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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#1
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603509/translational-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-a-conceptual-analysis
#2
Ivana S Marková
As rapidly developing research disciplines and enterprises, the translational sciences have made significant impact on research direction in medicine. Psychiatry has likewise been affected, and in this regard, the translational neurosciences have been the major drivers. This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of this enterprise in relation to psychiatry. It shows that translation is used in a metaphorical sense in this context but that this can be misleading because of the resultant connotation that there is equivalence between neurobiological states and mental states...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521408/-transdiagnostic-psychiatry-work-in-progress
#3
T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498174/the-mind-brain-gap-and-the-neuroscience-psychiatry-gap
#4
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496143/considerations-for-optimal-use-of-postmortem-human-brains-for-molecular-psychiatry-lessons-from-schizophrenia
#5
Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Debora A Rothmond, Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Schizophrenia is a disabling disease impacting millions of people around the world, for which there is no known cure. Current antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia mainly target psychotic symptoms, do little to ameliorate social or cognitive deficits, have side-effects that cause weight gain, and diabetes and 30% of people do not respond. Thus, better therapeutics for schizophrenia aimed at the route biologic changes are needed and discovering the underlying neurobiology is key to this quest. Postmortem brain studies provide the most direct and detailed way to determine the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483673/deep-brain-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression-an-integrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-findings-and-translational-implications
#6
M P Dandekar, A J Fenoy, A F Carvalho, J C Soares, J Quevedo
Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment choice for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and movement disorders, its effectiveness for the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains unclear. Herein, we conducted an integrative review on major neuroanatomical targets of DBS pursued for the treatment of intractable TRD. The aim of this review article is to provide a critical discussion of possible underlying mechanisms for DBS-generated antidepressant effects identified in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and to determine which brain target(s) elicited the most promising outcomes considering acute and maintenance treatment of TRD...
May 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483352/assessing-the-continuum-between-temperament-and-affective-illness-psychiatric-and-mathematical-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
William Sulis
Temperament of healthy people and mental illnesses, particularly affective disorders, have been conjectured to lie along a continuum of neurobehavioural regulation. Understanding the nature of this continuum may better inform the construction of taxonomies for both categories of behaviour. Both temperament and mental illness refer to patterns of behaviour that manifest over long time scales (weeks to years) and they appear to share many underlying neuroregulatory systems. This continuum is discussed from the perspectives of nonlinear dynamical systems theory, neurobiology and psychiatry as applied to understanding such multiscale time-series behaviour...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480784/resilience-trauma-and-coping
#8
Ahron Friedberg, Dana Malefakis
The study and use of resilience is of the utmost importance to psychodynamic psychiatry. It is deeply ingrained in ideas about well-being and the treatment and care of patients. However, its neurobiology is incompletely understood, its terminology and relation to trauma and coping not well defined, and its efficacy underutilized in clinical practice. This article reviews the scientific literature on resilience, especially as it relates to trauma and coping. It also attempts to point the way for its greater application in psychiatry and mental health by utilizing resilience in more informed and individualized approaches...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383410/-pharmacogenetics-in-psychiatry-state-of-the-art
#9
REVIEW
D J Müller, E J Brandl, F Degenhardt, K Domschke, H Grabe, O Gruber, J Hebebrand, W Maier, A Menke, M Riemenschneider, M Rietschel, D Rujescu, T G Schulze, L Tebartz van Elst, O Tüscher, J Deckert
In this article, the current literature on pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium are summarized by the section of Neurobiology and Genetics of the German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN). The publications of international expert groups and regulatory authorities are reviewed and discussed. In Germany, a statement on pharmacogenetics was also made by the gene diagnostics committee of the Ministry of Health. The DGPPN supports two recommendations: 1) to perform CYP2D6 genetic testing prior to prescription of tricyclic antidepressants and 2) to determine the HLA-B*1502 genotype in patients of Asian origin before using carbamazepine...
March 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361992/brain-disorders-not-really%C3%A2-why-network-structures-block-reductionism-in-psychopathology-research
#10
Denny Borsboom, Angélique Cramer, Annemarie Kalis
In the past decades, reductionism has dominated both research directions and funding policies in clinical psychology and psychiatry. However, the intense search for the biological basis of mental disorders has not resulted in conclusive reductionist explanations of psychopathology. Recently, network models have been proposed as an alternative framework for the analysis of mental disorders, in which mental disorders arise from the causal interplay between symptoms. In this paper, we show that this conceptualization can help understand why reductionist approaches in psychiatry and clinical psychology are on the wrong track...
January 24, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339664/cenesthopathy-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-an-exploratory-study-in-schizophrenia
#11
Natalia Jimeno, Martin L Vargas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cenesthopathy is mainly associated with schizophrenia; however, its neurobiological basis is nowadays unclear. The general objective was to explore clinical correlates of cenesthopathy and subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants (n = 30) meeting DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorder were recruited from a psychiatry unit and assessed with: Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)...
2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295738/psychiatry-in-a-dish-stem-cells-and-brain-organoids-modeling-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Mirolyba Ilieva, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Morten Thorsen, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disease, the neurobiological links remain unclear. A large amount of evidence suggests that pathological processes taking place in early embryonic neurodevelopment might be responsible for later manifestation of autistic symptoms...
April 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282590/culture-and-context-in-mental-health-diagnosing-scrutinizing-the-dsm-5-revision
#13
Anna Bredström
This article examines the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and its claim of incorporating a "greater cultural sensitivity." The analysis reveals that the manual conveys mixed messages as it explicitly addresses the critique of being ethnocentric and having a static notion of culture yet continues in a similar fashion when culture is applied in diagnostic criteria. The analysis also relates to current trends in psychiatric nosology that emphasize neurobiology and decontextualize distress and points to how the DSM-5 risks serving as an ethnic dividing line in psychiatry by making sociocultural context relevant only for some patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203847/reconceptualization-of-translocator-protein-as-a-biomarker-of-neuroinflammation-in-psychiatry
#14
T Notter, J M Coughlin, A Sawa, U Meyer
A great deal of interest in psychiatric research is currently centered upon the pathogenic role of inflammatory processes. Positron emission tomography (PET) using radiolabeled ligands selective for the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has become the most widely used technique to assess putative neuroimmune abnormalities in vivo. Originally used to detect discrete neurotoxic damages, TSPO has generally turned into a biomarker of 'neuroinflammation' or 'microglial activation'. Psychiatric research has mostly accepted these denotations of TSPO, even if they may be inadequate and misleading under many pathological conditions...
January 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169634/the-emerging-neurobiology-of-bipolar-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Paul J Harrison, John R Geddes, Elizabeth M Tunbridge
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a leading cause of global disability. Its biological basis is unknown, and its treatment unsatisfactory. Here, we review two recent areas of progress. First, the discovery of risk genes and their implications, with a focus on voltage-gated calcium channels as part of the disease process and as a drug target. Second, facilitated by new technologies, it is increasingly apparent that the bipolar phenotype is more complex and nuanced than simply one of recurring manic and depressive episodes...
January 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158584/ketamine-enhances-structural-plasticity-in-mouse-mesencephalic-and-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-via-ampar-driven-bdnf-and-mtor-signaling
#16
L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons...
April 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112197/association-of-genetic-ancestry-with-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability
#17
C E Wiers, P C Towb, C A Hodgkinson, P-H Shen, C Freeman, G Miller, E Lindgren, E Shokri-Kojori, Ş B Demiral, S W Kim, D Tomasi, H Sun, G-J Wang, D Goldman, N D Volkow
Despite ethnic differences in allele frequencies of variants in dopaminergic genes associated with dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (D2R), no study to date has investigated the relationship between genetic ancestry and striatal D2R. Here, we show that ancestry-informative markers significantly predict dorsal striatal D2R in 117 healthy ethnically diverse residents of the New York metropolitan area using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride (P<0.0001), while correcting for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking status, and estimated socioeconomic status (ZIP codes)...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112195/face-and-predictive-validity-of-the-clock%C3%AE-19-mouse-as-an-animal-model-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
M Kristensen, A A Nierenberg, S D Østergaard
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19...
January 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098975/-the-impasse-known-as-adhd
#19
A M Ruissen
There are two extreme views within psychiatry when it comes to etiopathogenesis. At one extreme is the naturalistic vision; at the other extreme is a perception of psychiatric diagnoses as social constructions. There are also different perspectives on ADHD: historical, social, psychological and neurobiological. In this article, I will try to find a position between the two extremes to sketch the context of the current ADHD debate from the different perspectives. I conclude that a one-sided neurobiological view of ADHD lacks adequate foundation; it does not support the psychiatrist who is struggling with complicated ADHD issues in daily practice, and does not respond adequately to the very real problems of the people concerned and their families...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#20
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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