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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728638/age-related-changes-in-associations-between-reasons-for-alcohol-use-and-high-intensity-drinking-across-young-adulthood
#1
Megan E Patrick, Rebecca Evans-Polce, Deborah D Kloska, Jennifer L Maggs, Stephanie T Lanza
OBJECTIVE: Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. METHOD: Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age...
July 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720189/enhancing-the-meaningfulness-of-work-for-astronauts-on-long-duration-space-exploration-missions
#2
Thomas W Britt, Anton Sytine, Ashley Brady, Russ Wilkes, Rebecca Pittman, Kristen Jennings, Kandice Goguen
INTRODUCTION: Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714727/the-prospective-relationship-between-distress-tolerance-and-cigarette-smoking-expectancies-in-adolescence
#3
Julia M Shadur, Andrew L Ninnemann, Aaron Lim, Carl W Lejuez, Laura MacPherson
The current study examined the prospective relationship between distress tolerance (DT) and positive and negative cigarette smoking outcome expectancies, which are reliable predictors of the onset and maintenance of smoking behaviors. Data from a longitudinal study (N = 204) examining risk behaviors in adolescence were used to assess whether DT predicts individual differences in rate of change in smoking outcome expectancies over 4 annual assessment waves through adolescence. Adolescents (mean age at first wave: 13...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690560/teacher-s-autonomy-support-and-engagement-in-math-multiple-mediating-roles-of-self-efficacy-intrinsic-value-and-boredom
#4
Jia Wang, Ru-De Liu, Yi Ding, Le Xu, Ying Liu, Rui Zhen
Previous studies have highlighted the impacts of environmental factors (teacher's autonomy support) and individual factors (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and boredom) on academic engagement. This study aimed to investigate these variables and examine the relations among them. Three structural equation models tested the multiple mediational roles of self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and boredom in the relation between teacher's autonomy support and behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, respectively, in math...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682720/phenomenology-in-its-original-sense
#5
Max van Manen
In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes phenomenology in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of phenomenology in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make phenomenology into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the phenomenological term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding phenomenological reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights...
May 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681806/departing-from-powerpoint-default-mode-applying-mayer-s-multimedia-principles-for-enhanced-learning-of-parasitology
#6
Jyoti Mahantesh Nagmoti
PURPOSE: PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671051/autobiographical-memory-functions-of-nostalgia-in-comparison-to-rumination-and-counterfactual-thinking-similarity-and-uniqueness
#7
Wing-Yee Cheung, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia...
July 1, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665261/the-onset-and-progression-of-alcohol-use-disorders-a-qualitative-study-from-goa-india
#8
Nathalie Mackinnon, Urvita Bhatia, Abhijit Nadkarni
Quantitative evidence about the burden of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) needs to be complemented with a nuanced qualitative understanding of explanatory models to help supplement public health strategies that are too often steeped uncritically in biomedical models. The aim of this study was to identify the role of various factors in the onset and persistence of AUD and recovery from AUD. This was a qualitative study nested in a population cohort from Goa, India. In-depth interviews of men with incident, recovered, and persistent AUD covered topics such as changes in drinking habits over time, perceptions and experiences about starting/stopping drinking, and so on...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647681/daily-associations-between-cannabis-motives-and-consumption-in-emerging-adults
#9
Erin E Bonar, Jason E Goldstick, R Lorraine Collins, James A Cranford, Rebecca M Cunningham, Stephen T Chermack, Frederic C Blow, Maureen A Walton
BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of cannabis use among emerging adults is a growing public health problem. Intensive longitudinal data can provide information on proximal motives for cannabis use, which can inform interventions to reduce use among emerging adults. METHOD: As part of a larger longitudinal study, patients aged 18-25 years (N=95) recruited from an urban Emergency Department completed daily text message assessments of risk behaviors for 28days, including daily cannabis quantity and motives...
June 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582467/measuring-aesthetic-emotions-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-new-assessment-tool
#10
Ines Schindler, Georg Hosoya, Winfried Menninghaus, Ursula Beermann, Valentin Wagner, Michael Eid, Klaus R Scherer
Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557476/repeated-computerized-cognitive-testing-performance-shifts-and-test-retest-reliability-in-healthy-young-adults
#11
Naomi White, Bridget Forsyth, Amelia Lee, Liana Machado
Many longitudinal studies entail repeated computerized cognitive testing. However, few of the measures frequently employed for assessing cognitive changes have been examined for within- and between-day retest effects over multiple time points. To address gaps in the repeated cognitive assessment literature, in the current study 20 male undergraduate students completed a computerized cognitive battery 6 times over 3 testing days, each 1 week apart. Performance shifts and test-retest reliability (TRR) varied for different measured variables...
May 29, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543718/introduction-of-a-new-instrument-to-measure-motivation-for-gaming-the-electronic-gaming-motives-questionnaire
#12
Helga Myrseth, Guy Notelaers, Leif Åge Strand, Einar Kristian Borud, Olav Kjellevold Olsen
AIMS: To adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ). DESIGN AND SETTING: The GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts selected randomly from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015...
May 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507503/improving-challenge-skill-ratio-in-a-multimodal-interface-by-simultaneously-adapting-game-difficulty-and-haptic-assistance-through-psychophysiological-and-performance-feedback
#13
Carlos Rodriguez-Guerrero, Kristel Knaepen, Juan C Fraile-Marinero, Javier Perez-Turiel, Valentin Gonzalez-de-Garibay, Dirk Lefeber
In order to harmonize robotic devices with human beings, the robots should be able to perceive important psychosomatic impact triggered by emotional states such as frustration or boredom. This paper presents a new type of biocooperative control architecture, which acts toward improving the challenge/skill relation perceived by the user when interacting with a robotic multimodal interface in a cooperative scenario. In the first part of the paper, open-loop experiments revealed which physiological signals were optimal for inclusion in the feedback loop...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479110/boredom-begets-creativity-a-solution-to-the-exploitation-exploration-trade-off-in-predictive-coding
#14
Jaime Gomez-Ramirez, Tommaso Costa
Here we investigate whether systems that minimize prediction error e.g. predictive coding, can also show creativity, or on the contrary, prediction error minimization unqualifies for the design of systems that respond in creative ways to non recurrent problems. We argue that there is a key ingredient that has been overlooked by researchers that needs to be incorporated to understand intelligent behavior in biological and technical systems. This ingredient is boredom. We propose a mathematical model based on the Black-Scholes-Merton equation which provides mechanistic insights into the interplay between boredom and prediction pleasure as the key drivers of behavior...
May 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426998/can-nursing-students-perceived-teacher-enthusiasm-dampen-their-class-related-boredom-during-theoretical-lessons-a-cross-sectional-study-among-chinese-nursing-students
#15
Guanyu Cui, Meilin Yao, Xia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Class-related boredom experienced by nursing students during theoretical lessons may affect their health and learning outcomes. Perceived teacher enthusiasm of nursing students may dampen their boredom, but little empirical research has investigated their relationship. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to investigate the dampening effects of nursing students' perceived teacher enthusiasm on their class-related boredom during theoretical lessons...
June 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422647/eeg-based-affect-and-workload-recognition-in-a-virtual-driving-environment-for-asd-intervention
#16
Jing Fan, Joshua W Wade, Alexandra P Key, Zachary Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
OBJECTIVE: To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. METHODS: Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399434/avoiding-boredom-caudate-and-insula-activity-reflects-boredom-elicited-purchase-bias
#17
Dennis E Dal Mas, Bianca C Wittmann
People show a strong tendency to avoid boring situations, but the neural systems mediating this behavioural bias are yet unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the anticipation of a boring task influences decisions to purchase entertainment. Participants accepted higher prices to avoid boredom compared to control tasks, and individual differences in boredom experience predicted the increase in price. This behavioural bias was associated with higher activity in the caudate nucleus during music purchases driven by boredom avoidance...
March 28, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367134/the-dampening-effects-of-perceived-teacher-enthusiasm-on-class-related-boredom-the-mediating-role-of-perceived-autonomy-support-and-task-value
#18
Guanyu Cui, Meilin Yao, Xia Zhang
Class-related boredom is commonly experienced by students and it has an impact on their learning engagement and achievements. Previous research has found that perceived teacher enthusiasm might contribute to reducing students' class-related boredom. However, the mechanism through which perceived teacher enthusiasm affects class-related boredom remains unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of perceived autonomy support and task value in the relationship between teacher enthusiasm and class-related boredom...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352947/the-knowns-and-unknowns-of-boredom-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Quentin Raffaelli, Caitlin Mills, Kalina Christoff
Despite the ubiquitous nature of boredom, the definition, function, and correlates of boredom are still poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the "known" (consistent evidence) and "unknown" (inconsistent evidence) correlates of boredom. We show that boredom is consistently related to negative affect, task-unrelated thought, over-estimation of elapsed time, reduced agency, as well as to over- and under-stimulation. Activation of the default mode network was consistent across the few available fMRI studies, while the recruitment of other brain areas such as the hippocampus and anterior insular cortex, was a notable but less consistent correlate of boredom...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343062/the-material-moral-and-affective-worlds-of-dealing-and-crime-among-young-men-entrenched-in-an-inner-city-drug-scene
#20
Danya Fast, Jean Shoveller, Thomas Kerr
A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada...
June 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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