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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929419/high-resolution-mr-imaging-for-dental-impressions-a-feasibility-study
#1
Julian Boldt, Kurt Rottner, Marc Schmitter, Andreas Hopfgartner, Peter Jakob, Ernst-Jürgen Richter, Olga Tymofiyeva
OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging technology in dental medicine. While low-resolution MRI has especially provided means to examine the temporomandibular joint due to its anatomic inaccessibility, it was the goal of this study to assess whether high-resolution MRI is capable of delivering a dataset sufficiently precise enough to serve as digital impression of human teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An informed and consenting patient in need of dental restoration with fixed partial dentures was chosen as subject...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#2
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918826/islamic-medicine-in-the-middle-ages
#3
EDITORIAL
Hawa Edriss, Brittany N Rosales, Connie Nugent, Christian Conrad, Kenneth Nugent
The Islamic culture flourished between the 9th and 13th centuries. Scholars from this era made significant contributions in mathematics, science and medicine. Caliphs and physicians built hospitals that provided universal care and the foundation for medical education. Physician-scientists made significant advances in medical care, surgery and pharmacology. Notable authorities include al-Razi (865-925 CE) who wrote the Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine), a 23-volume textbook that provided the main medical curriculum for European schools into the 14th century...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884446/analysis-of-homeostatic-mechanisms-in-biochemical-networks
#4
Michael Reed, Janet Best, Martin Golubitsky, Ian Stewart, H Frederik Nijhout
Cell metabolism is an extremely complicated dynamical system that maintains important cellular functions despite large changes in inputs. This "homeostasis" does not mean that the dynamical system is rigid and fixed. Typically, large changes in external variables cause large changes in some internal variables so that, through various regulatory mechanisms, certain other internal variables (concentrations or velocities) remain approximately constant over a finite range of inputs. Outside that range, the mechanisms cease to function and concentrations change rapidly with changes in inputs...
September 7, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874736/genfire-a-generalized-fourier-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-for-high-resolution-3d-imaging
#5
Alan Pryor, Yongsoo Yang, Arjun Rana, Marcus Gallagher-Jones, Jihan Zhou, Yuan Hung Lo, Georgian Melinte, Wah Chiu, Jose A Rodriguez, Jianwei Miao
Tomography has made a radical impact on diverse fields ranging from the study of 3D atomic arrangements in matter to the study of human health in medicine. Despite its very diverse applications, the core of tomography remains the same, that is, a mathematical method must be implemented to reconstruct the 3D structure of an object from a number of 2D projections. Here, we present the mathematical implementation of a tomographic algorithm, termed GENeralized Fourier Iterative REconstruction (GENFIRE), for high-resolution 3D reconstruction from a limited number of 2D projections...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862205/mathematical-formulation-of-125-i-seed-dosimetry-parameters-and-heterogeneity-correction-in-lung-permanent-implant-brachytherapy
#6
Hesameddin Mostaghimi, Ali Reza Mehdizadeh, Leili Darvish, Sadegh Akbari, Hadi Rezaei
OBJECTIVES: Precise determination of dose distribution around low-energy brachytherapy sources as well as considering tissue heterogeneity is crucial for optimized treatment planning. This study is aimed at determination and mathematically formulation of American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) dosimetry parameters of 125I seed (model 6711) and calculation of dose difference caused by neglecting lung heterogeneity in permanent implant brachytherapy...
July 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845231/a-mathematical-framework-to-quantify-the-masking-effect-associated-with-the-confidence-intervals-of-measures-of-disproportionality
#7
François Maignen, Manfred Hauben, Jean-Michel Dogné
BACKGROUND: The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of measures of disproportionality (Lower95CI) is widely used in signal detection. Masking is a statistical issue by which true signals of disproportionate reporting are hidden by the presence of other medicines. The primary objective of our study is to develop and validate a mathematical framework for assessing the masking effect of Lower95CI. METHODS: We have developed our new algorithm based on the masking ratio (MR) developed for the measures of disproportionality...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844243/coaching-in-early-mathematics
#8
Carrie Germeroth, Julie Sarama
Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014)...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838028/distinct-in-vivo-target-occupancy-by-bivalent-and-induced-fit-like-binding-drugs
#9
Georges Vauquelin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optimal drug therapy often requires long-lasting target occupancy. While this attribute was customarily linked to the drug's pharmacokinetic properties, their dissociation rate is now increasingly recognised to contribute as well. Nearly all the earlier PK-PD simulations encompassed single-step binding drugs and focussed on koff . However, "micro"-PK mechanisms and more complex binding mechanisms like bivalent- and induced-fit binding may contribute as well. Corresponding binding models are presently explored...
August 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828199/implementation-of-automated-calculation-of-free-and-bioavailable-testosterone-in-epic-beaker-laboratory-information-system
#10
Michael C Chung, Saurabh Gombar, Run Zhang Shi
BACKGROUND: Automated calculations by laboratory information system (LIS) are efficient and accurate ways of providing calculated laboratory test results. Due to the lack of established advanced mathematical functions and equation logic in LIS software, calculations beyond simple arithmetic functions require a tedious workaround. Free and bioavailable testosterone (BT) calculations require a quadratic solver currently unavailable as ready to use the function on most commercial LIS platforms...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827526/measuring-and-modelling-the-response-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-prey-to-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum-and-defined-buffer
#11
Michelle Baker, David Negus, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Paul Radford, Chris Moore, Gemma Clark, Mathew Diggle, Jess Tyson, Jamie Twycross, R Elizabeth Sockett
In worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so B. bacteriovorus have been proposed as "living antibiotics" to combat antimicrobially-resistant pathogens. Predator-prey interactions are complex and can be altered by environmental components. To be effective B. bacteriovorus predation needs to work in human body fluids such as serum where predation dynamics may differ to that studied in laboratory media...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#12
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808315/modular-serial-flow-through-device-for-pulsed-electric-field-treatment-of-the-liquid-samples
#13
Maša Kandušer, Aleš Belič, Selma Čorović, Igor Škrjanc
In biotechnology, medicine, and food processing, simple and reliable methods for cell membrane permeabilization are required for drug/gene delivery into the cells or for the inactivation of undesired microorganisms. Pulsed electric field treatment is among the most promising methods enabling both aims. The drawback in current technology is controllable large volume operation. To address this challenge, we have developed an experimental setup for flow through electroporation with online regulation of the flow rate with feedback control...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792412/evolutionary-public-health-introducing-the-concept
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Randolph M Nesse, Rebecca Sear, Rufus A Johnstone, Stephen C Stearns
The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782482/drug-combination-in-clinical-cancer-treatments
#15
Da-Yong Lu, Ting-Ren Lu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Hong-Ying Wu, Bin Xu, Jian Ding, Hong Zhu
AIM: The modality of anticancer drug combinations needs to be renovated from empirical into technical-supportive systems. METHODS: To challenge past therapeutic routines, the new landscape may be established. Among the different areas of anticancer drug combination study, research in the fields of medical study is the most important one-including disciplinary of therapeutics in different cancer stages, modern genetic/molecular diagnostics, cancer bioinformatics, traditional Chinese medicine, mathematical data analysis, therapeutic toxicity monitor, personalized cancer medicine and so on...
August 3, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735000/application-of-pharmacometrics-and-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-to-cancer-therapy-the-example-of-luminal-a-breast-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Brett Fleisher, Ashley N Brown, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subtypes with distinct morphologies and clinical implications. Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) is an emerging discipline bridging systems biology with pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) leveraging the systematic understanding of drugs' efficacy and toxicity. Despite numerous challenges in applying computational methodologies for QSP and mechanism-based PK/PD models to biological, physiological, and pharmacological data, bridging these disciplines has the potential to enhance our understanding of complex disease systems such as BC...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712476/comparative-assessment-of-the-heart-s-functioning-by-using-the-akabane-test-and-classical-methods-of-instrumental-examination
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Valery Muzhikov, Elena Vershinina, Vadim Belenky, Ruslan Muzhikov
Acupuncture physicians have studied the application of reflexotherapy to cardiology. However, no one has investigated the connection of ancient Chinese diagnostic methods with modern tools. A total of 102 patients (54 men and 48 women) with heart pathology, namely, sick-sinus syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and atrioventricular blockade, were studied using the usual instrumental methods (transesophageal electrophysiological study of the heart, echocardiography), after which they underwent Akabane thermopuncture testing as in traditional Chinese medicine...
June 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707865/religion-and-science-in-the-eastern-mediterranean
#18
COMMENT
Robert Morrison
“Science and Orthodox Christianity: An Overview” is an ambitious survey that reminds scholars of science in Islamic societies that the conversation between Islam and science is really a conversation between Islam and science in different contexts and that conversations between Islam and science can be found with less renowned scientific developments such as prophetic medicine. This response points out parallels in how Greek Orthodox and Ottoman Muslim scholars mediated new developments in Western European science and in how both Greek Orthodox and some Ottoman Muslim scholars propounded a mathematical humanism...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702077/a-research-on-syndrome-element-differentiation-based-on-phenomenology-and-mathematical-method
#19
Enliang Yan, Jialin Song, Chaonan Liu, Wenxue Hong
BACKGROUND: As an empirical medical system independent of conventional Western medicine (CWM), over thousands of years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has established its own unique method of diagnosis and treatment. The perspective of holism and system in TCM is essentially different from the view of Reductionism in CWM. With the development of modern science and technology, the restriction of reductionism is more and more prominent, and researchers begin to pay more attention to holistic thinking in TCM...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693482/the-development-and-feasibility-of-a-personal-health-optimization-system-for-people-with-bipolar-disorder
#20
Øystein Eiring, Kari Nytrøen, Simone Kienlin, Soudabeh Khodambashi, Magne Nylenna
BACKGROUND: People with bipolar disorder often experience ill health and have considerably reduced life expectancies. Suboptimal treatment is common and includes a lack of effective medicines, overtreatment, and non-adherence to medical interventions and lifestyle measures. E- and m-health applications support patients in optimizing their treatment but often exhibit conceptual and technical shortcomings. The objective of this work was to develop and test the usability of a system targeting suboptimal treatment and compare the service to other genres and strategies...
July 10, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
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