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neurobiology psychiatry

T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Debora A Rothmond, Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Schizophrenia is a disabling disease impacting millions of people around the world, for which there is no known cure. Current antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia mainly target psychotic symptoms, do little to ameliorate social or cognitive deficits, have side-effects that cause weight gain, and diabetes and 30% of people do not respond. Thus, better therapeutics for schizophrenia aimed at the route biologic changes are needed and discovering the underlying neurobiology is key to this quest. Postmortem brain studies provide the most direct and detailed way to determine the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M P Dandekar, A J Fenoy, A F Carvalho, J C Soares, J Quevedo
Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment choice for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and movement disorders, its effectiveness for the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains unclear. Herein, we conducted an integrative review on major neuroanatomical targets of DBS pursued for the treatment of intractable TRD. The aim of this review article is to provide a critical discussion of possible underlying mechanisms for DBS-generated antidepressant effects identified in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and to determine which brain target(s) elicited the most promising outcomes considering acute and maintenance treatment of TRD...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
William Sulis
Temperament of healthy people and mental illnesses, particularly affective disorders, have been conjectured to lie along a continuum of neurobehavioural regulation. Understanding the nature of this continuum may better inform the construction of taxonomies for both categories of behaviour. Both temperament and mental illness refer to patterns of behaviour that manifest over long time scales (weeks to years) and they appear to share many underlying neuroregulatory systems. This continuum is discussed from the perspectives of nonlinear dynamical systems theory, neurobiology and psychiatry as applied to understanding such multiscale time-series behaviour...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ahron Friedberg, Dana Malefakis
The study and use of resilience is of the utmost importance to psychodynamic psychiatry. It is deeply ingrained in ideas about well-being and the treatment and care of patients. However, its neurobiology is incompletely understood, its terminology and relation to trauma and coping not well defined, and its efficacy underutilized in clinical practice. This article reviews the scientific literature on resilience, especially as it relates to trauma and coping. It also attempts to point the way for its greater application in psychiatry and mental health by utilizing resilience in more informed and individualized approaches...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
D J Müller, E J Brandl, F Degenhardt, K Domschke, H Grabe, O Gruber, J Hebebrand, W Maier, A Menke, M Riemenschneider, M Rietschel, D Rujescu, T G Schulze, L Tebartz van Elst, O Tüscher, J Deckert
In this article, the current literature on pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium are summarized by the section of Neurobiology and Genetics of the German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN). The publications of international expert groups and regulatory authorities are reviewed and discussed. In Germany, a statement on pharmacogenetics was also made by the gene diagnostics committee of the Ministry of Health. The DGPPN supports two recommendations: 1) to perform CYP2D6 genetic testing prior to prescription of tricyclic antidepressants and 2) to determine the HLA-B*1502 genotype in patients of Asian origin before using carbamazepine...
January 30, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Denny Borsboom, Angélique Cramer, Annemarie Kalis
In the past decades, reductionism has dominated both research directions and funding policies in clinical psychology and psychiatry. However, the intense search for the biological basis of mental disorders has not resulted in conclusive reductionist explanations of psychopathology. Recently, network models have been proposed as an alternative framework for the analysis of mental disorders, in which mental disorders arise from the causal interplay between symptoms. In this paper, we show that this conceptualization can help understand why reductionist approaches in psychiatry and clinical psychology are on the wrong track...
January 24, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Natalia Jimeno, Martin L Vargas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cenesthopathy is mainly associated with schizophrenia; however, its neurobiological basis is nowadays unclear. The general objective was to explore clinical correlates of cenesthopathy and subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants (n = 30) meeting DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorder were recruited from a psychiatry unit and assessed with: Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)...
January 16, 2018: Psychopathology
Mirolyba Ilieva, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Morten Thorsen, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disease, the neurobiological links remain unclear. A large amount of evidence suggests that pathological processes taking place in early embryonic neurodevelopment might be responsible for later manifestation of autistic symptoms...
November 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Anna Bredström
This article examines the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and its claim of incorporating a "greater cultural sensitivity." The analysis reveals that the manual conveys mixed messages as it explicitly addresses the critique of being ethnocentric and having a static notion of culture yet continues in a similar fashion when culture is applied in diagnostic criteria. The analysis also relates to current trends in psychiatric nosology that emphasize neurobiology and decontextualize distress and points to how the DSM-5 risks serving as an ethnic dividing line in psychiatry by making sociocultural context relevant only for some patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
T Notter, J M Coughlin, A Sawa, U Meyer
A great deal of interest in psychiatric research is currently centered upon the pathogenic role of inflammatory processes. Positron emission tomography (PET) using radiolabeled ligands selective for the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has become the most widely used technique to assess putative neuroimmune abnormalities in vivo. Originally used to detect discrete neurotoxic damages, TSPO has generally turned into a biomarker of 'neuroinflammation' or 'microglial activation'. Psychiatric research has mostly accepted these denotations of TSPO, even if they may be inadequate and misleading under many pathological conditions...
January 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Paul J Harrison, John R Geddes, Elizabeth M Tunbridge
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a leading cause of global disability. Its biological basis is unknown, and its treatment unsatisfactory. Here, we review two recent areas of progress. First, the discovery of risk genes and their implications, with a focus on voltage-gated calcium channels as part of the disease process and as a drug target. Second, facilitated by new technologies, it is increasingly apparent that the bipolar phenotype is more complex and nuanced than simply one of recurring manic and depressive episodes...
January 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
C E Wiers, P C Towb, C A Hodgkinson, P-H Shen, C Freeman, G Miller, E Lindgren, E Shokri-Kojori, Ş B Demiral, S W Kim, D Tomasi, H Sun, G-J Wang, D Goldman, N D Volkow
Despite ethnic differences in allele frequencies of variants in dopaminergic genes associated with dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (D2R), no study to date has investigated the relationship between genetic ancestry and striatal D2R. Here, we show that ancestry-informative markers significantly predict dorsal striatal D2R in 117 healthy ethnically diverse residents of the New York metropolitan area using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride (P<0.0001), while correcting for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking status, and estimated socioeconomic status (ZIP codes)...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
M Kristensen, A A Nierenberg, S D Østergaard
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
A M Ruissen
There are two extreme views within psychiatry when it comes to etiopathogenesis. At one extreme is the naturalistic vision; at the other extreme is a perception of psychiatric diagnoses as social constructions. There are also different perspectives on ADHD: historical, social, psychological and neurobiological. In this article, I will try to find a position between the two extremes to sketch the context of the current ADHD debate from the different perspectives. I conclude that a one-sided neurobiological view of ADHD lacks adequate foundation; it does not support the psychiatrist who is struggling with complicated ADHD issues in daily practice, and does not respond adequately to the very real problems of the people concerned and their families...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Sheldon H Preskorn
This column reviews the divergence between the approach to drug development in infectious disease, oncology, and immunology versus psychiatry. Between 2009 and 2016, 254 new drugs were approved. Of those, only 9 were for a psychiatric indication; another 5 were labeled to treat central nervous system disorders that are not considered psychiatric per se but are frequently found in individuals with psychiatric illnesses (eg, substantial weight gain). There were 2 additional new products for psychiatric indications that involved either a combination product (Contrave) or a prodrug for the production of aripiprazole (Aristada)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Massimiliano Aragona
This paper reviews translational research in psychiatry, focusing on those programs addressing the problem of the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. In medicine in general, and in psychiatry in particular, the term "translational" is used with different meanings. A conceptual analysis suggests that there are at least seven different types of translational research in psychiatry: T1 ("bench-to-bedside" development of tools and treatments), T2 (application of animal models to human psychiatry), T3 (papers focusing on the mind-brain gap, studying biological, neurobiological and cognitive dysfunctions), T4 (personalised therapies and prediction of treatment responses), T5 ("bedside-to-bench" translation of population data for laboratories), T6 (implementation of treatments at the population level, including accessibility and quality of services), and T7 (improving translational knowledge in residents' trainings and researchers' careers)...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
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