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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094427/minimalism-in-art-medical-science-and-neurosurgery
#1
Ali İhsan Ökten
The word ''minimalism'' is a word derived from French the word ''minimum''. Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is ''the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something'', its expression in mathematics can be described as ''the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal''. Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other...
December 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092955/flow-optimization-in-vascular-networks
#2
Radu C Cascaval, Ciro D'Apice, Maria Pia D'Arienzo, Rosanna Manzo
The development of mathematical models for studying phenomena observed in vascular networks is very useful for its potential applications in medicine and physiology. Detailed 3D studies of flow in the arterial system based on the Navier-Stokes equations require high computational power, hence reduced models are often used, both for the constitutive laws and the spatial domain. In order to capture the major features of the phenomena under study, such as variations in arterial pressure and flow velocity, the resulting PDE models on networks require appropriate junction and boundary conditions...
June 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091786/a-new-look-at-the-drug-resistance-investigation-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-strains
#3
Wioletta Adamus-Białek, Łukasz Lechowicz, Anna B Kubiak-Szeligowska, Monika Wawszczak, Ewelina Kamińska, Magdalena Chrapek
Bacterial drug resistance and uropathogenic tract infections are among the most important issues of current medicine. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are the primary factor of this issue. This article is the continuation of the previous study, where we used Kohonen relations to predict the direction of drug resistance. The characterized collection of uropathogenic E. coli strains was used for microbiological (the disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing), chemical (ATR/FT-IR) and mathematical (artificial neural networks, Ward's hierarchical clustering method, the analysis of distributions of inhibition zone diameters for antibiotics, Cohen's kappa measure of agreement) analysis...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087422/nano-qsar-in-cell-biology-model-of-cell-viability-as-a-mathematical-function-of-available-eclectic-data
#4
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov
The prediction of biochemical endpoints is an important task of the modern medicinal chemistry, cell biology, and nanotechnology. Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is a tool for representation of the molecular structure. In particular, SMILES can be used to build up the quantitative structure - property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs). The QSPR/QSAR is a tool to predict an endpoint for a new substance, which has not been examined in experiment. Quasi-SMILES are representation of eclectic data related to an endpoint...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076681/computational-modeling-of-neurotransmitter-release-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-non-linear-approaches-to-predicting-stimulation-evoked-dopamine-release
#5
James K Trevathan, Ali Yousefi, Hyung Ook Park, John J Bartoletta, Kip A Ludwig, Kendall H Lee, J Luis Lujan
Neurochemical changes evoked by electrical stimulation of the nervous system have been linked to both therapeutic and undesired effects of neuromodulation therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hypertension, tinnitus, and many other indications. In fact, interest in better understanding the role of neurochemical signaling in neuromodulation therapies has been a focus of recent government- and industry-sponsored programs whose ultimate goal is to usher in an era of personalized medicine by creating neuromodulation therapies that respond to real-time changes in patient status...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063987/a-mathematical-model-for-the-determination-of-forming-tissue-moduli-in-needled-nonwoven-scaffolds
#6
Joao S Soares, Will Zhang, Michael S Sacks
Formation of engineering tissues (ET) remains an important scientific area of investigation for both clinical translational and mechanobiological studies. Needled-nonwoven (NNW) scaffolds represent one of the most ubiquitous biomaterials based on their well-documented capacity to sustain tissue formation and the unique property of substantial construct stiffness amplification, the latter allowing for very sensitive determination of forming tissue modulus. Yet, their use in more fundamental studies is hampered by the lack of (1) substantial understanding of the mechanics of the NNW scaffold itself under finite deformations and means to model the complex mechanical interactions between scaffold fibers, cells, and de novo tissue; and (2) rational models with reliable predictive capabilities describing their evolving mechanical properties and their response to mechanical stimulation...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057368/genomic-translational-research-paving-the-way-to-individualized-cardiac-functional-analyses-and-personalized-cardiology
#7
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
For most of Medicine's past, the best that physicians could do to cope with disease prevention and treatment was based on the expected response of an average patient. Currently, however, a more personalized/precise approach to cardiology and medicine in general is becoming possible, as the cost of sequencing a human genome has declined substantially. As a result, we are witnessing an era of precipitous advances in biomedicine and bourgeoning understanding of the genetic basis of cardiovascular and other diseases, reminiscent of the resurgence of innovations in physico-mathematical sciences and biology-anatomy-cardiology in the Renaissance, a parallel time of radical change and reformation of medical knowledge, education and practice...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048759/tu-a-207b-00-imaging-genomics-associations-and-biological-correlates-of-radiomics
#8
Yitan Zhu
With the growth of quantitative imaging and quantitative image analysis, image-based biomarkers (i.e. image-based phenotypes) are becoming potential descriptors in personalized medicine as well as in cancer discovery research. Genomic study measures molecular cancer status and provides abundant information about cancer development mechanism. There is a need to understand the relationship between the image-based cancer phenotypes (from radiomics) and the underlying molecular and genomic system. Imaging scientists and genomic scientists need to be able to speak the same language in this common era of Big Data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048333/mo-a-209-01-aapm-journal-finances-facts-figures-and-fundamentals
#9
S Armato
: Scientific publishing is a major endeavor of the AAPM. Although publishing requires substantial resources, it has the potential to generate both reputation and revenue to further the missions of our society. The AAPM owns and publishes two journals: Medical Physics and the Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (JACMP). Medical Physics, with the tagline "The international journal of medical physics research and practice," publishes research concerned with the application of physics and mathematics to the solution of problems in medicine and human biology, with an emphasis on theoretical and experimental approaches...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047682/mo-a-209-02-a-tale-of-two-journals-open-access-and-subscription-based-publications
#10
J Bourland
: Scientific publishing is a major endeavor of the AAPM. Although publishing requires substantial resources, it has the potential to generate both reputation and revenue to further the missions of our society. The AAPM owns and publishes two journals: Medical Physics and the Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (JACMP). Medical Physics, with the tagline "The international journal of medical physics research and practice," publishes research concerned with the application of physics and mathematics to the solution of problems in medicine and human biology, with an emphasis on theoretical and experimental approaches...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047278/tu-a-207b-01-imaging-genomics-associations-and-biological-correlates-of-radiomics
#11
Y Zhu
With the growth of quantitative imaging and quantitative image analysis, image-based biomarkers (i.e. image-based phenotypes) are becoming potential descriptors in personalized medicine as well as in cancer discovery research. Genomic study measures molecular cancer status and provides abundant information about cancer development mechanism. There is a need to understand the relationship between the image-based cancer phenotypes (from radiomics) and the underlying molecular and genomic system. Imaging scientists and genomic scientists need to be able to speak the same language in this common era of Big Data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047033/mo-a-209-03-a-look-ahead-stewarding-the-financial-future-of-aapm-journals
#12
M Svatos
: Scientific publishing is a major endeavor of the AAPM. Although publishing requires substantial resources, it has the potential to generate both reputation and revenue to further the missions of our society. The AAPM owns and publishes two journals: Medical Physics and the Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (JACMP). Medical Physics, with the tagline "The international journal of medical physics research and practice," publishes research concerned with the application of physics and mathematics to the solution of problems in medicine and human biology, with an emphasis on theoretical and experimental approaches...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046257/mo-a-209-00-financial-perspectives-on-scientific-publishing
#13
Samuel Armato
: Scientific publishing is a major endeavor of the AAPM. Although publishing requires substantial resources, it has the potential to generate both reputation and revenue to further the missions of our society. The AAPM owns and publishes two journals: Medical Physics and the Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (JACMP). Medical Physics, with the tagline "The international journal of medical physics research and practice," publishes research concerned with the application of physics and mathematics to the solution of problems in medicine and human biology, with an emphasis on theoretical and experimental approaches...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043174/validation-and-calibration-of-structural-models-that-combine-information-from-multiple-sources
#15
Issa J Dahabreh, John B Wong, Thomas A Trikalinos
Structural models are mathematical representations of the salient aspects of a phenomenon or process. Models of even moderate complexity are "run" using computer-based numerical analysis and simulation. In medicine, such models are used for inference, prediction, or to inform clinical and policy decision-making; thus, model assessment is paramount. Areas covered: This paper provides a unifying overview of methods for model validation and calibration, and surveys studies comparing alternative validation and calibration approaches...
January 3, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040097/hospital-based-multidisciplinary-youth-mentoring-and-medical-exposure-program-positively-influences-and-reinforces-health-care-career-choice-the-reach-one-each-one-program-early-experience
#16
Omar K Danner, Carl Lokko, Felicia Mobley, Montreka Dansby, Michael Maze, Brene' Bradley, Elizabeth Williams, Leslie Ray Matthews, Emma Harrington, Lisa Mack, Clarence Clark, Ken Wilson, Derrick Beech, Sheryl Heron, Ed Childs
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019035/estimating-and-eliminating-the-excitation-errors-in-bipolar-gradient-composite-excitations-caused-by-radiofrequency-gradient-delay-example-of-bipolar-spokes-pulses-in-parallel-transmission
#17
Desmond H Y Tse, Christopher J Wiggins, Benedikt A Poser
PURPOSE: To eliminate a slice-position-dependent excitation error commonly observed in bipolar-gradient composite excitations such as spokes pulses in parallel transmission. THEORY AND METHODS: An undesired timing delay between subpulses in the composite pulse and their bipolar slice-selective gradient is hypothesized to cause the error. A mathematical model is presented here to relate this mismatch to an induced slice-position-dependent phase difference between the subpulses...
December 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011615/impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-selective-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
Allen Lin, Koh J Ong, Peter Hobbelen, Eleanor King, David Mesher, W John Edmunds, Pam Sonnenberg, Richard Gilson, Irenjeet Bains, Yoon H Choi, Clare Tanton, Kate Soldan, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high lifetime risk of anogenital warts and cancers related to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). They also benefit less from herd protection than heterosexual males in settings with female-only HPV vaccination. METHODS: We evaluated the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of offering vaccination to MSM who visit genito-urinary medicine clinics. We used a mathematical model of HPV 6/11/16/18 sexual transmission within an MSM population in England, parameterised with sexual behaviour, GUM attendance, HPV prevalence, HIV prevalence, warts and cancer incidence data...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009394/eighty-years-of-cirm-a-journey-of-commitment-and-dedication-in-providing-maritime-medical-assistance
#19
Syed Sarosh Mahdi, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: A review of activities of Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (International Radio Medical Centre, CIRM) from its foundation in 1935 until its 80th anniversary in 2015 was accomplished. CIRM was founded in 1935 to provide medical assistance via radio to ships with no doctor on board and other distant patients who cannot be reached by a doctor. In 1950 CIRM was established as a non-profit-making foundation and has benefited since 1957 from an annual contribution from the Italian government...
2016: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000172/implementation-of-a-precision-pathology-program-focused-on-oncology-based-prognostic-and-predictive-outcomes
#20
Michael J Donovan, Carlos Cordon-Cardo
Personalized or precision medicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic paradigm was introduced some 10-15 years ago, with the advent of biomarker discovery as a mechanism for identifying prognostic and predictive attributes associated with treatment indication and outcome. While the concept is not new, the successful development and implementation of novel 'companion diagnostics', especially in oncology, continues to represent a significant challenge and is currently at the forefront of smart trial design and therapeutic choice...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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