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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416813/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val-66-met-genotype-and-ovarian-steroids-interactively-modulate-working-memory-related-hippocampal-function-in-women-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#1
S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407461/the-biological-basis-to-personality-disorders
#2
Malathi L Perugula, Puneet D Narang, Steven B Lippmann
Objective: To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. Data Sources: PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. Study Selection/Data Extraction: We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358316/theranostic-biomarkers-for-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Dubravka Svob Strac, Suzana Uzun, Oliver Kozumplik, Nela Pivac
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348383/prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-mediates-genetic-risks-for-obesity
#4
N Opel, R Redlich, C Kaehler, D Grotegerd, K Dohm, W Heindel, H Kugel, A Thalamuthu, N Koutsouleris, V Arolt, A Teuber, H Wersching, B T Baune, K Berger, U Dannlowski
Genetic and neuroimaging research has identified neurobiological correlates of obesity. However, evidence for an integrated model of genetic risk and brain structural alterations in the pathophysiology of obesity is still absent. Here we investigated the relationship between polygenic risk for obesity, gray matter structure and body mass index (BMI) by the use of univariate and multivariate analyses in two large, independent cohorts (n=330 and n=347). Higher BMI and higher polygenic risk for obesity were significantly associated with medial prefrontal gray matter decrease, and prefrontal gray matter was further shown to significantly mediate the effect of polygenic risk for obesity on BMI in both samples...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348379/genetic-evidence-for-role-of-integration-of-fast-and-slow-neurotransmission-in-schizophrenia
#5
A Devor, O A Andreassen, Y Wang, T Mäki-Marttunen, O B Smeland, C-C Fan, A J Schork, D Holland, W K Thompson, A Witoelar, C-H Chen, R S Desikan, L K McEvoy, S Djurovic, P Greengard, P Svenningsson, G T Einevoll, A M Dale
The most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia (SCZ) identified hundreds of risk variants potentially implicated in the disease. Further, novel statistical methodology designed for polygenic architecture revealed more potential risk variants. This can provide a link between individual genetic factors and the mechanistic underpinnings of SCZ. Intriguingly, a large number of genes coding for ionotropic and metabotropic receptors for various neurotransmitters-glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine and opioids-and numerous ion channels were associated with SCZ...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343453/a-trans-diagnostic-perspective-on-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
C M Gillan, N A Fineberg, T W Robbins
Progress in understanding the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has stalled in part because of the considerable problem of heterogeneity within this diagnostic category, and homogeneity across other putatively discrete, diagnostic categories. As psychiatry begins to recognize the shortcomings of a purely symptom-based psychiatric nosology, new data-driven approaches have begun to be utilized with the goal of solving these problems: specifically, identifying trans-diagnostic aspects of clinical phenomenology based on their association with neurobiological processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#7
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
March 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320870/clinical-considerations-related-to-the-behavioral-manifestations-of-child-maltreatment
#8
Robert D Sege, Lisa Amaya-Jackson
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant health and behavior problems that may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has been remediated. Neurobiological research suggests that early maltreatment may result in an altered psychological and physiologic response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent development. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's emotional and behavioral responses associated with child maltreatment and guide them in the use of positive parenting strategies, referring the children and families to evidence-based therapeutic treatment and mobilizing available community resources...
March 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320276/effects-of-short-term-exposure-to-lithium-on-antiapoptotic-bcl-xl-protein-expression-in-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-rats-after-acute-stress
#9
N N Dygalo, A V Bannova, E V Sukhareva, G T Shishkina, K A Ayriyants, T S Kalinina
The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL is involved in development of neurobiological resilience to stress; hence, the possibility of use of psychotropic drugs to increase its expression in brain in response to stress is of considerable interest. Lithium is a neurotropic drug widely used in psychiatry. In work, we studied effects of lithium administration (for 2 or 7 days) on the expression of Bcl-xL mRNA and protein in the hippocampi and cortices of rats subjected to stress that induced depression-like behavior in the animals...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317138/impact-of-providing-psychiatry-specialty-pharmacist-intervention-on-reducing-drug-related-problems-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-related-to-disruptive-behavioural-symptoms-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-study
#10
R Wongpakaran, T Suansanae, T Tan-Khum, C Kraivichian, R Ongarjsakulman, C Suthisisang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Psychopharmacologic therapy has so far focused on ameliorating disruptive behaviours to improve patient's function and quality of life. Due to the complicated neurobiological aetiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a traditional pharmacist intervention may be insufficient to initiate the optimal care for this vulnerable population. We evaluate the impact of providing specialty psychiatry (PS) pharmacist intervention in identifying and resolving drug-related problems (DRPs) among children with ASD associated with disruptive behaviours...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289796/-neurobiological-foundations-underlying-normal-and-disturbed-sexuality
#11
T H C Krüger, J Kneer
BACKGROUND: Sexual functions are regulated by hormonal and neurochemical factors as well as neuronal networks. An understanding of these basic principles is necessary for the diagnostics, counselling and treatment of sexual problems. OBJECTIVE: Description of essential mechanisms of sexual function on a neurochemical and neuronal level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search, selection and discussion of relevant studies. RESULTS: Analogous to the dual control model there are primary inhibitory (e...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289283/the-dopamine-hypothesis-of-bipolar-affective-disorder-the-state-of-the-art-and-implications-for-treatment
#12
REVIEW
A H Ashok, T R Marques, S Jauhar, M M Nour, G M Goodwin, A H Young, O D Howes
Bipolar affective disorder is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are incompletely understood, the dopamine hypothesis has been a key theory of the pathophysiology of both manic and depressive phases of the illness for over four decades. The increased use of antidopaminergics in the treatment of this disorder and new in vivo neuroimaging and post-mortem studies makes it timely to review this theory. To do this, we conducted a systematic search for post-mortem, pharmacological, functional magnetic resonance and molecular imaging studies of dopamine function in bipolar disorder...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282077/-endophenotypes-in-psychiatry
#13
Salvador M Guinjoan
We review the concept of endophenotype, and its relationship with related terms in use in the scientific literature, including "biomarker" and "intermediate phenotype". We then explain the importance of the concept in current psychiatry research. Specifically, we focus in the potential importance of endophenotypes in both disentangling the genetic causes, and improving the dimensional and pathophysiologic definition, of psychiatric nosological categories. After delineating which types of variables could constitute valid endophenotypes, we describe efforts in defining neurobiological signatures of social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia as an example with potential heuristic value...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261144/parallel-distinct-structures-of-internal-world-and-external-reality-disavowing-and-re-claiming-the-self-identity-in-the-aftermath-of-trauma-generated-dissociation
#14
Vedat Şar
The nature of consciousness and the autonomy of the individual's mind have been a focus of interest throughout the past century and inspired many theories and models. Revival of studies on psychological trauma and dissociation, which remained outside mainstream psychiatry, psychology, and psychoanalysis for the most part of the past century, has provided a new opportunity to revisit this intellectual and scientific endeavor. This paper attempts to integrate a series of empirical and theoretical studies on psychological consequences of developmental traumatization, which may yield further insight into factors which threaten the integrity of human consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251242/-delusions-current-psychodynamic-and-neurocognitive-approaches
#15
REVIEW
R Knorr, K Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The symptom "delusions" is a central psychopathological symptom in psychiatric diseases. Since the beginning of psychiatry various disciplines have attempted to explain and understand delusions but even now no generally accepted definition of this phenomenon exists. AIM: A comprehensive review of current psychopathological and neurobiological theories of delusions is given. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed and Google scholar searches were performed using the keywords "delusion", "psychodynamic" and "neurobiology", both in English and German...
March 1, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243463/use-of-empathy-in-psychiatric-practice-constructivist-grounded-theory-study
#16
James Ross, Chris Watling
BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. AIMS: To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. METHOD: This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) 'How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?' and (b) 'How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?' The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data...
January 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242869/in-vivo-imaging-of-translocator-protein-a-marker-of-activated-microglia-in-alcohol-dependence
#17
A T Hillmer, C M Sandiego, J Hannestad, G A Angarita, A Kumar, E M McGovern, Y Huang, K C O'Connor, R E Carson, S S O'Malley, K P Cosgrove
Neuroinflammation may be a critical component of the neurobiology of alcohol use disorders, yet the exact nature of this relationship is not well understood. This work compared the brain and peripheral immune profile of alcohol-dependent subjects and controls. Brain levels of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of microglial activation and neuroinflammation, were measured with [(11)C]PBR28 positron emission tomography imaging in 15 healthy controls and 15 alcohol-dependent subjects. Alcohol-dependent subjects were imaged 1-4 days (n=14) or 24 days (n=1) after their last drink...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220044/pregnenolone-blocks-cannabinoid-induced-acute-psychotic-like-states-in-mice
#18
A Busquets-Garcia, E Soria-Gómez, B Redon, Y Mackenbach, M Vallée, F Chaouloff, M Varilh, G Ferreira, P-V Piazza, G Marsicano
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138159/caspase-3-dependent-cleavage-of-akt-modulates-tau-phosphorylation-via-gsk3%C3%AE-kinase-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
J Chu, E Lauretti, D Praticò
The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accumulation of misfolded amyloid-β peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that serine-aspartyl proteases-caspases are activated in the AD brain. Previous studies identified a caspase-3 cleavage site within the amyloid-β precursor protein, and a caspase-3 cleavage of tau as the mechanisms involved in the development of Aβ and tau neuropathology, respectively. However, the potential role that caspase-3 could have on tau metabolism remains unknown...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100276/realising-stratified-psychiatry-using-multidimensional-signatures-and-trajectories
#20
Dan W Joyce, Angie A Kehagia, Derek K Tracy, Jessica Proctor, Sukhwinder S Shergill
BACKGROUND: Stratified or personalised medicine targets treatments for groups of individuals with a disorder based on individual heterogeneity and shared factors that influence the likelihood of response. Psychiatry has traditionally defined diagnoses by constellations of co-occurring signs and symptoms that are assigned a categorical label (e.g. schizophrenia). Trial methodology in psychiatry has evaluated interventions targeted at these categorical entities, with diagnoses being equated to disorders...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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