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colorectal cancer and early detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909808/clinical-validation-of-a-novel-urine-based-metabolomic-test-for-the-detection-of-colonic-polyps-on-chinese-population
#1
Lu Deng, Hong Fang, Victor K Tso, Yuanyuan Sun, Rae R Foshaug, Spencer C Krahn, Fen Zhang, Yujie Yan, Huilin Xu, David Chang, Yong Zhang, Richard N Fedorak
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China. When detected early, with the removal of adenomatous polyps, precursors of colorectal cancer, it is preventable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel urine-based metabolomic diagnostic test for the detection of adenomatous polyps, PolypDx™, that was originally developed and validated using 1000 samples from Canadian Cohort, on Chinese population. METHODS: Prospective urine samples were collected from 1000 participants undergoing colonoscopy examination, from March 2013 to July 2014 at Minhang District, Shanghai Centre for Disease Control and Prevention...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908272/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-in-colon-cancer
#2
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904859/endoscopic-approach-for-superficial-colorectal-neoplasms
#3
REVIEW
Jun-Feng Xu, Lang Yang, Peng Jin, Jian-Qiu Sheng
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, with an estimated 1.4 million cases and 693,900 deaths in 2012. Colonoscopy is the cornerstone for the detection and prevention of CRC. In addition, endoscopic treatment for CRC at an early stage can effectively improve patients' quality of life and cure rate. SUMMARY: This review focuses on endoscopic approaches, including white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy and therapeutic endoscopy, for the evaluation and treatment of superficial colorectal neoplasms...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900043/second-look-surgery-following-hartmann-s-procedure-for-obstructive-left-sided-colorectal-cancer
#4
Naohito Beppu, Fumihiko Kimura, Nagahide Matsubara, Masashi Noda, Naohiro Tomita, Hidenori Yanagi, Naoki Yamanaka
The aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing second-look surgery following Hartmann's procedure for obstructive left-sided colorectal cancer (LSCC). All patients included in the present study had undergone radical surgery with Hartmann's procedure for obstructive LSCC. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended for all patients, and patients with no signs of recurrence following six months of surveillance were planned to undergo second-look surgery. The aim of second-look surgery was early detection of local recurrence and determination of the efficacy of laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900008/discovery-of-genes-from-feces-correlated-with-colorectal-cancer-progression
#5
Chia-Long Lee, Chi-Jung Huang, Shung-Haur Yang, Chun-Chao Chang, Chi-Cheng Huang, Chih-Cheng Chien, Ruey-Neng Yang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered to develop slowly via a progressive accumulation of genetic mutations. Markers of CRC may serve to provide the basis for decision-making, and may assist in cancer prevention, detection and prognostic prediction. DNA and messenger (m)RNA molecules that are present in human feces faithfully represent CRC manifestations. In the present study, exogenous mouse cells verified the feasibility of total fecal RNA as a marker of CRC. Furthermore, five significant genes encoding solute carrier family 15, member 4 (SLC15A4), cluster of differentiation (CD)44, 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 (OXCT1), placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) and growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), which are differentially expressed in the feces of CRC patients, were verified in different CRC cell lines using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888471/the-role-of-incarceration-and-reentry-on-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-formerly-incarcerated-black-and-hispanic-latino-men-in-new-york-city
#6
Anibal Cortes, Cristina Villagra, Suky Martinez, Vir Patel, Lina Jandorf
In the USA, the rate of incarceration has steadily increased from 1980 to 2010, a period called mass incarceration. Incarcerated individuals are now leaving the jail system in large numbers, the majority of whom are returning to low-income and Black and Hispanic-Latino communities. Although highly preventable, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant risk for minority and underserved men over the age of 50. Black men have the highest CRC incidence and mortality rates, which can be prevented and treated effectively when detected early, especially via colonoscopy...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888432/candidate-predisposing-germline-copy-number-variants-in-early-onset-colorectal-cancer-patients
#7
A J Brea-Fernandez, C Fernandez-Rozadilla, M Alvarez-Barona, D Azuara, M M Ginesta, J Clofent, L de Castro, D Gonzalez, M Andreu, X Bessa, X Llor, R Xicola, R Jover, A Castells, S Castellvi-Bel, G Capella, A Carracedo, C Ruiz-Ponte
PURPOSE: A great proportion of the heritability of colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains unexplained, and rare variants, as well as copy number changes, have been proposed as potential candidates to explain the so-called 'missing heritability'. We aimed to identify rare high-to-moderately penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) in patients suspected of having hereditary CRC due to an early onset. METHODS/PATIENTS: We have selected for genome-wide copy number analysis, 27 MMR-proficient early onset CRC patients (<50 years) without identifiable germline mutations in Mendelian genes related to this phenotype...
November 25, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880748/cdc-grand-rounds-family-history-and-genomics-as-tools-for-cancer-prevention-and-control
#8
Juan L Rodriguez, Cheryll C Thomas, Greta M Massetti, Debra Duquette, Lindsay Avner, John Iskander, Muin J Khoury, Lisa C Richardson
Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879368/99mtc-duramycin-spect-imaging-of-early-tumor-response-to-targeted-therapy-a-comparison-with-18f-fdg-pet
#9
Filipe Elvas, Jan Boddaert, Christel Vangestel, Koon Pak, Brian Gray, Samir Kumar-Singh, Steven Staelens, Sigrid Stroobants, Leonie Wyffels
: Molecular imaging of cell death may provide a detailed readout of the cellular response to novel therapies and prognostic information on tumor treatment efficacy assisting in the design of individualized therapy. We compared the predictive power of cell death imaging using (99m)Tc-duramycin to current gold standard (18)F-FDG for treatment response evaluation after targeted therapy. METHODS: Early therapy response evaluation was assessed by (99m)Tc-duramycin SPECT and (18)F-FDG PET imaging in treatment-sensitive COLO205 and treatment-resistant HT29 human colorectal cancer xenografts 24 hours after a single dose of conatumumab or IgG1 control...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877214/role-of-urinary-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-adenoma-and-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Emma Altobelli, Paolo Matteo Angeletti, Giovanni Latella
The growing interest in enhancing and spreading colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been stimulating the exploration of novel biomarkers with greater sensitivity and specificity than immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT). The present study provides i) a systematic review of the urinary biomarkers that have been tested to achieve early CRC diagnosis and assess the risk of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, and ii) a meta-analysis of the data regarding the urinary prostaglandin (PG) metabolite PGE-M...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875523/a-protein-fragment-derived-from-dna-topoisomerase-i-as-a-novel-tumour-associated-antigen-for-the-detection-of-early-stage-carcinoma
#11
Shang-Mian Yie, Shang-Rong Ye, Xiao-Li Ma, Ke Xie, Jian-Bo Zhang, Mei Cao, Xu He, Zhen-Bo Hu, Cheng-Lu Yang, Jia Zhang, Jie Zeng
BACKGROUND: The production of autoantibodies against tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) is believed to reflect greater immunologic reactivity in cancer patients and enhanced immune surveillance for cancer cells. Over the past few decades, a number of different TAAs and their corresponding autoantibodies have been investigated. However, positive frequency of autoantibody detection in cancer patients has been relatively low. Here we describe a novel TAA that was a fragment derived from human DNA-topoiomerase I and an autoantibody against the novel TAA with relatively high positive frequency in the sera of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842559/dna-from-fecal-immunochemical-test-can-replace-stool-for-detection-of-colonic-lesions-using-a-microbiota-based-model
#12
Nielson T Baxter, Charles C Koumpouras, Mary A M Rogers, Mack T Ruffin, Patrick D Schloss
BACKGROUND: There is a significant demand for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening methods that are noninvasive, inexpensive, and capable of accurately detecting early stage tumors. It has been shown that models based on the gut microbiota can complement the fecal occult blood test and fecal immunochemical test (FIT). However, a barrier to microbiota-based screening is the need to collect and store a patient's stool sample. RESULTS: Using stool samples collected from 404 patients, we tested whether the residual buffer containing resuspended feces in FIT cartridges could be used in place of intact stool samples...
November 14, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835986/activins-and-their-related-proteins-in-colon-carcinogenesis-insights-from-early-and-advanced-azoxymethane-rat-models-of-colon-cancer
#13
Bassem Refaat, Adel Galal El-Shemi, Amr Mohamed Mohamed, Osama Adnan Kensara, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris
BACKGROUND: Activin-A may exert pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities depending on cellular context. However, little is known about its role, or the other mature activin proteins, in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study measured the expression of activin βA- & βB-subunits, activin type IIA & IIB receptors, smads 2/3/4/6/7 and follistatin in CRC induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. The results were compared with controls and disseminated according to the characteristics of histopathological lesions...
November 11, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829554/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-aptasensor-based-on-sandwich-architecture-for-selective-label-free-detection-of-colorectal-cancer-ct26-cells
#14
Ayemeh Bagheri Hashkavayi, Jahan Bakhsh Raoof, Reza Ojani, Saeid Kavoosian
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has no effective treatment. Therefore, development of new methods for early diagnosis is instantly required. Biological recognition probes such as synthetic receptor and aptamer is one of the candidate recognition layers to detect important biomolecules. In this work, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed by fabricating an aptamer-cell-aptamer sandwich architecture on an SBA-15-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SBA-15-pr-NH2) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified graphite screen printed electrode (GSPE) surface for the selective, label-free detection of CT26 cancer cells...
October 19, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814625/colorectal-cancer-disparities-beyond-biology-screening-treatment-access
#15
Casey L Daniel, Kelly Gilreath, Danielle Keyes
African Americans in the United States are more likely than their white counterparts to experience greater incidence and mortality due to colorectal cancer (CRC). Present for decades, these disparities have prompted researchers to investigate underlying causes and potential explanations. While some biological variations have been observed between races, evidence shows that approximately 50% of these disparities can be attributed to differences and disparities in CRC screening, resulting in reduced polyp removal for CRC prevention and/or early detection of CRC among African Americans...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810400/clinical-impact-of-colonoscopy-for-patients-with-early-gastric-cancer-treated-by-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-a-matched-case-control-study
#16
Kenichiro Imai, Kinichi Hotta, Yuichiro Yamaguchi, Noboru Kawata, Naomi Kakushima, Masaki Tanaka, Kohei Takizawa, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Tadakazu Shimoda, Keita Mori, Hiroyuki Ono
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer frequently occurs synchronously with colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess the value of colonoscopy in patients with primariy early gastric cancer (EGC) indicated for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and to identify predictors for the risk of high-risk adenomas. METHODS: A total of 130 patients with EGC, who underwent both colonoscopy and gastric ESD, and 260 controls matched for age and sex, who underwent a colonoscopy as part of our institutional health check-up program...
October 17, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806614/a-large-scale-measurement-of-dielectric-properties-of-normal-and-malignant-colorectal-tissues-obtained-from-cancer-surgeries-at-larmor-frequencies
#17
Zhou Li, Guanhua Deng, Zhe Li, Sherman Xuegang Xin, Song Duan, Maoying Lan, Sa Zhang, Yixin Gao, Jun He, Songtao Zhang, Hongming Tang, Weiwei Wang, Shuai Han, Qing X Yang, Ling Zhuang, Jiani Hu, Feng Liu
PURPOSE: Knowledge of dielectric properties of malignant human tissues is necessary for the recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) technique called MR electrical property tomography. This technique may be used in early tumor detection based on the obvious differentiation of the dielectric properties between normal and malignant tissues. However, the dielectric properties of malignant human tissues in the scale of the Larmor frequencies are not completely available in the literature...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803741/the-biological-complexity-of-colorectal-cancer-insights-into-biomarkers-for-early-detection-and-personalized-care
#18
REVIEW
Marina De Rosa, Daniela Rega, Valeria Costabile, Francesca Duraturo, Antonello Niglio, Paola Izzo, Ugo Pace, Paolo Delrio
Colorectal cancer has been ranked the third and second most prevalent of all cancers in men and women, respectively, and it represents the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. In 2012, there were 1.4 million estimated cases of colorectal cancer worldwide, and 700,000 estimated deaths, which implies significant impact on public health, especially in economically-developed countries. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of tumors, although this has been accompanied by decreased mortality, due to more appropriate and available information, earlier diagnosis, and improvements in treatment...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799515/use-of-nccn-guidelines-other-guidelines-and-biomarkers-for-colorectal-cancer-screening
#19
REVIEW
Christina D Williams, William M Grady, Leah L Zullig
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a common cancer and significant public health burden. CRC-related mortality is declining, partly due to the early detection of CRC through robust screening. NCCN has established the NCCN Guidelines for CRC Screening to help healthcare providers make appropriate screening recommendations according to the patient's risk of developing CRC. This review describes the evolution of CRC screening guidelines for average-risk individuals, discusses the role of NCCN Guidelines for CRC Screening in cancer prevention, and comments on the current and emerging use of biomarkers for CRC screening...
November 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784334/the-effect-of-the-2-week-wait-referral-system-on-the-detection-of-and-mortality-from-colorectal-cancer-protocol-of-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Ella Mozdiak, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Michael McFarlane, Monika Widlak, Maria Tabuso, Amber Dunlop, Ramesh Arasaradnam
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer represents the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales; survival is high for early stage disease but declines sharply with advanced stage. UK figures suggest that cancer survival rates are lower than those of other Western European countries. Current 5-year survival is around 50 %. A rapid access strategy was introduced through the Department of Health in 2000. This 2-week wait (TWW) referral pathway was devised to streamline referral for suspected cancer, allow diagnosis at an earlier stage, reduce cancer survival inequality and reduce cancer-related mortality...
October 26, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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