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colorectal cancer and early detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218473/epigenetic-silencing-of-diacylglycerol-kinase-gamma-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Masahiro Kai, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Akiko Sato, Hiro-O Yamano, Takeshi Niinuma, Hiroshi Kitajima, Taku Harada, Hironori Aoki, Reo Maruyama, Mutsumi Toyota, Tomo Hatahira, Hiroshi Nakase, Tamotsu Sugai, Toshiharu Yamashita, Minoru Toyota, Hiromu Suzuki
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are important regulators of cell signaling and have been implicated in human malignancies. Whether epigenetic alterations are involved in the dysregulation of DGKs in cancer is unknown, however. We therefore analyzed methylation of the promoter CpG islands of DGK genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We found that DGKG, which encodes DGKγ, was hypermethylated in all CRC cell lines tested (n = 9), but was not methylated in normal colonic tissue. Correspondingly, DGKG expression was suppressed in CRC cell lines but not in normal colonic tissue, and was restored in CRC cells by treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217651/differential-immune-reactivity-pattern-of-sw48-and-sw1116-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines-with-colorectal-cancer-patients-sera
#2
Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Seyyed Vahid Hosseini, Maryam Hamidinia, Abbas Ghaderi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Zahra Mojtahedi
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. It is also known as the second leading cause of deaths as the early stage detection is not yet available by current methods. So identification of biomarkers can also be functional in early diagnosis and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined sera from 60 CRC patients of different stages as a source of auto-antibody as well as two human CRC cell lines with different invasive capacities (SW48 and SW1116) as the source of antigens...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194568/t1-colon-cancer-in-the-era-of-screening-risk-factors-and-treatment
#3
F Bianco, S De Franciscis, A Belli, A Falato, R Fusco, D F Altomare, A Amato, C R Asteria, A Avallone, G A Binda, L Boccia, P Buzzo, M Carvello, C Coco, P Delrio, P De Nardi, M Di Lena, A Failla, F La Torre, M La Torre, M Lemma, P Luffarelli, G Manca, I Maretto, F Marino, A Muratore, A Pascariello, S Pucciarelli, D Rega, V Ripetti, G Rizzo, A Serventi, A Spinelli, F Tatangelo, E D L Urso, G M Romano
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for lymph node positivity in T1 colon cancer and to carry out a surgical quality assurance audit. METHODS: The sample consisted of consecutive patients treated for early-stage colon lesions in 15 colorectal referral centres between 2011 and 2014. The study investigated 38 factors grouped into four categories: demographic information, preoperative data, indications for surgery and post-operative data...
February 13, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186354/feasibility-of-cyfra-21-1-as-a-serum-biomarker-for-the-detection-of-colorectal-adenoma-and-advanced-colorectal-adenoma-in-people-over-the-age-of-45
#4
Do Hyoung Lim, Jai Hyuen Lee, Jong Wan Kim
BACKGROUND: Colon adenoma (CA) is a premalignant lesion of colorectal cancer, and its early removal is closely associated with more prolonged survival in the general population. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between diverse biologic markers and a newly diagnosed CA and to predict the clinical possibility of cytokeratin-19 soluble in serum fragment (CYFRA 21-1) as a screening tool in asymptomatic adults aged over 45 years. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy-nine patients with a histologically confirmed CA or benign colon polyp (BCP), 76 patients with only benign colorectal diseases and 223 negative controls with no CA or BCP detected on colonofibroscopy were investigated...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179577/investigations-in-the-possibility-of-early-detection-of-colorectal-cancer-by-gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#5
Shin Nishiumi, Takashi Kobayashi, Shuichi Kawana, Yumi Unno, Takero Sakai, Koji Okamoto, Yasuhide Yamada, Kazuki Sudo, Taiki Yamaji, Yutaka Saito, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Natsuko Tsuda Okita, Hiroshi Saito, Shoichiro Tsugane, Takeshi Azuma, Noriyuki Ojima, Masaru Yoshida
In developed countries, the number of patients with colorectal cancer has been increasing, and colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death. To improve the quality of life of colorectal cancer patients, it is necessary to establish novel screening methods that would allow early detection of colorectal cancer. We performed metabolome analysis of a plasma sample set from 282 stage 0/I/II colorectal cancer patients and 291 healthy volunteers using gas chromatography/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry in an attempt to identify metabolite biomarkers of stage 0/I/II colorectal cancer...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173773/colorectal-cancer-surveillance-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-survivors-at-increased-risk-of-therapy-related-colorectal-cancer-study-design
#6
Lisanne S Rigter, Manon C W Spaander, Leon M Moons, Tanya M Bisseling, Berthe M P Aleman, Jan Paul de Boer, Pieternella J Lugtenburg, Cecile P M Janus, Eefke J Petersen, Judith M Roesink, John M M Raemaekers, Richard W M van der Maazen, Annemieke Cats, Eveline M A Bleiker, Petur Snaebjornsson, Beatriz Carvalho, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Katarzyna Jóźwiak, Hein Te Riele, Gerrit A Meijer, Flora E van Leeuwen, Monique E van Leerdam
BACKGROUND: Second primary malignancies are a major cause of excess morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who were treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy surveillance plays an important role in colorectal cancer prevention by removal of the precursor lesions (adenomas) and early detection of cancer, resulting in improved survival rates. Therefore, Hodgkin lymphoma survivors treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine could benefit from colonoscopy, or other surveillance modalities, which are expected to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality...
February 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170448/genome-wide-analysis-identifies-colonic-genes-differentially-associated-with-serum-leptin-and-insulin-concentrations-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Sung-Eun Kim, Jinsil Choo, Joon Yoon, Jae Ryang Chu, Yun Jung Bae, Seungyeoun Lee, Taesung Park, Mi-Kyung Sung
Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is known to increase the risk of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colorectal cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that leptin and insulin are key molecules linking obesity with diseases of the lower intestine. Here, we identified serum phenotype-associated genes in the colon of diet-induced obese mice as early biomarkers of obesity-associated colonic diseases. C57BL/6J mice were fed with either normal diet (ND, 15% of fat calories) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% of fat calories) for 8 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170086/cancer-screening-in-the-united-states-2017-a-review-of-current-american-cancer-society-guidelines-and-current-issues-in-cancer-screening
#8
Robert A Smith, Kimberly S Andrews, Durado Brooks, Stacey A Fedewa, Deana Manassaram-Baptiste, Debbie Saslow, Otis W Brawley, Richard C Wender
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey...
February 7, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167859/observational-study-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-internet-reminders-for-gps-on-colorectal-cancer-screening-uptake-in-northern-italy-in-2013
#9
E Gabrielli, A J Bastiampillai, M Pontello, G Beghi, P Ceresa, M E Pirola, D Cereda
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and CRC-related mortality can be effectively reduced by population-based screening. Screening uptake is a key indicator of performance, susceptible of several implementation methods. Participation in ASL Milano 1 area (northern Italy) is increasing thanks to reminder invitation sent to non-responders. Here we evaluate the implementation of another strategy among those proved to be effective. METHODS: In the years 2013-2014 we conducted an observational study in patients non-responder to first invitation and subsequent mailed reminder...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166751/improving-adherence-to-colorectal-cancer-surveillance-guidelines-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Mariko Carey, Robert Sanson-Fisher, Finlay Macrae, Emilie Cameron, David Hill, Catherine D'Este, Christopher Doran
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors are at increased risk of developing the disease again. Surveillance guidelines are aimed at maximising the early detection of recurring or new cancers and pre-cancerous polyps. The frequency and type of surveillance recommended depends on the type of treatment for the initial CRC, the extent of colonoscopic investigation prior to treatment and the results of previous surveillance tests. This paper aimed to test the effect of a paper-based educational intervention to improve adherence to colonoscopy following treatment for colorectal cancer...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162021/guanylate-cyclase-c-as-a-target-for-prevention-detection-and-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Allison A Aka, Jeff A Rappaport, Amanda M Pattison, Takami Sato, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and new strategies to prevent, detect, and treat the disease are needed. The receptor, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C), a tumor suppressor expressed by the intestinal epithelium, has emerged as a promising target. Areas Covered: This review outlines the role of GUCY2C in tumorigenesis, and steps to translate GUCY2C-targeting schemes to the clinic. Endogenous GUCY2C-activating ligands disappear early in tumorigenesis, silencing its signaling axis and enabling transformation...
February 4, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155091/epi-procolon-%C3%A2-2-0-ce-a-blood-based-screening-test-for-colorectal-cancer
#12
Yvette N Lamb, Sohita Dhillon
Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE is a blood-based test designed to aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer. The test comprises a qualitative assay for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of methylated Septin9 DNA, the presence of which is associated with colorectal cancer: however, positive results should be verified by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Epi proColon(®) 2.0 CE discriminated between patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls with high clinical sensitivity and specificity in pivotal case-control studies...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155016/power-of-screening-tests-for-colorectal-cancer-enhanced-by-high-levels-of-m2-pk-in-addition-to-fobt
#13
Cristina Zaccaro, Ilaria Maria Saracino, Giulia Fiorini, Natale Figura, John Holton, Valentina Castelli, Valeria Pesci, Luigi Gatta, Dino Vaira
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process that involves adenoma-carcinoma sequence. CRC can be prevented by routine screening, which can detect precancerous lesions. The aim of this study is to clarify whether faecal occult blood test (i-FOBT), tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (t-M2-PK), and endocannabinoid system molecules (cannabinoid receptors type 1-CB1, type 2-CB2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase-FAAH) might represent better diagnostic tools, alone or in combination, for an early diagnosis of CRC. An immunochemical FOB test (i-FOBT) and quantitative ELISA stool test for t-M2-PK were performed in 127 consecutive patients during a 12 month period...
February 2, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151975/colonization-with-enterotoxigenic-bacteroides-fragilis-is-associated-with-early-stage-colorectal-neoplasia
#14
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Alan Aitchison, Liane Dixon, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a toxin-producing bacteria thought to possibly promote colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating the mucosal immune response and inducing epithelial cell changes. Here, we aim to examine the association of colonic mucosal colonization with ETBF and the presence of a range of lesions on the colonic neoplastic spectrum. METHODS: Mucosal tissue from up to four different colonic sites was obtained from a consecutive series of 150 patients referred for colonoscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151847/desmin-detection-by-facile-prepared-carbon-quantum-dots-for-early-screening-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
Chang-Feng Li, Zhen-Kun Yan, Li-Bo Chen, Jing-Peng Jin, Dan-Dan Li
Th aim of this study was to develop a new facile chemical method for early screening of colorectal cancer.The -C(O)OH groups modified Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) were prepared by an facile innovative route of acid attacking on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The -C(O)OH groups were further transported into -C(O)Cl groups by SOCl2 treating. The obtained ClCQDs were conjugated onto the anti-Desmin, which were applied for testing the Desmin concentration in serum by using linearly fitted relationship with photoluminescence (PL) intensity...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145097/multiregion-ultra-deep-sequencing-reveals-early-intermixing-and-variable-levels-of-intratumoral-heterogeneity-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Yuka Suzuki, Sarah Boonhsi Ng, Clarinda Chua, Wei Qiang Leow, Jermain Chng, Shi Yang Liu, Kalpana Ramnarayanan, Anna Gan, Dan Liang Ho, Rachel Ten, Yan Su, Alexandar Lezhava, Jiunn Herng Lai, Dennis Koh, Kiat Hon Lim, Patrick Tan, Steven G Rozen, Iain Beehuat Tan
Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) contributes to cancer progression and chemoresistance. We sought to comprehensively describe ITH of somatic mutations, copy number, and transcriptomic alterations involving clinically and biologically relevant gene pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed multiregion, high-depth (384× on average) sequencing of 799 cancer-associated genes in 24 spatially separated primary tumor and nonmalignant tissues from four treatment-naïve CRC patients. We then used ultra-deep sequencing (17 075× on average) to accurately verify the presence or absence of identified somatic mutations in each sector...
February 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143990/microbiota-composition-hsp70-and-caspase-3-expression-as-marker-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-in-aceh-indonesia
#17
Fauzi Yusuf, Syafruddin Ilyas, Harun Al Rasyid Damanik, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah
AIM: to investigate the relationship between microbiota composition with HSP70 and Caspase-3 expressions in colon tissue as an initial study to develop the candidate for early detection of colorectal cancer for Indonesian patients. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional study on 32 patients undergoing colonoscopy; 16 patients of colorectal cancer (CRC) while the other 16 patients are not (colitis and internal hemorrhoid). The composition of microbiota in stool samples was examined using 16S rRNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DDGE) while expression of HSP70 was examined by immunohistochemistry and Caspase-3 by using Haematoxylin-Eosin(HE) staining to determine the morphological changes in colon tissue...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140749/aberrant-methylated-ednrb-can-act-as-a-potential-diagnostic-biomarker-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-while-kiss1-is-controversial
#18
Reza Mousavi Ardehaie, Shahriar Hashemzadeh, Shahin Behrouz Sharif, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Ebrahim Sakhinia
Cancers are among the most serious threats of human health worldwide. Survival and mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) strongly depend on the early diagnosis. The aberrant methylation pattern of genes as a diagnostic biomarker can serve as a practical option for timely detection and contribute subsequently to the enhancement of survival rate in CRC patients, since methylation changes are not only frequent but also can occur in initial tumorogenesis stages. It has been indicated that EDNRB and KISS1 genes are hypermethylated through progression and development of CRC...
January 31, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139830/low-dose-aspirin-acetylates-cyclooxygenase-1-in-human-colorectal-mucosa-implications-for-the-chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer
#19
Paola Patrignani, Angela Sacco, Carlos Sostres, Annalisa Bruno, Melania Dovizio, Elena Piazuelo, Luigia Di Francesco, Annalisa Contursi, Mirco Zucchelli, Simone Schiavone, Stefania Tacconelli, Carlo Patrono, Angel Lanas
The mechanism of action of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely hypothetical. We aimed to compare the effects of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day for 7 days) given to 40 individuals undergoing CRC screening on the extent of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 acetylation at serine-529 (AceCOX-1), in blood platelets vs colorectal mucosa, at 7 (group 1) and 24 hours (group 2) after dosing. A significantly (P<0.01) lower %AceCOX-1 was detected in colonic and rectal mucosa (average 64%) vs platelets (average 75%) in both groups...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139497/the-expression-and-significance-of-feces-cyclooxygensae-2-mrna-in-colorectal-cancer-and-colorectal-adenomas
#20
Xiaofeng Li, Lixia Kong, Suhuan Liao, Jing Lu, Lin Ma, Xiaohua Long
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aims to explore the expression and significance of feces cyclooxygensae-2 (COX-2) mRNA in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer (n = 28), colorectal adenomas (n = 54), and normal control group (n = 11) were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The positive rate of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) were detected in colorectal cancer (n = 30), colorectal adenomas (n = 56), and normal control group (n = 11); the sensitivity of the two methods was also compared...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
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