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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112197/association-of-genetic-ancestry-with-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability
#1
C E Wiers, P C Towb, C A Hodgkinson, P-H Shen, C Freeman, G Miller, E Lindgren, E Shokri-Kojori, Ş B Demiral, S W Kim, D Tomasi, H Sun, G-J Wang, D Goldman, N D Volkow
Despite ethnic differences in allele frequencies of variants in dopaminergic genes associated with dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (D2R), no study to date has investigated the relationship between genetic ancestry and striatal D2R. Here, we show that ancestry-informative markers significantly predict dorsal striatal D2R in 117 healthy ethnically diverse residents of the New York metropolitan area using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride (P<0.0001), while correcting for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking status, and estimated socioeconomic status (ZIP codes)...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112195/face-and-predictive-validity-of-the-clock%C3%AE-19-mouse-as-an-animal-model-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
M Kristensen, A A Nierenberg, S D Østergaard
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098975/-the-impasse-known-as-adhd
#3
A M Ruissen
There are two extreme views within psychiatry when it comes to etiopathogenesis. At one extreme is the naturalistic vision; at the other extreme is a perception of psychiatric diagnoses as social constructions. There are also different perspectives on ADHD: historical, social, psychological and neurobiological. In this article, I will try to find a position between the two extremes to sketch the context of the current ADHD debate from the different perspectives. I conclude that a one-sided neurobiological view of ADHD lacks adequate foundation; it does not support the psychiatrist who is struggling with complicated ADHD issues in daily practice, and does not respond adequately to the very real problems of the people concerned and their families...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#4
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961664/cns-drug-development-lessons-learned-part-3-psychiatric-and-central-nervous-system-drugs-developed-over-the-last-decade-implications-for-the-field
#5
Sheldon H Preskorn
This column reviews the divergence between the approach to drug development in infectious disease, oncology, and immunology versus psychiatry. Between 2009 and 2016, 254 new drugs were approved. Of those, only 9 were for a psychiatric indication; another 5 were labeled to treat central nervous system disorders that are not considered psychiatric per se but are frequently found in individuals with psychiatric illnesses (eg, substantial weight gain). There were 2 additional new products for psychiatric indications that involved either a combination product (Contrave) or a prodrug for the production of aripiprazole (Aristada)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958978/the-impact-of-translational-neuroscience-on-revisiting-psychiatric-diagnosis-state-of-the-art-and-conceptual-analysis
#6
Massimiliano Aragona
This paper reviews translational research in psychiatry, focusing on those programs addressing the problem of the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. In medicine in general, and in psychiatry in particular, the term "translational" is used with different meanings. A conceptual analysis suggests that in psychiatry there are at least seven different types of translational research: T1 ("bench-to-bedside" development of tools and treatments), T2 (application of animal models to human psychiatry), T3 (papers focusing on the mind-brain gap, studying biological, neurobiological and cognitive dysfunctions), T4 (personalized therapies and prediction of treatment responses), T5 ("bedside-to-bench" translation of population data for laboratories), T6 (implementation of treatments at population level, including accessibility and quality of services), T7 (improving translational knowledge in residents" trainings and researchers" careers)...
September 29, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950970/cultural-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-social-emotional-feelings-an-interdisciplinary-developmental-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Xiao-Fei Yang
Social neuroscience has documented cultural differences in emotional brain functioning. Most recently, these differences have been extended to include cultural effects on the real-time neural correlates of social-emotional feelings. Here we review these findings and use them to illustrate a biopsychosocial framework for studying acculturated social-affective functioning and development. We argue that understanding cultural differences in emotion neurobiology requires probing their social origins and connection with individuals' subjective, lived experiences...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#8
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941093/staging-in-bipolar-disorder-from-theoretical-framework-to-clinical-utility
#9
Michael Berk, Robert Post, Aswin Ratheesh, Emma Gliddon, Ajeet Singh, Eduard Vieta, Andre F Carvalho, Melanie M Ashton, Lesley Berk, Susan M Cotton, Patrick D McGorry, Brisa S Fernandes, Lakshmi N Yatham, Seetal Dodd
Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924181/common-and-dissociable-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-differences-associate-with-dimensions-of-psychopathology-across-categorical-diagnoses
#10
A N Kaczkurkin, T M Moore, M E Calkins, R Ciric, J A Detre, M A Elliott, E B Foa, A Garcia de la Garza, D R Roalf, A Rosen, K Ruparel, R T Shinohara, C H Xia, D H Wolf, R E Gur, R C Gur, T D Satterthwaite
The high comorbidity among neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a possible common neurobiological phenotype. Resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abnormalities in regional CBF are present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Regional CBF may also provide a useful biological marker across different types of psychopathology. To investigate CBF changes common across psychiatric disorders, we capitalized upon a sample of 1042 youths (ages 11-23 years) who completed cross-sectional imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899197/personality-psychopathology-and-health-through-the-lens-of-interpersonal-relatedness-and-self-definition
#11
Patrick Luyten
Sidney Blatt's seminal contributions in the domain of personality development, psychopathology, and health rank among the best researched and most empirically supported theories in psychoanalysis. Blatt is known primarily for his two-polarities model of personality development, which he viewed as evolving through a dialectical, synergistic interaction between two fundamental processes across the lifespan: the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand, and of self-definition on the other. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as an attempt to find a balance, however distorted, between relatedness and self-definition...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836828/navigating-the-social-synapse-the-neurobiology-of-bedside-manner
#12
Sophia Parnas, Sophie Isobel
OBJECTIVES: This paper seeks to explore the application of neurobiology to further understanding the importance of developing, refining and modelling good bedside manner in psychiatry. The concept of a social synapse is used as a framework to understand the impact of verbal and non-verbal information that crosses between two attuned individuals. Research shows that widely distributed cortical and subcortical networks are involved in processing of social information and the perception of safety...
August 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834527/the-neurobiology-of-transition-to-psychosis-clearing-the-cache
#13
Lena Palaniyappan, Tushar Das, Kara Dempster
The prepsychotic phase of schizophrenia is not only important for indicated prevention strategies, but also crucial for developing mechanistic models of the emergence of frank psychosis (transition). This commentary highlights the work of Dukart and colleagues, published in this issue of the Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosicence, who sought to identify MRI-based anatomic endophenotypes of psychosis in a well-characterized sample of patients with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829051/dopamine-transporter-and-reward-anticipation-in-a-dimensional-perspective-a-multimodal-brain-imaging-study
#14
Manon Dubol, Christian Trichard, Claire Leroy, Anca-Larisa Sandu, Mehdi Rahim, Bernard Granger, Eleni T Tzavara, Laurent Karila, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges
Dopamine function and reward processing are highly interrelated and involve common brain regions afferent to the Nucleus Accumbens, within the mesolimbic pathway. While dopamine function and reward system neural activity are impaired in most psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if alterations in the dopamine system underlie variations in reward processing across a continuum encompassing health and these disorders. We explored the relationship between dopamine function and neural activity during reward anticipation in twenty-seven participants including healthy volunteers and psychiatric patients with schizophrenia, depression or cocaine addiction, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) multimodal imaging with a voxel-based statistical approach...
August 22, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805182/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-research-tool-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
J P Robbins, J Price
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a novel, timely approach for investigating the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we are starting to gain more insight into the specific mechanisms that cause Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, this has not resulted in therapies to slow the pathological processes. Animal models have been paramount in studying the neurobiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, these human conditions cannot be entirely recapitulated in rodents...
November 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805173/latent-traits-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-toward-dimensional-psychiatry
#16
S R Chamberlain, J Stochl, S A Redden, J E Grant
BACKGROUND: The concepts of impulsivity and compulsivity are commonly used in psychiatry. Little is known about whether different manifest measures of impulsivity and compulsivity (behavior, personality, and cognition) map onto underlying latent traits; and if so, their inter-relationship. METHODS: A total of 576 adults were recruited using media advertisements. Psychopathological, personality, and cognitive measures of impulsivity and compulsivity were completed...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782562/mirna-expression-profile-is-altered-differentially-in-the-rat-brain-compared-to-blood-after-experimental-exposure-to-50%C3%A2-hz-and-1%C3%A2-mt-electromagnetic-field
#17
REVIEW
Mehmet Emin Erdal, Senay Görücü Yılmaz, Serkan Gürgül, Coşar Uzun, Didem Derici, Nurten Erdal
Common complex diseases are a result of host and environment interactions. One such putative environmental factor is the electromagnetic field exposure, especially the occupational extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field, 50 Hz, 1 mT, whose neurobiological relevance remains elusive. We evaluated the effects of long-term (60 days) ELF-MF exposure on miRNAs previously related to brain and human diseases (miR-26b-5p, miR-9-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-106b-5p, miR-107, miR-125a-3p). A total of 64 young (3 weeks-old) and mature (10 weeks-old) male/female Wistar-Albino rats were divided into sham and ELF-MF exposed groups...
August 3, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767318/the-gut-microbiome-and-mental-health-implications-for-anxiety-and-trauma-related-disorders
#18
Stefanie Malan-Muller, Mireia Valles-Colomer, Jeroen Raes, Christopher A Lowry, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders...
August 2, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#19
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regard to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition process (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion. Neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior are highly conserved across species, and inter- and intra-specific variability observed in social behavior can be explained to large extent by differential activity of this conserved neural network...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699102/-the-concept-of-schizoidia-in-psychiatry-from-schizoidia-to-schizotypy-and-cluster%C3%A2-a-personality-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
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