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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#1
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868444/-plant-based-diets-a-review
#2
Zoltán Szabó, Attila Erdélyi, Andrea Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Tamás Ungár, Éva Lászlóné Polyák, Szilvia Szekeresné Szabó, Réka Erika Kovács, László Bence Raposa, Mária Figler
Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation...
November 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833908/exploratory-analysis-of-the-links-among-food-consumption-profiles-prenatal-androgens-and-selected-measures-of-quality-of-life
#3
Klaudia Modlinska, Wojciech Pisula
Prenatal sex steroids play a vital role in the development of the whole organism, and therefore also the brain. Exposure of the fetus to testosterone seems to be of special importance both for typical development and pathology. The key factor impacting offspring development (including prenatal androgen levels) appears to be diet, both in terms of shortage and excessive intake of certain food products. Prenatal steroid levels are measured using the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754409/diet-quality-the-greeks-had-it-right
#4
John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597745/can-families-eat-better-without-spending-more-improving-diet-quality-does-not-increase-diet-cost-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-among-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-and-their-parents
#5
Tonja R Nansel, Leah M Lipsky, Miriam H Eisenberg, Aiyi Liu, Sanjeev N Mehta, Lori M B Laffel
BACKGROUND: Although cost is a frequently cited barrier to healthful eating, limited prospective data exist. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diet cost with diet quality change. DESIGN: An 18-month randomized clinical trial evaluated a dietary intervention. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Youth with type 1 diabetes duration ≥1 year, age 8.0 to 16.9 years, receiving care at an outpatient tertiary diabetes center in Boston, MA, participated along with a parent from 2010 to 2013 (N=136)...
November 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299701/plant-based-dietary-patterns-and-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-us-men-and-women-results-from-three-prospective-cohort-studies
#6
Ambika Satija, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Eric B Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E Chiuve, Lea Borgi, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets have been recommended to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial. We examined the association of an overall plant-based diet and hypothesized healthful and unhealthful versions of a plant-based diet with T2D incidence in three prospective cohort studies in the US. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 69,949 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012), 90,239 women from the Nurses' Health Study 2 (1991-2011), and 40,539 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), free of chronic diseases at baseline...
June 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264059/international-variability-in-diet-and-requirements-of-manganese-causes-and-consequences
#7
Jean H Freeland-Graves, Tamara Y Mousa, Sangyoung Kim
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is critical for human health and development. At the turn of the century when diets were based on whole grains, cereals and other traditional foods, Mn intakes (8-9mg/d) were much greater than that prevalent today (2mg/d). As societies have developed, diets have shifted as part of a nutrition transition, to those that are high in processed foods, fat, and sugar. These foods are virtually devoid of Mn. Thus, dietary Mn has declined substantially throughout the world, as confirmed by several wide-scale, total diet studies...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159643/whole-food-approach-for-type-2-diabetes-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Pan Xi, Rui Hai Liu
Diet is intimately associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, attention has focused on the contributions of individual nutrients, food groups and eating patterns to the outcome of T2D. High consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and nuts are each independently associated with the reduced risk of T2D in high risk, glucose intolerant individuals. Experimental and clinical trials have given insight to the diverse mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed protective effects of certain foods on T2D, including nutrients, phytochemicals and dietary fiber, weight control, enhanced satiety and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients...
August 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150300/the-importance-of-animal-source-foods-for-nutrient-sufficiency-in-the-developing-world-the-zambia-scenario
#9
Zhiying Zhang, Peter D Goldsmith, Alex Winter-Nelson
There have been successful interventions fortifying staple foods to mobilize micronutrients as well as agricultural efforts to raise yields of staple foods to increase food availability. Zambia serves as an interesting case study because since 1961 there has been a notable decline in the availability of animal source foods (ASFs) and pulses and a significant increase in the supply of cassava and vegetable oils. The shift in food availability was partly attributed to the agricultural success in high-yielding and drought-resistant varieties that made cassava and oil crops more affordable and readily available...
May 5, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127938/dietary-patterns-and-the-risk-of-obesity-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-cardiovascular-diseases-asthma-and-mental-health-problems
#10
Alexander Medina-RemÓn, Richard Kirwan, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Ramón Estruch
Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach to examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns...
April 29, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871439/omnivory-of-an-insular-lizard-sources-of-variation-in-the-diet-of-podarcis-lilfordi-squamata-lacertidae
#11
Ana Pérez-Cembranos, Alicia León, Valentín Pérez-Mellado
Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26583778/the-impact-of-long-term-dietary-pattern-of-fecal-donor-on-in-vitro-fecal-fermentation-properties-of-inulin
#12
Junyi Yang, Devin J Rose
Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr...
April 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26567196/plant-protein-and-animal-proteins-do-they-differentially-affect-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#13
REVIEW
Chesney K Richter, Ann C Skulas-Ray, Catherine M Champagne, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors...
November 2015: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514720/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-health-implications-of-dietary-fiber
#14
Wendy J Dahl, Maria L Stewart
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights...
November 2015: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26364043/dietary-modifications-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neuroprotective-intervention
#15
Shital P Shah, John E Duda
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, with the prevalence increasing as the population ages. Many mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and inflammation. Current treatment strategies focus on symptomatic improvement. However, therapies to modify disease progression are lacking. A whole food, plant-based diet contains many compounds that fight oxidative stress and inflammation...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26205679/dietary-guidelines-to-nourish-humanity-and-the-planet-in-the-twenty-first-century-a-blueprint-from-brazil
#16
Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Geoffrey Cannon, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Carla Adriano Martins, Josefa Garzillo, Daniela Silva Canella, Larissa Galastri Baraldi, Maluh Barciotte, Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Rafael Moreira Claro, Patrícia Constante Jaime
OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss the dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian government in 2014. DESIGN: The present paper describes the aims of the guidelines, their shaping principles and the approach used in the development of recommendations. The main recommendations are outlined, their significance for the cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects of sustainability is discussed, and their application to other countries is considered. SETTING: Brazil in the twenty-first century...
September 2015: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26189886/accuracy-of-self-reported-intake-of-signature-foods-in-a-school-meal-intervention-study-comparison-between-control-and-intervention-period
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anja Biltoft-Jensen, Camilla Trab Damsgaard, Rikke Andersen, Karin Hess Ygil, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Majken Ege, Tue Christensen, Louise Bergmann Sørensen, Ken D Stark, Inge Tetens, Anne-Vibeke Thorsen
Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising the NND...
August 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26043039/food-choice-architecture-an-intervention-in-a-secondary-school-and-its-impact-on-students-plant-based-food-choices
#18
Hannah Ensaff, Matt Homer, Pinki Sahota, Debbie Braybrook, Susan Coan, Helen McLeod
With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks...
June 2, 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25988129/dietary-patterns-derived-using-exploratory-and-confirmatory-factor-analysis-are-stable-and-generalizable-across-race-region-and-gender-subgroups-in-the-regards-study
#19
Suzanne E Judd, Abraham J Letter, James M Shikany, David L Roth, P K Newby
BACKGROUND: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups...
2014: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25952160/improving-dietary-quality-in-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-randomized-clinical-trial-of-a-family-based-behavioral-intervention
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tonja R Nansel, Lori M B Laffel, Denise L Haynie, Sanjeev N Mehta, Leah M Lipsky, Lisa K Volkening, Deborah A Butler, Laurie A Higgins, Aiyi Liu
BACKGROUND: Diets of children with type 1 diabetes are low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in foods of minimal nutritional value, increasing risk for future adverse health outcomes. This 18-month randomized clinical trial tested the effect of a family-based behavioral intervention integrating motivational interviewing, active learning, and applied problem-solving on the primary outcomes of dietary intake and glycemic control among youth with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A parallel-group study with equal randomization was conducted at an outpatient, free-standing, multidisciplinary tertiary diabetes center in the United States...
May 8, 2015: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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