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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221111/nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-risk-prediction-via-salivary-detection-of-host-and-epstein-barr-virus-genetic-variants
#1
Qian Cui, Fu-Tuo Feng, Miao Xu, Wen-Sheng Liu, You-Yuan Yao, Shang-Hang Xie, Xi-Zhao Li, Zu-Lu Ye, Qi-Sheng Feng, Li-Zhen Chen, Jin-Xin Bei, Lin Feng, Qi-Hong Huang, Wei-Hua Jia, Su-Mei Cao, Ellen T Chang, Weimin Ye, Hans-Olov Adami, Yi-Xin Zeng
Genetic susceptibility and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are important etiological factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, in southern China, where NPC is endemic, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the EBV-encoded RPMS1 gene (locus 155391: G > A [G155391A]) and seven host SNPs (rs1412829, rs28421666, rs2860580, rs2894207, rs31489, rs6774494, and rs9510787) were confirmed to be significantly associated with NPC risk in 50 NPC cases versus 54 hospital-based controls with throat washing specimens and 1925 NPC cases versus 1947 hospital-based controls with buffy coat samples, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215867/direct-substrate-identification-with-an-analog-sensitive-as-viral-cyclin-dependent-kinase-v-cdk
#2
Angie C Umaña, Satoko Iwahori, Robert F Kalejta
Viral cyclin-dependent kinases (v-Cdks) functionally emulate their cellular Cdk counterparts. Such viral mimicry is an established phenomenon that we extend here through chemical genetics. Kinases contain gatekeeper residues that limit the size of molecules that can be accommodated within the enzyme active site. Mutating gatekeeper residues to smaller amino acids allows larger molecules access to the active site. Such mutants can utilize bio-orthoganol ATPs for phosphate transfer and are inhibited by compounds ineffective against the wild type protein, and thus are referred to as analog-sensitive (AS) kinases...
December 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207199/genes-and-pathways-associated-with-the-occurrence-of-malignancy-in-benign-lymphoepithelial-lesions
#3
Yao Mawulikplimi Adzavon, Pengxiang Zhao, Xin Zhang, Mengyu Liu, Baobei Lv, Linqi Yang, Xujuan Zhang, Fei Xie, Mingzi Zhang, Jianmin Ma, Xuemei Ma
There is increasing evidence concerning the occurrence of malignant lymphoma among people suffering from Mikulicz disease, also termed benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) and immunoglobulin G4‑associated disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the malignant transformation remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the gene expression profile between BLEL and malignant lymphoepithelial lesion (MLEL) conditions using tissue microarray analysis, to identify genes and pathways which may be associated with the risk of malignant transformation...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186961/relationship-between-ppp1r15a-gene-polymorphism-rs611251-and-epstein-barr-virus-associated-tumors
#4
Y Song, S Liu, Z Zhao, Y Zhang, Y Yang, B Luo
Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15A (PPP1R15A), also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34, plays a vital role in promoting cell death and the unfolded protein response (UPR). In order to explore whether the SNP (rs611251) of PPP1R15A gene has a role in different types of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - associated tumors, we detected the PPP1R15A gene rs611251 polymorphism in 195 cases of EBV positive tumors (93 lymphomas, 48 gastric carcinomas, 54 nasopharyngeal carcinomas), 208 cases of EBV-negative tumors (136 gastric carcinoma, 19 nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 53 lymphomas) and 113 peripheral blood samples from healthy individuals...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169830/rapamycin-enhances-lytic-replication-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-gastric-carcinoma-cells-by-increasing-the-transcriptional-activities-of-immediate-early-lytic-promoters
#5
Man Wang, Wei Wu, Yinfeng Zhang, Guoliang Yao, Bianli Gu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, is linked to both epithelial and lymphoid malignancies. Induction of EBV reactivation is a potential therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated tumors. In this study, we assessed the effects of rapamycin on EBV reactivation in gastric carcinoma cells. We found that rapamycin upregulated expression of EBV lytic proteins and increased the viral proliferation triggered by the EBV lytic inducer sodium butyrate. Reverse transcription-qPCR, luciferase activity assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting were employed to explore the mechanism by which rapamycin promotes EBV reactivation...
November 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164067/tick-borne-transmission-of-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68
#6
Valeria Hajnická, Marcela Kúdelová, Iveta Štibrániová, Mirko Slovák, Pavlína Bartíková, Zuzana Halásová, Peter Pančík, Petra Belvončíková, Michaela Vrbová, Viera Holíková, Rosemary S Hails, Patricia A Nuttall
Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163992/cd56-negative-aggressive-nk-cell-leukemia-relapsing-as-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
M Guerreiro, F Príncipe, M J Teles, S Fonseca, A H Santos, E Fonseca, P Gomes, C Marques, M Lima
Background: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is extremely rare and habitually manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan failure that rapidly evolves to death. The neoplastic natural killer (NK) cells usually harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with a latent viral infection pattern type II; they often have a cytoplasmic CD3ε(+) and surface CD3(-), CD2(+), and CD56(+) immunophenotype, and they show complex genetic abnormalities affecting multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155997/immune-activation-and-benefit-from-avelumab-in-ebv-positive-gastric-cancer
#8
Anshuman Panda, Janice M Mehnert, Kim M Hirshfield, Greg Riedlinger, Sherri Damare, Tracie Saunders, Michael Kane, Levi Sokol, Mark N Stein, Elizabeth Poplin, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Ann W Silk, Joseph Aisner, Nancy Chan, Jyoti Malhotra, Melissa Frankel, Howard L Kaufman, Siraj Ali, Jeffrey S Ross, Eileen P White, Gyan Bhanot, Shridar Ganesan
Response to immune checkpoint therapy can be associated with a high mutation burden, but other mechanisms are also likely to be important. We identified a patient with metastatic gastric cancer with meaningful clinical benefit from treatment with the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody avelumab. This tumor showed no evidence of high mutation burden or mismatch repair defect but was strongly positive for presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded RNA. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas gastric cancer data (25 EBV+, 80 microsatellite-instable [MSI], 310 microsatellite-stable [MSS]) showed that EBV-positive tumors were MSS...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147610/host-immune-response-index-in-gastric-cancer-identified-by-comprehensive-analyses-of-tumor-immunity
#9
Charny Park, Junhun Cho, Jeeyun Lee, So Young Kang, Ji Yeong An, Min Gew Choi, Jun Ho Lee, Tae Sung Sohn, Jae Moon Bae, Sung Kim, Seung Tae Kim, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Won Ki Kang, Insuk Sohn, Sin Ho Jung, Myung-Soo Kang, Kyoung-Mee Kim
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated/microsatellite-unstable (MSI) gastric carcinomas (GC) constitute immune-active principal cellular components of tumor microenvironment and contribute to better prognosis. With the remarkable success of cancer immunotherapies, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive understanding of tumor-immune interactions in patients with GC in the context of host immune response. To identify GC subtype-specific immune response gene set, we tested differentially expressed genes for MSI and EBV+ GC subtypes in randomly selected test set (n = 278) in merged ACRG-SMC microarray and TCGA RNA sequencing data set...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145505/spontaneous-development-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-human-lymphomas-in-a-prostate-cancer-xenograft-program
#10
Alberto J Taurozzi, Ramprakash Beekharry, Michelle Wantoch, Marie-Christine Labarthe, Hannah F Walker, Robert I Seed, Matthew Simms, Greta Rodrigues, James Bradford, Geertje van der Horst, Gabri van der Pluijm, Anne T Collins
Prostate cancer research is hampered by the lack of in vivo preclinical models that accurately reflect patient tumour biology and the clinical heterogeneity of human prostate cancer. To overcome these limitations we propagated and characterised a new collection of patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts. Tumour fragments from 147 unsupervised, surgical prostate samples were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice within 24 hours of surgery. Histologic and molecular characterisation of xenografts was compared with patient characteristics, including androgen-deprivation therapy, and exome sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143406/oncogenic-spiral-by-infectious-pathogens-the-cooperation-of-multiple-factors-in-cancer-development
#11
Jun-Ichirou Yasunaga, Masao Matsuoka
Chronic infection is one of the major causes of cancer, and there are several mechanisms for infection-mediated oncogenesis. Some pathogens encode gene products that behave like oncogenic factors, hijacking cellular pathways to promote the survival and proliferation of infected cells in vivo. Some of these viral oncoproteins trigger a cellular damage defense response leading to senescence; however, other viral factors hinder this suppressive effect, suggesting that cooperation of those viral factors is important for malignant transformation...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143133/association-of-dna-repair-genes-polymorphisms-and-mutations-with-increased-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Agata Dylawerska, Wojciech Barczak, Anna Wegner, Wojciech Golusinski, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska
DNA repair mechanisms allow maintain genomic stability and proper functioning within the cells. Any aberrations may cause an increased risk of many diseases such as cancer. The most crucial risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are behavioral factors, predominantly chronic exposure to tobacco, alcohol addiction, and infection with human papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus. These agents can induce DNA damage; therefore, cells must activate appropriate mechanisms in order to function correctly...
November 15, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142137/the-epstein-barr-virus-episome-maneuvers-between-nuclear-chromatin-compartments-during-reactivation
#13
Stephanie A Moquin, Sean Thomas, Sean Whalen, Alix Warburton, Samantha G Fernandez, Alison A McBride, Katherine S Pollard, J J L Miranda
The human genome is structurally organized in three-dimensional space to facilitate functional partitioning of transcription. We learned that the latent episome of the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially associates with gene-poor chromosomes and avoids gene-rich chromosomes. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus behaves similarly, but human papillomavirus does not. Contacts localize on the EBV side to OriP, the latent origin of replication. This genetic element, and the EBNA1 protein that binds there, are sufficient to reconstitute chromosome association preferences of the entire episome...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142127/epstein-barr-virus-protein-eb2-stimulates-translation-initiation-of-mrnas-through-direct-interactions-with-both-pabp-and-eif4g
#14
Fabrice Mure, Baptiste Panthu, Isabelle Zanella-Cléon, Frédéric Delolme, Evelyne Manet, Théophile Ohlmann, Henri Gruffat
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses several mRNAs produced from intronless genes that could potentially be unfavorably translated compared to cellular spliced mRNAs. To overcome this situation, the virus encodes an RNA-binding protein (RBP) called EB2, previously found to both facilitate the export of nuclear mRNAs and increase their translational yield. Here, we show that EB2 binds both nuclear and cytoplasmic cap-binding complexes (respectively, CBC and eIF4F) as well as the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) to enhance translation initiation of a given mRNP...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137176/ebv-and-apoptosis-the-viral-master-regulator-of-cell-fate
#15
REVIEW
Leah Fitzsimmons, Gemma L Kelly
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in cells from a patient with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), and is now known to be a contributory factor in 1-2% of all cancers, for which there are as yet, no EBV-targeted therapies available. Like other herpesviruses, EBV adopts a persistent latent infection in vivo and only rarely reactivates into replicative lytic cycle. Although latency is associated with restricted patterns of gene expression, genes are never expressed in isolation; always in groups. Here, we discuss (1) the ways in which the latent genes of EBV are known to modulate cell death, (2) how these mechanisms relate to growth transformation and lymphomagenesis, and (3) how EBV genes cooperate to coordinately regulate key cell death pathways in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
November 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132393/interferon-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-16-ifi16-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-epstein-barr-virus-latency
#16
Gina Pisano, Arunava Roy, Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Binod Kumar, Leela Chikoti, Bala Chandran
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exhibits both lytic and latent (Lat. I, II, and III) phases in an infected individual. It's during the latent phase of EBV that all EBV-associated cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoproliferative disease arise. Interferon-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is a well-established innate immune sensor and viral transcriptional regulator involved in response to invading DNA viruses. During latency, IFI16 remains in the nucleus, in part bound to the EBV genome; however, neither its role in EBV lytic cycle or latency has been established...
November 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122821/metagenomic-deep-sequencing-of-aqueous-fluid-detects-intraocular-lymphomas
#17
John Gonzales, Thuy Doan, Jessica G Shantha, Michele Bloomer, Michael R Wilson, Joseph L DeRisi, Nisha Acharya
INTRODUCTION: Currently, the detection of pathogens or mutations associated with intraocular lymphomas heavily relies on prespecified, directed PCRs. With metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS), an unbiased high-throughput sequencing approach, all pathogens as well as all mutations present in the host's genome can be detected in the same small amount of ocular fluid. METHODS: In this cross-sectional case series, aqueous fluid samples from two patients were submitted to MDS to identify pathogens as well as common and rare cancer mutations...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120577/epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Awatef M Awwad, Nesrine F Hanafi, Ghada A Achmawi, Amira M Naguib
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory autoimmune CNS disease, with unknown etiology. We aimed to determine the coexistence of MS with antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus and its gene sequences (EBNA1 and BHRF1). The study included 60 MS patients and 60 control subjects. Serum samples were processed by ELISA for detection of EBV antibodies, and latent EBV genes were determined by Real Time PCR in blood samples. While 18 (30%) MS cases had anti- EBV IgM antibodies, all controls were free. For IgG, no difference was noted (cases 96...
January 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115077/identification-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-the-human-placenta-and-its-pathologic-characteristics
#19
Younghoon Kim, Hye Sung Kim, Joong Shin Park, Chong Jai Kim, Woo Ho Kim
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common pathogen in humans, is suspected as the cause of multiple pregnancy-related pathologies including depression, preeclampsia, and stillbirth. Moreover, transmission of EBV through the placenta has been reported. However, the focus of EBV infection within the placenta has remained unknown to date. In this study, we proved the expression of latent EBV genes in the endometrial glandular epithelial cells of the placenta and investigated the cytological characteristics of these cells...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108278/epstein-barr-virus-brlf1-induces-genomic-instability-and-progressive-malignancy-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#20
Sheng-Yen Huang, Chung-Chun Wu, Yu-Jhen Cheng, Sheng-Ping Chou, Yun-Jin Jiang, Kuo-Chang Chu, Ching-Hwa Tsai, Su-Fang Lin, Jen-Yang Chen
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious health problem in China and Southeast Asia. Relapse is the major cause of mortality, but mechanisms of relapse are mysterious. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and host genomic instability (GI) have correlated with NPC development. Previously, we reported that lytic early genes DNase and BALF3 induce genetic alterations and progressive malignancy in NPC cells, implying lytic proteins may be required for NPC relapse. In this study, we show that immediate early gene BRLF1 induces chromosome mis-segregation and genomic instability in the NPC cells...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
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