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Sift tissue

Matthew D Martin, Vladimir P Badovinac
In this issue of Immunity, Gerlach et al. (2016) describe three distinct memory CD8(+) T cell subsets based upon expression of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. Their findings revise the paradigm of effector and central memory T cells by revealing a subset of CD8(+) memory T cells defined by intermediate levels of expression of CX3CR1 that conducts tissue surveillance.
December 20, 2016: Immunity
Lei Wang, Peder Pedersen, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu
It is standard practice for clinicians and nurses to primarily assess patients' wounds via visual examination. This subjective method can be inaccurate in wound assessment and also represents a significant clinical workload. Hence, computer-based systems, especially implemented on mobile devices, can provide automatic, quantitative wound assessment and can thus be valuable for accurately monitoring wound healing status. Out of all wound assessment parameters, the measurement of the wound area is the most suitable for automated analysis...
November 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Zeynep Kosaloglu, Julia Bitzer, Niels Halama, Zhiqin Huang, Marc Zapatka, Andreas Schneeweiss, Dirk Jäger, Inka Zörnig
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies with increasing incidences every year and a leading cause of death among women. Although early stage breast cancer can be effectively treated, there are limited numbers of treatment options available for patients with advanced and metastatic disease. The novel breast cancer associated antigen NY-BR-1 was identified by SEREX analysis and is expressed in the majority (>70%) of breast tumors as well as metastases, in normal breast tissue, in testis and occasionally in prostate tissue...
November 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
Shahab Ensafi, Shijian Lu, Ashraf A Kassim, Chew Lim Tan
Autoimmune diseases (AD) are the abnormal response of the immune system of the body to healthy tissues. ADs have generally been on the increase. Efficient computer aided diagnosis of ADs through classification of the human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cells become beneficial. These methods make lower diagnosis costs, faster response and better diagnosis repeatability. In this paper, we present an automated HEp-2 cell image classification technique that exploits the sparse coding of the visual features together with the Bag of Words model (SBoW)...
August 8, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Yan Xu, Chenchao Xu, Xiao Kuang, Hongkai Wang, Eric I-Chao Chang, Weimin Huang, Yubo Fan
PURPOSE: In this paper, the authors proposed a new 3D registration algorithm, 3D-scale invariant feature transform (SIFT)-Flow, for multiatlas-based liver segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images. METHODS: In the registration work, the authors developed a new registration method that takes advantage of dense correspondence using the informative and robust SIFT feature. The authors computed the dense SIFT features for the source image and the target image and designed an objective function to obtain the correspondence between these two images...
May 2016: Medical Physics
Yuli Christine Chang, Ya-Sian Chang, Chun-Chi Chang, Ta-Chih Liu, Ying-Chin Ko, Chien-Chin Lee, Shun-Jen Chang, Jan-Gowth Chang
Tumor necrosis factor, α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme (A20), acts as a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway, and in lymphoma and autoimmune diseases it is frequently inactivated by mutations and/or deletions. We investigated the prevalence of the inactivation of TNFAIP3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). DNA was extracted from 81 cases of OSCC and 50 peripheral blood samples from normal controls. A high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to characterize TNFAIP3 mutations, and the results were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing...
May 2016: Oncology Reports
Thomas R Mazur, Benjamin W Fischer-Valuck, Yuhe Wang, Deshan Yang, Sasa Mutic, H Harold Li
PURPOSE: To first demonstrate the viability of applying an image processing technique for tracking regions on low-contrast cine-MR images acquired during image-guided radiation therapy, and then outline a scheme that uses tracking data for optimizing gating results in a patient-specific manner. METHODS: A first-generation MR-IGRT system-treating patients since January 2014-integrates a 0.35 T MR scanner into an annular gantry consisting of three independent Co-60 sources...
January 2016: Medical Physics
Fakhri Kallabi, Emna Ellouz, Mouna Tabebi, Ghada Ben Salah, Naziha Kaabechi, Leila Keskes, Chahnez Triki, Hassen Kamoun
INTRODUCTION: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative recessive disorder that affects the brain white matter and associated with adrenal insufficiency. It is characterized by an abnormal function of the peroxisomes, which leads to an accumulation of the Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (VLCFA) in plasma and tissues, especially in the cortex of the adrenal glands and the white matter of the central nervous system. Mutations in the ABCD1 gene affect the function of the encoded protein ALDP, an ATP-binding cassette transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane protein...
January 30, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
A Narayana Swamy, Harika Valasala, Sreenivasulu Kamma
BACKGROUND: The human ADIPOQ gene encodes adiponectin protein hormone, which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. It is exclusively produced by adipose tissue and abundantly present in the circulation, with concentration of around 0.01% of total serum proteins, with important effect on metabolism. METHODS: Most deleterious nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of the ADIPOQ gene were investigated using SNP databases, and detected nonsynonymous variants were analyzed in silico from the standpoint of relevant protein function and stability by using SIFT, PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN and MUpro, I-Mutant2...
July 2015: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Mingchang Zhang, Aimin Xue, Yiwen Shen, Joao Bosco Oliveira, Ling Li, Ziqin Zhao, Allen Burke
Desmoglein-2 (DSG2), a member of the desmosomal cadherin superfamily, has been linked to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)which may cause life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Fatal arrhythmias resulting in sudden death also occur in the absence of morphologic cardiac abnormalities at autopsy. We sequenced all 15 exons of DSG2 in DNA extracted from post-mortem heart tissues of 25 patients dying with ARVC and 25 from sudden unexplained death (SUD). The primers were designed using the Primer Express 3...
October 2015: Forensic Science International
Achintya Mohan Goswami
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a most common type of genetic mutations, result from single base pair alterations. Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNP) occur in the coding regions of a gene and result in single amino acid substitution which might have the potential to affect the function as well as structure of the corresponding protein. In human the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/Δ(4,5)-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2) is an important membrane-bound enzyme involved in the dehydrogenation and Δ(4,5)-isomerization of the Δ(5)-steroid precursors into their respective Δ(4)-ketosteroids in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, progesterone, androgens, and estrogens in tissues such as adrenal gland, ovary, and testis...
September 2015: Meta Gene
Rohit Shetty, Rudy M M A Nuijts, Soumya Ganesh Nanaiah, Venkata Ramana Anandula, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Chaitra Jayadev, Natasha Pahuja, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel, Jeyabalan Nallathambi
BACKGROUND: Visual system homeobox gene (VSX1) plays a major role in the early development of craniofacial and ocular tissues including cone opsin gene in the human retina. To date, few disease-causing mutations of VSX1 have been linked to familial and sporadic keratoconus (KC) in humans. In this study, we describe the clinical features and screening for VSX1 gene in families with KC from India. METHODS: Clinical data and genomic DNA were collected from patients with clinically diagnosed KC and their family members...
2015: BMC Medical Genetics
Saima Rathore, Mutawarra Hussain, Asifullah Khan
Automatic classification of colon into normal and malignant classes is complex due to numerous factors including similar colors in different biological constituents of histopathological imagery. Therefore, such techniques, which exploit the textural and geometric properties of constituents of colon tissues, are desired. In this paper, a novel feature extraction strategy that mathematically models the geometric characteristics of constituents of colon tissues is proposed. In this study, we also show that the hybrid feature space encompassing diverse knowledge about the tissues׳ characteristics is quite promising for classification of colon biopsy images...
October 1, 2015: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yao Deng, Shijie Wei, Shijun Hu, Jinlan Chen, Zhiping Tan, Yifeng Yang
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease. Mutations in COL3A1 have been identified to underlie this disease; however, to the best of our knowledge, no COL3A1 mutations have been reported in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patients with an ascending aortic aneurysm. In order to develop further understanding of COL3A1 mutations, an Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patient diagnosed with an ascending aortic aneurysm and a familial history of sudden mortality was analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of the patient and his family members...
July 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
A M Esquiaveto-Aun, D E Zantut-Wittmann, R J Petroli, B S L Nakano, G Guerra-Júnior, S H V de Lemos-Marini, M P de Mello
The syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH β) is an inherited disorder characterized by variable tissue hyposensitivity to 3,5,30-L-triiodothyronine (T(3)), with persistent elevation of free-circulating T(3) (FT(3)) and free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels in association with nonsuppressed serum thyrotropin (TSH). Clinical presentation is variable and the molecular analysis of THRB gene provides a short cut diagnosis. Here, we describe 2 cases in which RTH β was suspected on the basis of laboratory findings...
November 2015: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Chao Ling, Lin Wang, Zheng Wang, Luming Xu, Lifang Sun, Hui Yang, Wei-Dong Li, Kai Wang
Previous genetic studies on colorectal carcinomas (CRC) have identified multiple somatic mutations in four candidate pathways (TGF-β, Wnt, P53 and RTK-RAS pathways) on populations of European ancestry. However, it is under-studied whether other populations harbor different sets of hot-spot somatic mutations in these pathways and other oncogenes. In this study, to evaluate the mutational spectrum of novel somatic mutations, we assessed 41 pairs of tumor-stroma tissues from Chinese patients with CRC, including 29 colon carcinomas and 12 rectal carcinomas...
2015: PloS One
Aikaterini Delaveri, Aggeliki Rapti, Myrto Poulou, Eirini Fylaktou, Maria Tsipi, Charis Roussos, Periklis Makrythanasis, Emmanuel Kanavakis, Maria Tzetis
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that primarily affects adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. It is characterized by the activation of Th1 lymphocytes resulting in the production of inflammatory cytokines and the formation of noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas in affected tissues. The lungs and lymphatic system are the ones most frequently affected. The disease usually presents spontaneous remission in the first two years and, in a few patients, the disease progresses to pulmonary fibrosis or other fatal complications depending on the affected organ...
December 2014: Meta Gene
Yu Gan, Wang Yao, Kristin M Myers, Christine P Hendon
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to provide high resolution volumetric data for biological tissues. However, the field of view (FOV) of OCT is sometimes smaller than the field of interest, which limits the clinical application of OCT. One way to overcome the drawback is to stitch multiple 3D volumes. In this paper, we propose a novel method to register multiple overlapped volumetric OCT data into a single volume. The relative positions of overlapped volumes were estimated on en face plane and at depth...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
H Rositi, C Frindel, M Wiart, M Langer, C Olivier, F Peyrin, D Rousseau
In this article, a set of three computer vision tools, including scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), a measure of focus, and a measure based on tractography are demonstrated to be useful in replacing the eye of the expert in the optimization of the reconstruction parameters in x-ray in-line phase tomography. We demonstrate how these computer vision tools can be used to inject priors on the shape and scale of the object to be reconstructed. This is illustrated with the Paganin single intensity image phase retrieval algorithm in heterogeneous soft tissues of biomedical interest, where the selection of the reconstruction parameters was previously made from visual inspection or physical assumptions on the composition of the sample...
December 21, 2014: Physics in Medicine and Biology
M P Rodriguez, A Nygren
Motion artifacts are a major disadvantage of cardiac optical mapping studies. Pixel misalignment due to contraction is a main cause of the presence of gross motion artifacts in action potential recordings. This study is focused on methods for identifying landmarks and tracking the motion of cardiac tissue for preparations in optical mapping recordings. This is a first step toward our long-term goal to implement a landmark-based image registration technique to correct for pixel misalignment in cardiac optical mapping fluorescence videos and, hence, for gross motion artifacts...
February 2015: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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