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colorectal cancer and early detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138933/population-based-screening-improves-histopathological-prognostic-factors-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Mónica Mengual-Ballester, Enrique Pellicer-Franco, Graciela Valero-Navarro, Victoriano Soria-Aledo, José Andrés García-Marín, José Luis Aguayo-Albasini
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) based on clinical symptoms is usually established in its advanced stages. One strategy for reducing mortality is the early detection and removal of preneoplastic and initial neoplastic lesions, even before the first symptoms appear, by means of population-based screening campaigns. The aim of the present study is to determine whether CRC diagnosed via a screening campaign has more favourable histopathological prognostic factors than when diagnosed in the symptomatic phase...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116061/-exosomal-surface-protein-markers-in-diagnosis-of-colorectal-cancer
#2
E N Savvateeva, A A Tikhonov, V I Butvilovskaya, M V Tsybulskaya, A Yu Rubina
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common primary malignancies. Early stages of the disease are asymptomatic in the majority of cases, leading to late detection and high mortality. Available noninvasive diagnostic techniques are limited in sensitivity and specificity, and designing new ones is still a pressing problem. Exosomes are membrane-derived microvesicles secreted into human biological fluids and provide a novel way to assess the course of an oncology disease. The review describes the repertoire of exosomal surface biomarkers found in the blood of CRC patients and the prospects of employing multiplexed tests for exosomal markers in early noninvasive diagnosis of cancer...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113658/circulating-cell-free-dna-in-plasma-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-a-potential-biomarker-for-tumor-burden
#3
Jagdeep Singh Bhangu, Hossein Taghizadeh, Tamara Braunschmid, Thomas Bachleitner-Hofmann, Christine Mannhalter
BACKGROUND: Measurement of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma - the so called liquid biopsy - is a novel method for early detection of cancer. Necrotic cancer cells release various DNA fragments that can be detected in plasma or serum. The aim of our study was to investigate the concentration of circulating ALU115, LINE79 and LINE297 fragments in plasma from venous and arterial blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients before, during and 5 days after surgical intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (16 female, 14 male, median age 56 years), undergoing surgery for colorectal and appendix cancer, and 17 healthy volunteers were included in this study...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112994/risk-of-recurrence-after-endoscopic-resection-of-early-colorectal-cancer-with-positive-margins
#4
Je-Wook Shin, Kyung Su Han, Jong Hee Hyun, Sang Jae Lee, Bun Kim, Chang Won Hong, Byung Chang Kim, Dae Kyung Sohn, Hee Jin Chang, Min Jung Kim, Sung Chan Park, Jae Hwan Oh
Background and study aim Additional surgery is recommended if an endoscopically resected T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) specimen shows a positive resection margin. We aimed to investigate the significance of a positive resection margin in endoscopically resected T1 CRC. Patients and methods We enrolled 265 patients with T1 CRC who underwent endoscopic resection between January 2001 and December 2016. The inclusion criteria were: 1) complete resection by endoscopy, and 2) pathology of a positive margin. Among the 265 patients, 213 underwent additional surgery and 52 did not...
November 7, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112225/global-and-targeted-circulating-microrna-profiling-of-colorectal-adenoma-and-colorectal-cancer
#5
Jinhua Zhang, Gottumakkala S Raju, David W Chang, Shu-Hong Lin, Zhinan Chen, Xifeng Wu
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as promising biomarkers for cancer. The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential of circulating cell-free miRNAs as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesion, colorectal adenoma. METHODS: The serum levels of 800 miRNAs were assessed in a discovery set of 21 patients with CRC, 19 patients with adenoma, and 21 healthy controls using the NanoString miRNA analysis platform...
November 7, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111094/real-time-pcr-based-method-for-the-rapid-detection-of-extended-ras-mutations-using-bridged-nucleic-acids-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Takao Iida, Yukie Mizuno, Yasuharu Kaizaki
Mutations in RAS and BRAF are predictors of the efficacy of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Therefore, simple, rapid, cost-effective methods to detect these mutations in the clinical setting are greatly needed. In the present study, we evaluated BNA Real-time PCR Mutation Detection Kit Extended RAS (BNA Real-time PCR), a real-time PCR method that uses bridged nucleic acid clamping technology to rapidly detect mutations in RAS exons 2-4 and BRAF exon 15...
October 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104470/critical-role-of-p53-and-k-ras-in-the-diagnosis-of-early-colorectal-cancer-a-one-year-single-center-analysis
#7
Hui-Ying Lu, Ri-Tian Lin, Guang-Xi Zhou, Tian-Ming Yu, Zhan-Ju Liu
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is strongly associated with colorectal polyps, which has become the third most common cancer in China. In the present study, we revealed the susceptible population and risk factors of colorectal polyps, and analyzed the expression of Ki-67, p53 and K-ras in the intestinal mucosa of patients with colorectal polyps in order to explore their significance in the detection and prognosis of CRC at an early stage. Materials and Methods: Total 801 cases of colorectal polyps were collected during endoscopic resection including endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101736/clinical-implications-of-nras-overexpression-in-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-patients
#8
Javier Martinez-Useros, Weiyao Li, Tihomir Georgiev-Hristov, Maria J Fernandez-Aceñero, Aurea Borrero-Palacios, Nuria Perez, Angel Celdran, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer, and its incidence is rising worldwide. Although survival can be improved by surgical resection, when detected at an early stage, this type of cancer is usually asymptomatic, and disease becomes only apparent after metastasis. Adjuvant treatment does not improve survival, thus after surgery there is a lack of predictive and prognosis biomarkers to predict treatment response and survival. The mitogen-activated protein-kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathways play a crucial role in cancer development and progression...
November 3, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100436/meta-analysis-of-the-mutational-status-of-circulation-tumor-cells-and-paired-primary-tumor-tissues-from-colorectal-cancer-patients
#9
Yong Liu, Stefano Meucci, Liming Sheng, Ulrich Keilholz
As predictive markers for anti-EGFR therapy, KRAS and BRAF mutations are routinely detected in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, but seldom in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Detecting mutations in CTCs could help explain mutational differences between tumor cells at local sites and distant metastases, thereby improving treatment outcomes. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare KRAS and BRAF mutations in paired CTCs and primary tumors from CRC patients, to detect any possible discordance...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099566/colorectal-cancer-screening
#10
Christopher Bray, Lauren N Bell, Hong Liang, Dennis Collins, Steven H Yale
Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to be one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and contributes significantly to many cancer-related deaths despite sustained progress in diagnostic and treatment options. Many forms of CRC can be prevented through early and routine screening, when precancerous lesions may be detected and removed before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Despite widespread efforts to improve CRC screening rates, at least 40% of age-eligible adults do not adhere to screening guidelines...
February 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093617/detection-of-kras-g12d-in-colorectal-cancer-stool-by-droplet-digital-pcr
#11
Susana Olmedillas-López, Dennis César Lévano-Linares, Carmen Laura Aúz Alexandre, Luz Vega-Clemente, Edurne León Sánchez, Alejandro Villagrasa, Jaime Ruíz-Tovar, Mariano García-Arranz, Damián García-Olmo
AIM: To assess KRAS G12D mutation detection by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in stool-derived DNA from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: In this study, tumor tissue and stool samples were collected from 70 patients with stage I-IV CRC diagnosed by preoperative biopsy. KRAS mutational status was determined by pyrosequencing analysis of DNA obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues. The KRAS G12D mutation was then analyzed by ddPCR in FFPE tumors and stool-derived DNA from patients with this point mutation...
October 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090038/methods-and-novel-technology-for-microrna-quantification-in-colorectal-cancer-screening
#12
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hongshan He, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen
The screening and diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) currently relies heavily on invasive endoscopic techniques as well as imaging and antigen detection tools. More accessible and reliable biomarkers are necessary for early detection in order to expedite treatment and improve patient outcomes. Recent studies have indicated that levels of specific microRNA (miRNA) are altered in CRC; however, measuring miRNA in biological samples has proven difficult, given the complicated and lengthy PCR-based procedures used by most laboratories...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079854/identification-of-mst1-as-a-potential-early-detection-biomarker-for-colorectal-cancer-through-a-proteomic-approach
#13
Jiekai Yu, Xiaohui Zhai, Xiaofen Li, Chenhan Zhong, Cheng Guo, Fuquan Yang, Ying Yuan, Shu Zheng
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant neoplasm worldwide. It is important to identify new biomarkers for the early detection of CRC. In this study, magnetic beads and the Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) platform were used to analyse CRC and healthy control (HC) serum samples. The CRC diagnosis pattern was established to have a specificity of 94.7% and sensitivity of 92.3% in a blind test. The candidate biomarker serine/threonine kinase 4 (STK4, also known as MST1) was identified by Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and verified with western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076966/revisiting-tumor-patterns-and-penetrance-in-germline-tp53-mutation-carriers-temporal-phases-of-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#14
Amina Amadou, Maria I Waddington Achatz, Pierre Hainaut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Germline pathogenic TP53 mutation may predispose to multiple cancers but penetrance and cancer patterns remain incompletely documented. We have analyzed international agency for research on cancer TP53 database to reevaluate age and variant-dependent tumor patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide studies suggest that germline variants are more frequent than estimated prevalence of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), suggesting that many carriers of potentially pathogenic mutations may not develop the syndrome...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076487/-endoscopic-tattooing-of-colorectal-neoplasms-and-laparoscopic-surgery-technical-aspects-and-recommendations
#15
B N Bashankaev, K V Shishin, V V Veselov, A A Mitrakov, E V Velikanov
Accurate mapping of colorectal neoplasms is needed in many clinical situations. Intraoperative mapping of small lesions previously detected by endoscopy is often challenging, especially during laparoscopic surgery. Tumor location assessed during colonoscopy may be inaccurate because of limitations of the procedure. Small flat neoplasms with signs of invasiveness, which are hard to detect by palpation, hold a special place. The same situation is observed for nonradical endoscopic resection of malignant polyps or early cancer, when visual examination shows that the tumor masses have been completely resected but histological examination reveals the positive lateral or horizontal resection margin...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074220/development-of-a-multiplexed-tumor-associated-autoantibody-based-blood-test-for-the-detection-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Chung-Wei Fan, Yung-Bin Kuo, Geng-Pin Lin, Si-Min Chen, Shih-Hsien Chang, Bo-An Li, Err-Cheng Chan
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and early diagnosis is vital to improving prognoses. We explored the diagnostic potential of a multiplex autoantibody panel as a biomarker for the detection of CRC by ELISA. METHODS: In total, 192 serum samples (92 CRC and 100 matched controls) were tested against a panel of 12 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs): RPH3AL, RPL36, SLP2, p53, survivin, ANAXA4, SEC61B, CCCAP, NYCO16, NMDAR, PLSCR1, and HDAC5...
October 23, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070970/polyp-resection-and-removal-procedures-insights-from-the-2017-digestive-disease-week
#17
Carol Burke, Vivek Kaul, Heiko Pohl
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health issue not only because of its high incidence but also for its high mortality rate. When CRC is diagnosed at an early stage, the 5-year relative survival rate reaches 89.9%. However, only 39% of patients with CRC are diagnosed at this stage. Screening decreases both the incidence of CRC and the number of CRC-related deaths. There are several options available for screening, and colonoscopy is one of the most common methods utilized in the United States. Screening colonoscopy is associated with durable protection from CRC...
September 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070479/-current-progress-in-research-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#18
Qian-Wen Zhao, Bo Situ, Lei Zheng
Circulating tumor cells are tumor cells that spontaneously or, following operations, migrate into the peripheral blood circulation from the primary tumor or metastatic tumor. As diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in many types of cancers including breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer, circulating tumor cells contribute to the early diagnosis of cancers, drug resistance monitoring, prognostic assessment, survival analysis, detection of tumor recurrence and evaluation of drug efficacy to assist in treatment decision?making and adjustment of treatment plans...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069824/sensitive-detection-of-pd-l1-expression-on-circulating-epithelial-tumor-cells-cetcs-could-be-a-potential-biomarker-to-select-patients-for-treatment-with-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-early-and-metastatic-solid-tumors
#19
Dorothea Sonja Schott, Monika Pizon, Ulrich Pachmann, Katharina Pachmann
BACKGROUND: The current cancer research strongly focuses on immune therapies, where the PD-1, with its ligands plays an important role. It is known that PD-L1 is frequently up-regulated in a number of different cancers and the relevance of this pathway has been extensively studied and therapeutic approaches targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed. We used a non-invasive, real-time biopsy for determining PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in CETCs of solid cancer patients. METHODS: CETCs were determined from blood of 128 patients suffering from breast (72), prostate (27), colorectal (18) and lung (11) cancer...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069792/acquired-somatic-tp53-or-pik3ca-mutations-are-potential-predictors-of-when-polyps-evolve-into-colorectal-cancer
#20
Pi-Yueh Chang, Jinn-Shiun Chen, Shih-Cheng Chang, Mei-Chia Wang, Nai-Chung Chang, Ying-Hao Wen, Wen-Sy Tsai, Wei-Hsiu Liu, Hsiu-Ling Liu, Jang-Jih Lu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops from accumulated mutations. However, which gene determines the malignant transformation from adenoma to carcinoma is still uncertain. Fifty-three formalin fixed paraffin-embedded polyps that had pathological findings from patients with hyperplasia, adenomatous, and tubular adenoma < 1 cm (non-neoplasia polyps, NNP, n = 27) or tubular adenoma ≥ 1 cm, tubulovillous and villous adenoma (neoplastic polyps, NP, n = 26) were recruited. Six paired synchronous polyps and cancer tissues and 50 independent fresh CRC tumors were also collected...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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