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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914522/the-validity-of-us-nutritional-surveillance-usda-s-loss-adjusted-food-availability-data-series-1971-2010
#1
Edward Archer, Diana M Thomas, Samantha M McDonald, Gregory Pavela, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill, Steven N Blair
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 1971-2010 United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability (LAFA) per capita caloric consumption estimates. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated for nationally representative samples of US adults, 20-74 years, using the Institute of Medicine's predictive equations with "low-active" (TEE L-ACT) and "sedentary" (TEE SED) physical activity values. TEE estimates were subtracted from LAFA estimates to create disparity values (kcal/d)...
November 2016: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896497/the-slippery-difficulty-of-ever-containing-drug-resistance-with-current-practices
#2
REVIEW
R Fullybright
It has previously been shown that the rate of drug resistance emergence in medicine is exponential, while we have been producing drugs at a much lower rate. Our ability to successfully contain resistance at any one time is function of how many drugs we have at our disposal to counter new resistances from pathogens. Here, we assess our level of preparedness through a mathematical comparison of the drug manufacture rate by the pharmaceutical industry with the resistance emergence rate in pathogens. To that effect, changes in the rates of growth of the drugs production and resistance emergence processes are computed over multiple time segments and compared...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885191/-modeling-and-simulation-of-trabecular-pattern-formation-in-a-cancellous-bone-defect-under-mechanical-forces
#3
Taiji Adachi
Understanding regeneration of the trabecular structure in cancellous bone defects is an important issue in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Biochemical and biomechanical viewpoints are indispensable for understanding the fundamental mechanism that underlies the regeneration of the trabecular structure. In vitro observations of the Turing pattern-like bone differentiation into osteoblasts from human mesenchymal stem cells suggest that mathematical modeling and simulation based on a reaction-diffusion system model would help us to understand the mechanism of trabecular pattern formation during cancellous bone regeneration...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883025/mathiomica-an-integrative-platform-for-dynamic-omics
#4
George I Mias, Tahir Yusufaly, Raeuf Roushangar, Lavida R K Brooks, Vikas V Singh, Christina Christou
Multiple omics data are rapidly becoming available, necessitating the use of new methods to integrate different technologies and interpret the results arising from multimodal assaying. The MathIOmica package for Mathematica provides one of the first extensive introductions to the use of the Wolfram Language to tackle such problems in bioinformatics. The package particularly addresses the necessity to integrate multiple omics information arising from dynamic profiling in a personalized medicine approach. It provides multiple tools to facilitate bioinformatics analysis, including importing data, annotating datasets, tracking missing values, normalizing data, clustering and visualizing the classification of data, carrying out annotation and enumeration of ontology memberships and pathway analysis...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876115/the-first-digit-law-a-hypothesis-on-its-possible-impact-on-medicine-and-development-aid
#5
Gregor Pollach, Frank Brunkhorst, Mwapatsa Mipando, Felix Namboya, Samson Mndolo, Thomas Luiz
The "first digit law" or "Benford's law" is a mathematical distribution discovered by Simon Newcomb and Frank Benford. It states, that the probability of the leading number d (d∈{1,…,9}) in many natural datasets follows: P (d)=log10 (d+1)-log10 (d)=log10 (1+1/d). It was successfully used through tax authorities and "forensic accounting" in order to detect fraud and other irregularities. Benfords law was almost neglected for its use outside financial accounting. The planning for health care systems in developing countries is extremely dependant on good, valid data...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856758/tissue-scale-personalized-modeling-and-simulation-of-prostate-cancer-growth
#6
Guillermo Lorenzo, Michael A Scott, Kevin Tew, Thomas J R Hughes, Yongjie Jessica Zhang, Lei Liu, Guillermo Vilanova, Hector Gomez
Recently, mathematical modeling and simulation of diseases and their treatments have enabled the prediction of clinical outcomes and the design of optimal therapies on a personalized (i.e., patient-specific) basis. This new trend in medical research has been termed "predictive medicine." Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health problem and an ideal candidate to explore tissue-scale, personalized modeling of cancer growth for two main reasons: First, it is a small organ, and, second, tumor growth can be estimated by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a PCa biomarker in blood), which may enable in vivo validation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818306/i-wire-heart-on-a-chip-ii-biomechanical-analysis-of-contractile-three-dimensional-cardiomyocyte-tissue-constructs
#7
Alison K Schroer, Matthew S Shotwell, Veniamin Y Sidorov, John P Wikswo, W David Merryman
This companion study presents the biomechanical analysis of the "I-Wire" platform using a modified Hill model of muscle mechanics that allows for further characterization of construct function and response to perturbation. The I-Wire engineered cardiac tissue construct (ECTC) is a novel experimental platform to investigate cardiac cell mechanics during auxotonic contraction. Whereas passive biomaterials often exhibit nonlinear and dissipative behavior, active tissue equivalents, such as ECTCs, also expend metabolic energy to perform mechanical work that presents additional challenges in quantifying their properties...
November 3, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787824/fast-and-accurate-accessible-surface-area-prediction-without-a-sequence-profile
#8
Eshel Faraggi, Maksim Kouza, Yaoqi Zhou, Andrzej Kloczkowski
A fast accessible surface area (ASA) predictor is presented. In this new approach no residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments are used as inputs. Instead, we use only single sequence information and global features such as single-residue and two-residue compositions of the chain. The resulting predictor is both highly more efficient than sequence alignment based predictors and of comparable accuracy to them. Introduction of the global inputs significantly helps achieve this comparable accuracy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768103/peptide-tessellation-yields-micrometre-scale-collagen-triple-helices
#9
I Caglar Tanrikulu, Audrey Forticaux, Song Jin, Ronald T Raines
Sticky-ended DNA duplexes can associate spontaneously into long double helices; however, such self-assembly is much less developed with proteins. Collagen is the most prevalent component of the extracellular matrix and a common clinical biomaterial. As for natural DNA, the ~10(3)-residue triple helices (~300 nm) of natural collagen are recalcitrant to chemical synthesis. Here we show how the self-assembly of short collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) can enable the fabrication of synthetic collagen triple helices that are nearly a micrometre in length...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756459/progress-in-the-mathematical-modelling-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#10
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739318/-hyperthermic-isolated-limb-perfusion-combined-with-tasonermin-a-perfusion-leakage-monitoring-technique
#11
J Trnka, M Špaček, V Šírová, P Mitáš, G Hodková, J Kubinyi, R Špunda, J Lindner
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion is used to treat irresectable extremity malignancies. It is based on the following principle - the perfusion of the extremity is isolated from systemic circulation and connected to an extra-corporal circuit via which a very high concentration of a chemotherapeutic agent is administered into the blood compartment of the extremity. In some cases, treatment efficiency can be improved using tasonermin (a TNF-α agent). By itself, tasonermin can cause severe health complications in patients if leakage into systemic circulation results in a level that exceeds the maximally tolerated dose...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735914/-analysis-of-the-management-of-hypertension-complications-in-patients-during-emergency-care
#12
A R Alpysova, Yu V Subbota, A K Adambekova, N T Telembetov, M Maratkyzy
AIM: To analyze the management of patients with associated complications from hypertension to improve prehospital therapeutic and diagnostic care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The accounts and records (125,905 calling cards over 2012-2014) of the Statistics Division, Karaganda Regional First Aid Station, were used. The methods of clinical and mathematical analysis were applied. RESULTS: There was an annual increase in the number of calls for all cases of hypertension complications in relation to the higher rate of hospitalization by 2014...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702638/application-of-various-control-strategies-to-japanese-encephalitic-a-mathematical-study-with-human-pig-and-mosquito
#13
A De, K Maity, Soovoojeet Jana, M Maiti
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a public health problem that threats the entire world today. Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) mostly became a threat due to the significant number of increase of susceptible mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts in Asia by which around 70,000 cases and 10,000 deaths per year took place in children below 15 years of age. In this paper, a mathematical model of JE due to JEV from the vector source (infected mosquito) and two vertebrate hosts (infected human and infected pig) is formulated...
December 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660611/from-metabonomics-to-pharmacometabonomics-the-role-of-metabolic-profiling-in-personalized-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Jeremy R Everett
Variable patient responses to drugs are a key issue for medicine and for drug discovery and development. Personalized medicine, that is the selection of medicines for subgroups of patients so as to maximize drug efficacy and minimize toxicity, is a key goal of twenty-first century healthcare. Currently, most personalized medicine paradigms rely on clinical judgment based on the patient's history, and on the analysis of the patients' genome to predict drug effects i.e., pharmacogenomics. However, variability in patient responses to drugs is dependent upon many environmental factors to which human genomics is essentially blind...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628721/a-new-method-for-group-decision-making-and-its-application-in-medical-trainee-selection
#15
James R Kiger, David J Annibale
CONTEXT: The problems associated with generating a collaborative ranked preference list represent a common source of dilemma in academic medicine and medical education. Such issues present during the process of choosing among applicants to medical schools, during the selection of postgraduate trainees, and in the course of performance assessments and the prioritising of financial expenditures. Currently, most institutions use pseudo-quantitative methods, such as the averaging of scores awarded on an arbitrary scale...
October 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614047/the-relationship-between-sensory-latency-and-amplitude
#16
Elliot B Bodofsky, Stephen J Cohen, Rohini J Kumar, Adam Schindelheim, John Gaughan
PURPOSE: To prove that the relationship between sensory latencies and amplitudes is useful in determining the severity of neuropathies. This is achieved by deriving a mathematical relationship between sensory distal latency and amplitude. Determine whether sensory amplitudes below predicted correlate with a worse pathology. PROCEDURES: Patients seen for Nerve Conduction Studies by the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Cooper University Hospital between 12/1/12 and 12/31/14 were invited to participate in a prospective database...
December 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612961/from-lead-optimization-to-nda-approval-for-a-new-antimicrobial-use-of-pre-clinical-effect-models-and-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-mathematical-modeling
#17
G L Drusano
Because of our current crisis of resistance, particularly in nosocomial pathogens, the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents has become a societal imperative. Changes in regulatory pathways by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency place great emphasis on the use of preclinical models coupled with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to rapidly and safely move new molecular entities with activity against multi-resistant pathogens through the approval process and into the treatment of patients...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602017/an-acute-respiratory-infection-of-a-physiologically-anemic-infant-is-a-more-likely-cause-of-sids-than-neurological-prematurity
#18
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592718/from-pk-pd-to-qsp-understanding-the-dynamic-effect-of-cholesterol-lowering-drugs-on-atherosclerosis-progression-and-stratified-medicine
#19
Cesar Pichardo-Almarza, Vanessa Diaz-Zuccarini
Current computational and mathematical tools are demonstrating the high value of using systems modeling approaches (e.g. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology) to understand the effect of a given compound on the biological and physiological mechanisms related to a specific disease. This review provides a short survey of the evolution of the mathematical approaches used to understand the effect of particular cholesterol-lowering drugs, from pharmaco-kinetic (PK) / pharmaco-dynamic (PD) models, through physiologically base pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) to QSP...
September 4, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579007/systems-biology-emergence-and-antireductionism
#20
Srdjan Kesić
This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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