell death (ii) in vitro migration (iii) in vivo dissemination and (iv) in vivo angiogenesis...
May 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752233/electro-physiology-of-coupling-model-and-its-impact-on-naja-kaouthia-venom-treated-sciatic-nerves-of-toad
#2
H K Das, P P Sahu
Demyelination in peripheral nerves causes dysfunction of slowing down and stoppage of nerve impulses causing many neurological diseases, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. This paper aims to develop a recovery model having interaction of a demyelinated nerve with a normal myelinated nerve. We validated the model by coupling between peripheral nerve of toad (demyelinated with Naja kaouthia venom) and a normal nerve of toad. An increase in both nerve conduction velocity as well as compound action potential amplitude is observed in the repetition of the experiments indicating gradual recovery of the patients...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278784/elucidating-the-biogeographical-variation-of-the-venom-of-naja-naja-spectacled-cobra-from-pakistan-through-a-venom-decomplexing-proteomic-study
#3
Kin Ying Wong, Choo Hock Tan, Kae Yi Tan, Naeem H Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan
Naja naja is a medically important species that is distributed widely in South Asia. Its venom lethality and neutralization profile have been reported to vary markedly, but the understanding of this phenomenon has been limited without a comprehensive venom profile for the Pakistani N. naja. This study set to investigate the venom proteome of Pakistani N. naja applying reverse-phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and data-mining approaches. The venom enzymatics and antigen binding activities were also studied...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244815/analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-taiwanese-freeze-dried-neurotoxic-antivenom-against-naja-kaouthia-naja-siamensis-and-ophiophagus-hannah-through-proteomics-and-animal-model-approaches
#4
Chien-Chun Liu, Chen-Hsien You, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu, Guo-Jen Huang, Chien-Hsin Liu, Wen-Chin Hsieh, Chih-Chuan Lin
In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. In Taiwan, a bivalent antivenom-freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV)-against Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra is available...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232492/use-of-split-free-nano-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-interface-to-improve-the-detection-of-%C3%AE-cobratoxin-in-equine-plasma-for-doping-control
#5
Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Patrice Garcia, Florence Cormant, Benoit Loup, Marie-Agnès Popot, Yves Bonnaire
Cobra (Naja naja kaouthia) venom contains a toxin called α-cobratoxin (α-Cbtx) containing 71 amino acids (MW 7821 Da) with a reported analgesic power greater than morphine. In 2013, the first analytical method for the detection of α-Cbtx in equine plasma was developed by Bailly-Chouriberry et al, allowing the confirmation of the presence of α-Cbtx at low concentrations (1-5 ng/mL or 130-640 fmol/mL) in plasma samples. To increase the method sensitivity and therefore to improve the detection of α-Cbtx in post-administration plasma samples, a nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/high resolution mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/HRMS) method was developed...
December 12, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864897/new-paradoxical-three-finger-toxin-from-the-cobra-naja-kaouthia-venom-isolation-and-characterization
#6
A V Osipov, A V Meshcheryakova, V G Starkov, R Kh Ziganshin, T L Oustitch, L-E Peters, V I Tsetlin, Yu N Utkin
A new three-finger toxin nakoroxin was isolated from the cobra Naja kaouthia venom, and its complete amino acid sequence was established. Nakoroxin belongs to the group of "orphan" toxins, data on the biological activity of which are practically absent. Nakoroxin shows no cytotoxicity and does not inhibit the binding of α-bungarotoxin to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of muscle and α7 types. However, it potentiates the binding of α-bungarotoxin to the acetylcholine-binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis...
July 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819275/a-novel-in-vitro-potency-assay-of-antisera-against-thai-naja-kaouthia-based-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-binding
#7
Kavi Ratanabanangkoon, Pavinee Simsiriwong, Kritsada Pruksaphon, Kae Yi Tan, Sukanya Eursakun, Choo Hock Tan, Bunkuea Chantrathonkul, Wongsakorn Wongwadhunyoo, Sirida Youngchim, Nget Hong Tan
Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PSNT, thus preventing it from binding to nAChR...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474628/protection-against-osteoarthritis-in-experimental-animals-by-nanogold-conjugated-snake-venom-protein-toxin-gold-nanoparticle-naja-kaouthia-cytotoxin-1
#8
Antony Gomes, Partha Pratim Saha, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta, Subir Chandra Dasgupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Increased severity of osteoarthritis (OA) and adverse side effects of its treatment led to the search for alternative therapies. It was previously reported that snake venom protein toxin Naja kaouthia cytotoxin 1 (NKCT1) and gold nanoparticle (GNP) individually have potential against excremental arthritis. In this study, we analyzed the protective activity of GNP conjugated protein toxin NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) against experimental OA. METHODS: Gold nanoparticle conjugation with NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) was done and its physiochemical properties were studied...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421973/-bitten-by-an-exotic-venomous-snake
#9
M A Dijkman, I de Vries, M van Dam, D W de Lange
BACKGROUND: Patients who have been bitten by an exotic venomous snake are at risk of severe morbidity and a fatal outcome following an incorrect risk-assessment. Treatment with an antivenom can be necessary and can turn out to be lifesaving. In the Netherlands there are only a few cases of bites from exotic venomous snakes each year. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 28-year-old man presented at the emergency department (ED) after having been bitten by a monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia)...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392982/comparative-venom-gland-transcriptomics-of-naja-kaouthia-monocled-cobra-from-malaysia-and-thailand-elucidating-geographical-venom-variation-and-insights-into-sequence-novelty
#10
Kae Yi Tan, Choo Hock Tan, Lawan Chanhome, Nget Hong Tan
BACKGROUND: The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) is a medically important venomous snake in Southeast Asia. Its venom has been shown to vary geographically in relation to venom composition and neurotoxic activity, indicating vast diversity of the toxin genes within the species. To investigate the polygenic trait of the venom and its locale-specific variation, we profiled and compared the venom gland transcriptomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M) and Thailand (NK-T) applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263888/combined-venomics-antivenomics-and-venom-gland-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-monocoled-cobra-naja-kaouthia-from-china
#11
Ning Xu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Yin Yin, Shan-Shan Shen, Lin-Lin Shan, Chuan-Xi Chen, Yan-Xia Zhang, Jian-Fang Gao, Xiang Ji
We conducted an omics-analysis of the venom of Naja kaouthia from China. Proteomics analysis revealed six protein families [three-finger toxins (3-FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ), nerve growth factor, snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), cysteine-rich secretory protein and ohanin], and venom-gland transcriptomics analysis revealed 28 protein families from 79 unigenes. 3-FTx (56.5% in proteome/82.0% in transcriptome) and PLA2 (26.9%/13.6%) were identified as the most abundant families in venom proteome and venom-gland transcriptome...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138054/bites-by-the-monocled-cobra-naja-kaouthia-in-chittagong-division-bangladesh-epidemiology-clinical-features-of-envenoming-and-management-of-70-identified-cases
#12
M A Faiz, M F Ahsan, A Ghose, M R Rahman, R Amin, M Hossain, M N U Tareq, M A Jalil, U Kuch, R D G Theakston, D A Warrell, J B Harris
AbstractWe describe 70 cases of monocled cobra ( Naja kaouthia ) bite admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The biting snakes were identified by examining the dead snake and/or detecting N. kaouthia venom antigens in patients' serum. Bites were most common in the early morning and evening during the monsoon (May-July). Ligatures were routinely applied to the bitten limb before admission. Thirty-seven patients consulted traditional healers, most of whom made incisions around the bite site...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836789/evaluation-of-cytotoxicity-of-a-purified-venom-protein-from-naja-kaouthia-nkct1-using-gold-nanoparticles-for-targeted-delivery-to-cancer-cell
#13
Tanmoy Bhowmik, Partha Pratim Saha, Amrita Sarkar, Antony Gomes
In our earlier report, gold nanoparticle (GNP) and snake venom protein toxin NKCT1 were conjugated and primary characteristics were done. In this communication, further characteristics of GNP-NKCT1 were done with TGA, BET, Zeta potential, ICP-MS, FTIR, XPS, and in vitro release kinetics for its physicochemical, molecular nature and bonding. TGA and ICP-MS showed that the number of conjugation was 40 ± 5 to 90 ± 8 NKCT1 per gold nanoparticles. FTIR and XPS corresponding to (CO), (NH), (SS) reformulated the conjugation of GNP with NKCT1...
January 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763543/cross-neutralisation-of-in-vitro-neurotoxicity-of-asian-and-australian-snake-neurotoxins-and-venoms-by-different-antivenoms
#14
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV)...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527270/nkct1-purified-naja-kaouthia-protein-toxin-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-induced-akt-mtor-inactivation-mediated-autophagic-and-caspase-3-activated-apoptotic-cell-death-in-leukemic-cell
#15
Tanmoy Bhowmik, Antony Gomes
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticle (GNP) and snake venom protein toxin NKCT1 was conjugated as stated earlier (Bhowmik et al., 2013). The aim of this study was to explore the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway and autophagy inducing ability of gold nanoparticles tagged snake venom protein toxin NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) in human leukemic U937 and K562 cell line. METHODS: GNP-NKCT1 induced apoptosis in U937 and K562 cell line were assessed through mitochondrial membrane potential assay, ROS generation assay, caspase 3 pathways and western blotting...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343701/central-loop-of-non-conventional-toxin-wtx-from-naja-kaouthia-is-important-for-interaction-with-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#16
Ekaterina N Lyukmanova, Mikhail A Shulepko, Zakhar O Shenkarev, Igor E Kasheverov, Anton O Chugunov, Dmitrii S Kulbatskii, Mikhail Yu Myshkin, Yuri N Utkin, Roman G Efremov, Victor I Tsetlin, Alexander S Arseniev, Mikhail P Kirpichnikov, Dmitry A Dolgikh
'Three-finger' toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia interacts with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs). Mutagenesis and competition experiments with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin revealed that Arg31 and Arg32 residues from the WTX loop II are important for binding to Torpedo californica and human α7 nAChRs. Computer modeling suggested that loop II occupies the orthosteric binding site at α7 nAChR. The similar toxin interface was previously described as a major determinant of allosteric interactions with mAChRs...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163885/an-analysis-of-venom-ontogeny-and-prey-specific-toxicity-in-the-monocled-cobra-naja-kaouthia
#17
Cassandra M Modahl, Ashis K Mukherjee, Stephen P Mackessy
Venoms of snakes of the family Elapidae (cobras, kraits, mambas, and relatives) are predominantly composed of numerous phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) and three-finger toxins (3FTxs), some of which are lethal while others are not significantly toxic. Currently, the only identified prey-specific toxins are several nonconventional 3FTxs, and given the large diversity of 3FTxs within Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom, it was hypothesized that several 3FTxs, previously found to be non-toxic or weakly toxic 3FTxs in murine models, could potentially be toxic towards non-murine prey...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023606/neutralization-of-the-principal-toxins-from-the-venoms-of-thai-naja-kaouthia-and-malaysian-hydrophis-schistosus-insights-into-toxin-specific-neutralization-by-two-different-antivenoms
#18
Kae Yi Tan, Choo Hock Tan, Shin Yee Fung, Nget Hong Tan
Antivenom neutralization against cobra venoms is generally low in potency, presumably due to poor toxin-specific immunoreactivity. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of two elapid antivenoms to neutralize the principal toxins purified from the venoms of the Thai monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia, Nk-T) and the Malaysian beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, Hs-M). In mice, N. kaouthia Monovalent Antivenom (NKMAV) neutralization against Nk-T long neurotoxin (LNTX) and cytotoxin was moderate (potency of 2...
March 26, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972756/geographical-venom-variations-of-the-southeast-asian-monocled-cobra-naja-kaouthia-venom-induced-neuromuscular-depression-and-antivenom-neutralization
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kae Yi Tan, Choo Hock Tan, Si Mui Sim, Shin Yee Fung, Nget Hong Tan
The Southeast Asian monocled cobras (Naja kaouthia) exhibit geographical variations in their venom proteomes, especially on the composition of neurotoxins. This study compared the neuromuscular depressant activity of the venoms of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M), Thailand (NK-T) and Vietnam (NK-V), and the neutralization of neurotoxicity by a monospecific antivenom. On chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, all venoms abolished the indirect twitches, with NK-T venom being the most potent (shortest t90, time to 90% twitch inhibition), followed by NK-V and NK-M...
July 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932543/quantifying-demyelination-in-nk-venom-treated-nerve-using-its-electric-circuit-model
#20
H K Das, D Das, R Doley, P P Sahu
Reduction of myelin in peripheral nerve causes critical demyelinating diseases such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. Clinical monitoring of these diseases requires rapid and non-invasive quantification of demyelination. Here we have developed formulation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in terms of demyelination considering electric circuit model of a nerve having bundle of axons for its quantification from NCV measurements. This approach has been validated and demonstrated with toad nerve model treated with crude Naja kaouthia (NK) venom and also shows the effect of Phospholipase A2 and three finger neurotoxin from NK-venom on peripheral nerve...
March 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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