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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187059/bridging-observational-studies-and-randomized-experiments-by-embedding-the-former-in-the-latter
#1
Marie-Abele C Bind, Donald B Rubin
Consider a statistical analysis that draws causal inferences from an observational dataset, inferences that are presented as being valid in the standard frequentist senses; i.e. the analysis produces: (1) consistent point estimates, (2) valid p-values, valid in the sense of rejecting true null hypotheses at the nominal level or less often, and/or (3) confidence intervals, which are presented as having at least their nominal coverage for their estimands. For the hypothetical validity of these statements, the analysis must embed the observational study in a hypothetical randomized experiment that created the observed data, or a subset of that hypothetical randomized data set...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958170/experiences-of-shame-for-people-with-dementia-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#2
Hannah Aldridge, Paul Fisher, Ken Laidlaw
Studies highlight that shame can be problematic for people with early-stage dementia. However, no published research has specifically explored experiences of shame in dementia from the perspective of the individual. This study uses Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to gain an understanding of how shame is experienced and made sense of by six people with early-stage dementia. Individual, semi-structured interviews took place in participants' homes. An in-depth analysis of the data revealed four superordinate themes implicated in shame experiences: Avoidance explains the participants' efforts to distance themselves from shaming experiences; participants reported Negative self-perceptions including a weakening self, loss of value and meaninglessness; Relationship matters involved issues around trust, burden and past relationships and Uncertainty and loss of control highlights participants' anxiety about losing clarity and control...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870500/home-closure-as-a-weapon-in-the-dutch-war-on-drugs-does-judicial-review-function-as-a-safety-net
#3
L Michelle Bruijn, Michel Vols, Jan G Brouwer
BACKGROUND: A widespread sense of a failing criminal justice system and increased feelings of insecurity changed the response to crime into a culture of control, which is characterized by policies that punish and exclude. In the Netherlands, these influences can be witnessed in the war on drugs where local authorities use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Citizens can invoke judicial review over these administrative interferences by claiming that such closure results in an unfair balance between purposes, means and consequences...
September 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714734/being-disconnected-from-life-meanings-of-existential-loneliness-as-narrated-by-frail-older-people
#4
Marina Sjöberg, Ingela Beck, Birgit H Rasmussen, Anna-Karin Edberg
OBJECTIVES: This study illuminated the meanings of existential loneliness (EL) as narrated by frail older people. METHOD: Data were collected through individual narrative interviews with 23 people 76-101 years old receiving long-term care and services. A phenomenological hermeneutical analysis was performed, including a naïve reading and two structural analyses as a basis for a comprehensive understanding of EL. RESULT: Four themes were identified related to meanings of EL: (1) being trapped in a frail and deteriorating body; (2) being met with indifference; (3) having nobody to share life with; and (4) lacking purpose and meaning...
July 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690561/interparental-conflict-relative-to-suicidal-ideation-in-chinese-adolescents-the-roles-of-coping-strategies-and-meaning-in-life
#5
Rongwei Zhang, Dan Li, Fei Chen, Béatrice M Ewalds-Kvist, Shihong Liu
The aim of this study was to explore the paths between interparental conflict and Chinese adolescents' suicidal ideation. Altogether 931 adolescents (Mage = 17.84, SD = 0.77, females = 531) completed the Dyadic Consensus Scale, Self-Report Coping Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted, focusing on the relations between interparental conflict and suicidal ideation along with coping styles and a sense of meaning in life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212896/having-control-over-the-external-world-increases-the-implicit-sense-of-agency
#6
Brianna Beck, Steven Di Costa, Patrick Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and, through them, over external events. One proposed marker of implicit sense of agency is 'intentional binding'-the tendency to perceive voluntary actions and their outcomes as close in time. Another is attenuation of the sensory consequences of a voluntary action. Here we show that the ability to choose an outcome through action selection contributes to implicit sense of agency. We measured intentional binding and stimulus intensity ratings using painful and non-painful somatosensory outcomes...
May 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092708/-applying-ethics-placating-ethics-or-applying-ourselves-to-ethics-a-critical-view-of-environmental-ethics-as-applied-ethics
#7
Alejandro Serani Merlo
There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862120/clinical-caring-science-as-a-scientific-discipline
#8
Arne Rehnsfeldt, Maria Arman, Unni Å Lindström
BACKGROUND: Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. AIM: The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. FINDINGS: Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts...
November 14, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797299/professional-language-understanding-and-being-understood
#9
David Bryson
Language is a vital means of communication and education plays a key role in developing both our general language capabilities but also our use of 'Professional language'. Learning a professional language is like being inducted into the profession through the shared use of arcane and often obscure words and terminology. What makes sense to a 'Professional' could well be gobbledygook/meaningless/nonsense to anyone else. This CPD activity is designed to encourage us to think about how we speak and communicate...
August 2016: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796409/new-implantable-cardiac-monitor-with-three-lead-ecg-and-active-noise-detection
#10
J Lauschke, M Busch, W Haverkamp, A Bulava, R Schneider, D Andresen, H Nägele, C Israel, G Hindricks, D Bänsch
BACKGROUND: A new implantable cardiac monitor (BioMonitor, Biotronik) with a continuous remote monitoring option was prospectively implanted in patients with suspected arrhythmias or for therapy control after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. A three-lead ECG detection was intended to make the implantation more independent of the implantation site and the electrical heart axis. Because noise is a frequent problem in implantable cardiac monitors, an active noise detection algorithm was implemented...
September 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26672271/-a-new-method-of-accurately-extracting-spectral-values-for-discrete-sampling-points
#11
Zhen-zhen Lü, Guang-ming Liu, Jin-song Yang
In the establishment of remote sensing information inversion model, the actual measured data of discrete sampling points and the corresponding spectrum data to pixels of remote sensing image, are used to establish the relation, thus to realize the goal of information retrieval. Accurate extraction of spectrum value is very important to establish the remote sensing inversion mode. Converting target spot layer to ROI (region of interest) and then saving the ROI as ASCII is one of the methods that researchers often used to extract the spectral values...
August 2015: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26036925/learning-from-gesture-how-early-does-it-happen
#12
Miriam A Novack, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Amanda L Woodward
Iconic gesture is a rich source of information for conveying ideas to learners. However, in order to learn from iconic gesture, a learner must be able to interpret its iconic form-a nontrivial task for young children. Our study explores how young children interpret iconic gesture and whether they can use it to infer a previously unknown action. In Study 1, 2- and 3-year-old children were shown iconic gestures that illustrated how to operate a novel toy to achieve a target action. Children in both age groups successfully figured out the target action more often after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing no demonstration...
September 2015: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25728186/the-role-of-auditory-cortices-in-the-retrieval-of-single-trial-auditory-visual-object-memories
#13
Pawel J Matusz, Antonia Thelen, Sarah Amrein, Eveline Geiser, Jacques Anken, Micah M Murray
Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a continuous recognition task in the auditory modality, discriminating initial (new) from repeated (old) sounds of environmental objects...
March 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25574387/going-around-in-a-circle-a-norwegian-study-of-suicidal-experiences-in-old-age
#14
Anne Lise Holm, Anne Lyberg, Ingela Berggren, Sture Åström, Elisabeth Severinsson
Depression has repeatedly been found to be a risk factor for completed suicide, particularly when coupled with a pervasive sense of hopelessness. The aim of this study was to evaluate depressed older persons' suicidal experiences. Data were collected by means of individual in-depth interviews with nine informants living in two districts of Norway. A hermeneutic analysis was performed. One main theme: Going around in a circle and two themes: being alone without meaning in life and struggling to achieve reconciliation emerged from the analysis...
2014: Nursing Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25516346/the-politics-of-piketty-what-political-science-can-learn-from-and-contribute-to-the-debate-on-capital-in-the-twenty-first-century
#15
REVIEW
Jonathan Hopkin
Thomas Piketty's imposing volume has brought serious economics firmly into the mainstream of public debate on inequality, yet political science has been mostly absent from this debate. This article argues that political science has an essential contribution to make to this debate, and that Piketty's important and powerful book lacks a clear political theory. It develops this argument by first assessing and critiquing the changing nature of political science and its account of contemporary capitalism, and then suggesting how Piketty's thesis can be complemented, extended and challenged by focusing on the ways in which politics and collective action shape the economy and the distribution of income and wealth...
December 2014: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25378679/physician-burnout-a-neurologic-crisis
#16
Bruce Sigsbee, James L Bernat
The prevalence of burnout is higher in physicians than in other professions and is especially high in neurologists. Physician burnout encompasses 3 domains: (1) emotional exhaustion: the loss of interest and enthusiasm for practice; (2) depersonalization: a poor attitude with cynicism and treating patients as objects; and (3) career dissatisfaction: a diminished sense of personal accomplishment and low self-value. Burnout results in reduced work hours, relocation, depression, and suicide. Burned-out physicians harm patients because they lack empathy and make errors...
December 9, 2014: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225952/nurse-education-program-on-meaninglessness-in-terminally-ill-cancer-patients-a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-novel-two-day-workshop
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tatsuya Morita, Keiko Tamura, Etsuko Kusajima, Sayuri Sakai, Masako Kawa, Chizuru Imura, Kaori Ichihara, Mitsunori Miyashita, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Yosuke Uchitomi
BACKGROUND: Fostering patients' sense of meaning is an essential task for palliative care clinicians. Few studies have reported the effects on nurses of a short-term training program aimed at improving skills to relieve feelings of meaninglessness in terminally ill cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact on nurses of a novel two-day education program focusing on care that addresses patients' feelings of meaninglessness...
December 2014: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25140919/the-grief-and-meaning-reconstruction-inventory-gmri-initial-validation-of-a-new-measure
#18
James M Gillies, Robert A Neimeyer, Evgenia Milman
Although increasing numbers of grief theorists, researchers, and therapists have begun to focus on the quest for meaning in lives disrupted by loss, no convenient and psychometrically validated measure of meanings made specifically in bereavement has been available to guide their efforts. To construct such a measure, the authors began with a systematic content analysis of sense-making, benefit finding, and identity reconstruction themes gleaned from the narrative responses of a sample of 162 adults who were diverse in their age, ethnicity, relationship to the decedent, cause of death, and severity of their grief response...
January 2015: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25116195/taking-a-call-is-facilitated-by-the-multisensory-processing-of-smartphone-vibrations-sounds-and-flashes
#19
Ulrich Pomper, Jana Brincker, James Harwood, Ivan Prikhodko, Daniel Senkowski
Many electronic devices that we use in our daily lives provide inputs that need to be processed and integrated by our senses. For instance, ringing, vibrating, and flashing indicate incoming calls and messages in smartphones. Whether the presentation of multiple smartphone stimuli simultaneously provides an advantage over the processing of the same stimuli presented in isolation has not yet been investigated. In this behavioral study we examined multisensory processing between visual (V), tactile (T), and auditory (A) stimuli produced by a smartphone...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25072211/experiences-of-everyday-life-in-men-with-alcohol-dependency-a-qualitative-study
#20
Anna Maria Thurang, Tom Palmstierna, Anita Bengtsson Tops
The aim of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning of living with alcohol dependency (AD) as a man. Studies point out a high prevalence of AD in men and the reasons for, and consequences of, that are complex. However, today there is a lack of knowledge about men's lived experiences of having AD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 alcohol dependent men and analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. In the comprehensive understanding, findings from the naïve understanding and the structural analysis were interpreted with help from both gender and caring theoretical perspectives...
August 2014: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
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