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Saturation screening

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212677/fit-for-purpose-perspectives-on-rapid-reviews-from-end-user-interviews
#1
Lisa Hartling, Jeanne-Marie Guise, Susanne Hempel, Robin Featherstone, Matthew D Mitchell, Makalapua L Motu'apuaka, Karen A Robinson, Karen Schoelles, Annette Totten, Evelyn Whitlock, Timothy J Wilt, Johanna Anderson, Elise Berliner, Aysegul Gozu, Elisabeth Kato, Robin Paynter, Craig A Umscheid
BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for rapid reviews and timely evidence synthesis. The goal of this project was to understand end-user perspectives on the utility and limitations of rapid products including evidence inventories, rapid responses, and rapid reviews. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with key informants representing: guideline developers (n = 3), health care providers/health system organizations (n = 3), research funders (n = 1), and payers/health insurers (n = 1)...
February 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212589/a-multicenter-initiative-for-critical-congenital-heart-disease-newborn-screening-in-texas-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#2
Alice Gong, Charleta Guillory, Liza Creel, Judith Ellen Livingtson, Tiffany M McKee-Garrett, Regine Fortunov
Objective The objective of this study was to implement a strategy for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) newborn screening in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Design A NICU-specific curriculum, screening algorithm, slide presentations, and templates of orders, policies, and procedures were developed into a toolkit for training NICU personnel. Screening was conducted on first and second screen pre- and postductal oxygen saturations (SpO2) on newborns admitted or transferred to the NICU. Results We trained 347 NICU personnel in 13 Texas hospitals, representing rural, suburban, and metropolitan settings...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199348/presentation-management-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-in-adults-and-children-admitted-to-a-rural-ugandan-hospital-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#3
Kristina E Rudd, Leonard K Tutaryebwa, T Eoin West
OBJECTIVES: Limited data are available on sepsis in low-resource settings, particularly outside of urban referral centers. We conducted a prospective observational single-center cohort study in May 2013 to assess the presentation, management and outcomes of adult and pediatric patients admitted with sepsis to a community hospital in rural Uganda. METHODS: We consecutively screened all patients admitted to medical wards who met sepsis criteria. We evaluated eligible patients within 24 hours of presentation and 24-48 hours after admission, and followed them until hospital discharge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198881/mode-evolution-based-coupler-for-high-saturation-power-ge-on-si-photodetectors
#4
Matthew J Byrd, Erman Timurdogan, Zhan Su, Christopher V Poulton, Nicholas M Fahrenkopf, Gerald Leake, Douglas D Coolbaugh, Michael R Watts
We propose a mode-evolution-based coupler for high saturation power germanium-on-silicon photodetectors. This coupler uniformly illuminates the intrinsic germanium region of the detector, decreasing saturation effects, such as carrier screening, observed at high input powers. We demonstrate 70% more photocurrent generation (9.1-15.5 mA) and more than 40 times higher opto-electrical bandwidth (0.7-31 GHz) than conventional butt-coupled detectors under high-power illumination. The high-power and high-speed performance of the device, combined with the compactness of the coupling method, will enable new applications for integrated silicon photonics systems...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196894/extending-enzyme-molecular-recognition-with-an-expanded-amino-acid-alphabet
#5
Claire L Windle, Katie J Simmons, James R Ault, Chi H Trinh, Adam Nelson, Arwen R Pearson, Alan Berry
Natural enzymes are constructed from the 20 proteogenic amino acids, which may then require posttranslational modification or the recruitment of coenzymes or metal ions to achieve catalytic function. Here, we demonstrate that expansion of the alphabet of amino acids can also enable the properties of enzymes to be extended. A chemical mutagenesis strategy allowed a wide range of noncanonical amino acids to be systematically incorporated throughout an active site to alter enzymic substrate specificity. Specifically, 13 different noncanonical side chains were incorporated at 12 different positions within the active site of N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL), and the resulting chemically modified enzymes were screened for activity with a range of aldehyde substrates...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192906/coupling-high-throughput-microfluidics-and-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-to-study-protein-crystallization-from-solution
#6
Nhat Pham, Dimitri Radajewski, Adam Round, Martha Brennich, Petra Pernot, Béatrice Biscans, Françoise Bonneté, Sébastien Teychené
In this work, we propose the combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high throughput, droplet based microfluidics as a powerful tool to investigate macromolecular interactions, directly related to protein solubility. For this purpose, a robust and low cost microfluidic platform was fabricated for achieving the mixing of proteins, crystallization reagents, and buffer in nanoliter volumes and the subsequent generation of nanodroplets by means of a two phase flow. The protein samples are compartmentalized inside droplets, each one acting as an isolated microreactor...
February 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191966/self-assembled-lyotropic-liquid-crystalline-phase-behaviour-of-monoolein-capric-acid-phospholipid-nanoparticulate-systems
#7
Jiali Zhai, Nhiem Tran, Sampa Sarkar, Celesta Fong, Xavier Mulet, Calum J Drummond
We report here the lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour of two lipid nanoparticulate systems containing mixtures of monoolein, capric acid and saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholines dispersed by the Pluronic F127 block copolymer. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to screen the phase behaviour of a library of lipid nanoparticles in a high-throughput manner. It was found that adding capric acid and phosphatidylcholines had opposing effects on the spontaneous membrane curvature of the monoolein lipid layer and hence the internal mesophase of the final nanoparticles...
February 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186888/gamut-extension-for-cinema
#8
Syed Waqas Zamir, Javier Vazquez-Corral, Marcelo Bertalmio
Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma and saturation...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179366/genome-wide-chemical-mutagenesis-screens-allow-unbiased-saturation-of-the-cancer-genome-and-identification-of-drug-resistance-mutations
#9
Jonathan Brammeld, Mia Petljak, Inigo Martincorena, Steven P Williams, Luz Garcia Alonso, Alba Dalmases, Beatriz Bellosillo, Carla Daniela Robles-Espinoza, Stacey Price, Syd Barthorpe, Patrick Tarpey, Constantine Alifrangis, Graham Bignell, Joana Vidal, Jamie Young, Lucy Stebbings, Kathryn Beal, Michael R Stratton, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Mathew Garnett, Clara Montagut, Francesco Iorio, Ultan McDermott
Drug resistance is an almost inevitable consequence of cancer therapy and ultimately proves fatal for the majority of patients. In many cases this is the consequence of specific gene mutations that have the potential to be targeted to re-sensitize the tumor. The ability to uniformly saturate the genome with point mutations without chromosome or nucleotide sequence context bias would open the door to identify all putative drug resistance mutations in cancer models. Here we describe such a method for elucidating drug resistance mechanisms using genome-wide chemical mutagenesis allied to next-generation sequencing...
February 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176454/saturated-genic-snp-mapping-identified-functional-candidates-and-selection-tools-for-the-pinus-monticola-cr2-locus-controlling-resistance-to-white-pine-blister-rust
#10
Jun-Jun Liu, Richard A Sniezko, Arezoo Zamany, Holly Williams, Ning Wang, Angelia Kegley, Douglas P Savin, Hao Chen, Rona N Sturrock
Molecular breeding incorporates efficient tools to increase rust resistance in five-needle pines. Susceptibility of native five-needle pines to white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the non-native invasive fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C.Fisch.), has significantly reduced wild populations of these conifers in North America. Major resistance (R) genes against specific avirulent pathotypes have been found in several five-needle pine species. In this study we screened genic SNP markers by comparative transcriptome and genetic association analyses and constructed saturated linkage maps for the western white pine (Pinus monticola) R locus (Cr2)...
February 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164014/cardiovascular-burden-and-percutaneous-interventions-in-russian-federation-systematic-epidemiological-update
#11
REVIEW
Alexander N Kharlamov
The situation with cardiovascular (CV) burden in Russian population is alerting, and becomes of interest due to high CV mortality, and shorter lifespan if compare with the Western society amid the absence of the established monitoring or screening system for major CV risk factors. The purpose of this systematic epidemiological update was to explore CV burden in Russia. The study represents pooled results with a systematic epidemiological review of the national mass screening, selected randomized clinical trials and statistical datasets of the national public health CV institutions exploring the trends of the CV burden in all 83 regions of Russia...
February 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162147/prevalence-and-associations-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-south-asians-and-white-europeans-with-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Amin Amin, Asad Ali, Quratul A Altaf, Milan K Piya, Anthony H Barnett, Neil T Raymond, Abd A Tahrani
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) prevalence in South Asians and White Europeans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Secondary aims included exploring possible causes for observed ethnic differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM recruited from secondary care diabetes clinics. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events/h using home-based, multichannel respiratory monitoring. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-four patients (105 South Asian and 129 White Europeans) were studied...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153478/perfusion-index-and-pulse-oximetry-screening-for-congenital-heart-defects
#13
Federico Schena, Irene Picciolli, Massimo Agosti, Antonio Alberto Zuppa, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Luciana Parola, Giulia Pomero, Giorgio Stival, Markus Markart, Silvia Graziani, Luigi Gagliardi, Cristina Bellan, Simona La Placa, Giuseppe Limoli, Gabriella Calzetti, Andrea Guala, Enza Bonello, Fabio Mosca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of combined pulse oximetry (POX) and perfusion index (PI) neonatal screening for severe congenital heart defects (sCHD) and assess different impacts of screening in tertiary and nontertiary hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, prospective study in 10 tertiary and 6 nontertiary maternity hospitals. A total of 42 169 asymptomatic newborns from among 50 244 neonates were screened; exclusion criteria were antenatal sCHD diagnosis, postnatal clinically suspected sCHD, and neonatal intensive care unit admission...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138246/association-of-peripheral-neuropathy-with-sleep-related-breathing-disorders-in-myotonic-dystrophies
#14
Marta Banach, Jakub Antczak, Rafał Rola
BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy (DM) type 1 and type 2 are inherited diseases characterized by myotonia and myopathy. Additional symptoms include, among others, peripheral neuropathy and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). There is growing evidence for a complex association between DM1 and DM2, which was described in patients with diabetes mellitus and in the general population. In this study, we investigated whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy and SRBDs also in the population of patients with DM...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134951/converting-pasteurella-multocida-%C3%AE-2-3-sialyltransferase-1-pmst1-to-a-regioselective-%C3%AE-2-6-sialyltransferase-by-saturation-mutagenesis-and-regioselective-screening
#15
John B McArthur, Hai Yu, Jie Zeng, Xi Chen
A microtiter plate-based screening assay capable of determining the activity and regioselectivity of sialyltransferases was developed. This assay was used to screen two single-site saturation libraries of Pasteurella multocida α2-3-sialyltransferase 1 (PmST1) for α2-6-sialyltransferase activity and total sialyltransferase activity. PmST1 double mutant P34H/M144L was found to be the most effective α2-6-sialyltransferase and displayed 50% reduced donor hydrolysis and 50-fold reduced sialidase activity compared to the wild-type PmST1...
January 30, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124270/the-typical-msw-odorants-identification-and-the-spatial-odorants-distribution-in-a-large-scale-transfer-station
#16
Zhongtao Sun, Zhaowen Cheng, Luochun Wang, Ziyang Lou, Nanwen Zhu, Xuejun Zhou, Lili Feng
Odorants from municipal solid waste (MSW) were complex variable, and the screening of key offensive odorants was the prerequisite for odor control process. In this study, spatial odor emissions and environmental impacts were investigated based on a large-scale working waste transfer station (LSWTS) using waste container system, and a comprehensive odor characterization method was developed and applied in terms of the odor concentration (OC), theory odor concentration (TOC), total chemical concentration (TCC), and electric nose (EN)...
January 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123650/post-operative-capnostream-monitoring-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-symptoms-case-series
#17
Vasanth Rao Kadam, Mazyar Danesh
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients on opioid analgesic have an increased incidence of postoperative respiratory complications; prevention of these may be possible with appropriate post-operative monitoring. We recruited 4 OSA patients who had general anaesthesia for orthopaedic and septoplasty surgery. They required Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) or oral opioids in the post-operative period, hence continuous Saturation of Oxygen (Spo2), End Tidal Carbon dioxide (EtCo2) monitoring on Capnostream monitor with Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI) was organized in high dependency unit...
July 2016: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117617/patterns-and-determinants-of-functional-and-absolute-iron-deficiency-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-rehabilitation-following-heart-surgery
#18
Roberto Tramarin, Valeria Pistuddi, Luigi Maresca, Marco Pavesi, Serenella Castelvecchio, Lorenzo Menicanti, Carlo de Vincentiis, Marco Ranucci
Background Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent following major surgery. The present study aims to identify the iron deficiency patterns in cardiac surgery patients at their admission to a cardiac rehabilitation programme, and to determine which perioperative risk factor(s) may be associated with functional and absolute iron deficiency. Design This was a retrospective study on prospectively collected data. Methods The patient population included 339 patients. Functional iron deficiency was defined in the presence of transferrin saturation <20% and serum ferritin ≥100 µg/l...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109425/beyond-the-natural-proteome-nondegenerate-saturation-mutagenesis-methodologies-and-advantages
#19
M M Ferreira Amaral, L Frigotto, A V Hine
Beyond the natural proteome, high-throughput mutagenesis offers the protein engineer an opportunity to "tweak" the wild-type activity of a protein to create a recombinant protein with required attributes. Of the various approaches available, saturation mutagenesis is one of the core techniques employed by protein engineers, and in recent times, nondegenerate saturation mutagenesis is emerging as the approach of choice. This review compares the current methodologies available for conducting nondegenerate saturation mutagenesis with traditional, degenerate saturation and briefly outlines the options available for screening the resulting libraries, to discover a novel protein with the required activity and/or specificity...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108582/identification-of-a-novel-protein-kinase-that-affects-the-chronological-lifespan-in-fission-yeast
#20
Tatsuhiro Kurauchi, Aya Hashizume, Yuki Imai, Kanako Hayashi, Satoshi Tsubouchi, Kunio Ihara, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Aiba
Chronological lifespan is defined by how long a cell can survive in a non-dividing state. In yeast, it is measured by viability after entry into the stationary phase. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of chronological lifespan in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, it is necessary to identify and characterize novel factors involved in the regulation of chronological lifespan. To this end, we have screened for a long-lived mutant and identified that novel gene nnk1(+) that encodes an essential protein kinase is the determinant of chronological lifespan...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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