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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135012/shrinking-microbubbles-with-microfluidics-mathematical-modelling-to-control-microbubble-sizes
#1
A Salari, V Gnyawali, I M Griffiths, R Karshafian, M C Kolios, S S H Tsai
Microbubbles have applications in industry and life-sciences. In medicine, small encapsulated bubbles (<10 μm) are desirable because of their utility in drug/oxygen delivery, sonoporation, and ultrasound diagnostics. While there are various techniques for generating microbubbles, microfluidic methods are distinguished due to their precise control and ease-of-fabrication. Nevertheless, sub-10 μm diameter bubble generation using microfluidics remains challenging, and typically requires expensive equipment and cumbersome setups...
November 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115689/learning-a-variational-network-for-reconstruction-of-accelerated-mri-data
#2
Kerstin Hammernik, Teresa Klatzer, Erich Kobler, Michael P Recht, Daniel K Sodickson, Thomas Pock, Florian Knoll
PURPOSE: To allow fast and high-quality reconstruction of clinical accelerated multi-coil MR data by learning a variational network that combines the mathematical structure of variational models with deep learning. THEORY AND METHODS: Generalized compressed sensing reconstruction formulated as a variational model is embedded in an unrolled gradient descent scheme. All parameters of this formulation, including the prior model defined by filter kernels and activation functions as well as the data term weights, are learned during an offline training procedure...
November 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098787/quality-evaluation-of-raw-and-processed-crataegi-fructus-by-color-measurement-and-fingerprint-analysis
#3
Chenghao Fei, Hui Dai, Xiaoyan Wu, Lin Li, Tulin Lu, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai, Wu Yin, Fangzhou Yin
Crataegi Fructus and its processed products have been used as a traditional medicine for a long time, and numerous active components are responsible for their curative effects. However, a comprehensive and fast method for the quality control of its processed products is still lacking. In this study, two analytical methods based on color measurements and fingerprint analysis were established. In the color measurements, the color values (L*, a*, b*) of the peel and flesh of Crataegi Fructus were evaluated spectrophotometrically...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081828/modelling-and-optimal-control-of-typhoid-fever-disease-with-cost-effective-strategies
#4
Getachew Teshome Tilahun, Oluwole Daniel Makinde, David Malonza
We propose and analyze a compartmental nonlinear deterministic mathematical model for the typhoid fever outbreak and optimal control strategies in a community with varying population. The model is studied qualitatively using stability theory of differential equations and the basic reproductive number that represents the epidemic indicator is obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the next-generation matrix. Both local and global asymptotic stability conditions for disease-free and endemic equilibria are determined...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081039/clinical-implications-of-in-silico-mathematical-modeling-for-glioblastoma-a-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Maria Protopapa, Anna Zygogianni, Georgios S Stamatakos, Christos Antypas, Christina Armpilia, Nikolaos K Uzunoglu, Vassilis Kouloulias
Glioblastoma remains a clinical challenge in spite of years of extensive research. Novel approaches are needed in order to integrate the existing knowledge. This is the potential role of mathematical oncology. This paper reviews mathematical models on glioblastoma from the clinical doctor's point of view, with focus on 3D modeling approaches of radiation response of in vivo glioblastomas based on contemporary imaging techniques. As these models aim to provide a clinically useful tool in the era of personalized medicine, the integration of the latest advances in molecular and imaging science and in clinical practice by the in silico models is crucial for their clinical relevance...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075321/modeling-the-behavior-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-seeded-on-melt-electrospun-scaffolds
#6
Meghan E Hall, Nima Khadem Mohtaram, Stephanie M Willerth, Roderick Edwards
BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can form any tissue found in the body, making them attractive for regenerative medicine applications. Seeding hiPSC aggregates into biomaterial scaffolds can control their differentiation into specific tissue types. Here we develop and analyze a mathematical model of hiPSC aggregate behavior when seeded on melt electrospun scaffolds with defined topography. RESULTS: We used ordinary differential equations to model the different cellular populations (stem, progenitor, differentiated) present in our scaffolds based on experimental results and published literature...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059639/-complexity-of-the-phenomenon-of-life-the-challenge-for-medicine
#7
Mieczysław Chorąży
The human organism presents a complex biological system that has hierarchical organization. The lowest, basal hierarchical level is composed of chemical molecules. The system's structure as "the whole" is maintained by complex interactions of its parts (molecules). New forms and functions, not present in molecules themselves emerge from their orchestrated and coordinated interaction, creating the novel "whole". The "whole" is not a simple summation of its parts. Therefore, on the basis of reductionist analysis and solely on the list of component elements of biological systems it is not possible to predict the future form and function of the "whole"...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057317/steering-an-idea-in-undergraduate-research-at-a-rural-research-intensive-university
#8
Donald A Sens, Karen L Cisek, Scott H Garrett, Seema Somji, Jane R Dunlevy, Mary Ann Sens, Pat Conway, Van A Doze
This study documents outcomes, including student career choices, of the North Dakota Institutional Development Award Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence program that provides 10-week, summer undergraduate research experiences at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Program evaluation initiated in 2008 and, to date, 335 students have completed the program. Of the 335, 214 students have successfully completed their bachelor's degree, 102 are still undergraduates, and 19 either did not complete a bachelor's degree or were lost to follow-up...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056794/duration-and-quality-of-the-peer-review-process-the-author-s-perspective
#9
Janine Huisman, Jeroen Smits
To gain insight into the duration and quality of the scientific peer review process, we analyzed data from 3500 review experiences submitted by authors to the SciRev.sc website. Aspects studied are duration of the first review round, total review duration, immediate rejection time, the number, quality, and difficulty of referee reports, the time it takes authors to revise and resubmit their manuscript, and overall quality of the experience. We find clear differences in these aspects between scientific fields, with Medicine, Public health, and Natural sciences showing the shortest durations and Mathematics and Computer sciences, Social sciences, Economics and Business, and Humanities the longest...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042301/towards-a-first-implementation-of-the-wlimes-approach-in-living-system-studies-advancing-the-diagnostics-and-therapy-in-personalized-medicine
#10
Plamen L Simeonov
The goal of this paper is to advance an extensible theory of living systems using an approach to biomathematics and biocomputation that suitably addresses self-organized, self-referential and anticipatory systems with multi-temporal multi-agents. Our first step is to provide foundations for modelling of emergent and evolving dynamic multi-level organic complexes and their sustentative processes in artificial and natural life systems. Main applications are in life sciences, medicine, ecology and astrobiology, as well as robotics, industrial automation, man-machine interface and creative design...
October 16, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038251/stress-introduction-rate-alters-benefit-of-acrab-tolc-efflux-pumps
#11
Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. As such, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we study how the rate of introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key mechanism for stress response. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli, are membrane transporters well known for their ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032344/simultaneous-determination-of-%C3%AE-asarone-and-%C3%AE-asarone-in-acorus-tatarinowii-using-excitation-emission-matrix-fluorescence-coupled-with-chemometrics-methods
#12
Xue-Mei Bai, Tie Liu, De-Long Liu, Yong-Ju Wei
A chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence method was proposed for simultaneous determination of α-asarone and β-asarone in Acorus tatarinowii. Using the strategy of combining EEM data with chemometrics methods, the simultaneous determination of α-asarone and β-asarone in the complex Traditional Chinese medicine system was achieved successfully, even in the presence of unexpected interferents. The physical or chemical separation step was avoided due to the use of "mathematical separation"...
October 3, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#13
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982147/what-style-of-leadership-do-women-in-stemm-fields-perform-findings-from-an-international-survey
#14
Meredith Nash, Amanda Davies, Robyn Moore
It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981626/mathematical-modeling-and-computational-prediction-of-cancer-drug-resistance
#15
Xiaoqiang Sun, Bin Hu
Diverse forms of resistance to anticancer drugs can lead to the failure of chemotherapy. Drug resistance is one of the most intractable issues for successfully treating cancer in current clinical practice. Effective clinical approaches that could counter drug resistance by restoring the sensitivity of tumors to the targeted agents are urgently needed. As numerous experimental results on resistance mechanisms have been obtained and a mass of high-throughput data has been accumulated, mathematical modeling and computational predictions using systematic and quantitative approaches have become increasingly important, as they can potentially provide deeper insights into resistance mechanisms, generate novel hypotheses or suggest promising treatment strategies for future testing...
June 23, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970446/pharmacy-practice-and-education-in-bulgaria
#16
Valentina Petkova, Jeffrey Atkinson
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961098/ieee-international-symposium-on-biomedical-imaging
#17
(no author information available yet)
The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is a scientific conference dedicated to mathematical, algorithmic, and computational aspects of biological and biomedical imaging, across all scales of observation. It fosters knowledge transfer among different imaging communities and contributes to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging. ISBI is a joint initiative from the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) and the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). The 2018 meeting will include tutorials, and a scientific program composed of plenary talks, invited special sessions, challenges, as well as oral and poster presentations of peer-reviewed papers...
September 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937662/glucose-responsive-insulin-by-molecular-and-physical-design
#18
Naveed A Bakh, Abel B Cortinas, Michael A Weiss, Robert S Langer, Daniel G Anderson, Zhen Gu, Sanjoy Dutta, Michael S Strano
The concept of a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) has been a recent objective of diabetes technology. The idea behind the GRI is to create a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration or dosing relative to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. From the perspective of the medicinal chemist, the GRI is also important as a generalized model of a potentially new generation of therapeutics that adjust potency in response to a critical therapeutic marker...
September 22, 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935152/i-ching-dyadic-groups-of-binary-numbers-and-the-geno-logic-coding-in-living-bodies
#19
REVIEW
Zhengbing Hu, Sergey V Petoukhov, Elena S Petukhova
The ancient Chinese book I-Ching was written a few thousand years ago. It introduces the system of symbols Yin and Yang (equivalents of 0 and 1). It had a powerful impact on culture, medicine and science of ancient China and several other countries. From the modern standpoint, I-Ching declares the importance of dyadic groups of binary numbers for the Nature. The system of I-Ching is represented by the tables with dyadic groups of 4 bigrams, 8 trigrams and 64 hexagrams, which were declared as fundamental archetypes of the Nature...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934851/topliss-batchwise-schemes-reviewed-in-the-era-of-open-data-reveal-significant-differences-between-enzymes-and-membrane-receptors
#20
Lars Richter
In 1977, John G. Topliss introduced the Topliss Batchwise Scheme, a straightforward nonmathematical procedure to assist medicinal chemists in optimizing the substitution pattern of a phenyl ring. Despite its long period of application, a thorough validation of this method has been missing so far. Here, we address this issue by gathering 129 congeneric series from the ChEMBL database, suitable to retrospectively assess the approach. Frequency analysis of Topliss' schemes showed that the π, Es, σ, and -σ scheme occurred in 17, 20, 6, and 4 congeneric series, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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