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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230700/disclosure-is-inadequate-as-a-solution-to-managing-conflicts-of-interest-in-human-research
#1
Helene Jacmon
Disclosure is a common response to conflicts of interest; it is intended to expose the conflict to scrutiny and enable it to be appropriately managed. For disclosure to be effective the receiver of the disclosure needs to be able to use the information to assess how the conflict may impact on their interests and then implement a suitable response. The act of disclosure also creates an expectation of self-regulation, as the person with the conflicting interests will be mindful of their own potential biases and aware that their decisions may be monitored...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230686/impact-of-a-breast-cancer-educational-program-on-female-university-students-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices
#2
Arwa Alsaraireh, Muhammad W Darawad
Breast cancer (BC) is a worldwide fatal cancer among females. Efforts fighting against this disease should start with females at younger ages. This study evaluated the effectiveness a BC educational program in promoting female university students' knowledge and attitudes towards BC and practices of breast self-examination (BSE). A pre- and post-test design was used in two phases; pre- and post-intervention phase. A 1-day educational program was conducted with theoretical and practical educational sessions. Participants were evaluated twice (before and 2 weeks after the intervention) for the following variables: knowledge regarding BC warning signs, BC risk factors and knowledge in regard to BSE, in addition to their attitudes and practices of BSE...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228794/learning-to-breathe-a-pilot-study-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-to-support-marginalized-youth
#3
Amy L Eva, Natalie M Thayer
Mindfulness-based curricular interventions can support adolescents who are at risk of school failure as they negotiate the transition from high school into young adulthood. Researchers hypothesized that a 6-week mindfulness-based intervention would lower participants' perceived stress while increasing their reported levels of self-esteem. Participants (N = 23) ranged in age from 17 to 20 years while the majority were male students of color. Pre- and postintervention survey mean responses revealed statistically significant differences on the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale and 3 items on the Perceived Stress Scale (with small to moderate effect sizes)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227363/psychosocial-factors-and-surgical-outcomes-in-adult-spinal-deformity-do-dementia-patients-have-more-complications
#4
Courtney S Toombs, Justin C Paul, Baron S Lonner
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected, national inpatient hospital database. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders in the ASD population. We hypothesized that a high incidence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in ASD would negatively impact perioperative outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Adult spinal fusion (ASF) patients suffer from severe back pain and often depression. Psychiatric comorbidities in the adult spinal deformity (ASD) population are not well understood, despite the apparent psychological effects of spinal deformity-related self-image...
December 8, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226958/masking-exposure-to-phobic-stimuli-reduces-fear-without-inducing-electrodermal-activity
#5
Paul Siegel, Richard Warren, Gabriella Jacobson, Edward Merritt
A series of experiments has shown that limiting awareness of exposure to feared stimuli through visual masking-or very brief exposure (VBE)-reduces avoidance of a live tarantula by spider-phobic participants. We investigated this process of fear reduction by directly relating the effects of VBE on electrodermal activity to its ensuing effects on phobic behavior. Sixty spider-phobic participants, identified by approaching a live tarantula and a questionnaire, were administered either VBE to masked spiders or control exposure to masked flowers...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226236/self-assessment-of-competence-during-post-graduate-training-in-general-medicine-a-preliminary-study-to-develop-a-portfolio-for-further-education
#6
Bert Huenges, Barbara Woestmann, Susanne Ruff-Dietrich, Herbert Rusche
Awareness of one's own strengths and weaknesses is a key qualification for the specialist physician. We examined how physicians undergoing specialist training in general medicine rate themselves in different areas. For this purpose, 139 participants receiving post-graduate training in general practice offered by the Medical Association of Westfalen-Lippe assessed themselves regarding their subjective confidence in 20 core competencies and 47 situations involving patient counseling in general practice. Their self-assessments were recorded on a five-point Likert scale...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225894/adolescents-perceptions-of-participation-in-group-education-using-the-guided-self-determination-young-method-a-qualitative-study
#7
Anna Lena Brorsson, Anna Lindholm Olinder, Gunnel Viklund, Therese Granström, Janeth Leksell
Objective: Guided Self-Determination (GSD) is a person-centered communication and reflection method. Education in groups may have a greater impact than the content of the education, and constructive communication between parents and adolescents has been shown to be of importance. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of participation in group education with the Guided Self-Determination-Young (GSD-Y) method, together with parents, in connection with the introduction of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223121/from-information-to-participation-and-self-organization-visions-for-european-river-basin-management
#8
Johannes Euler, Sonja Heldt
The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, 2000) calls for active inclusion of the public in the governance of waterbodies to enhance the effectiveness and legitimacy of water management schemes across the EU. As complex socio-ecological systems, river basins in western Europe could benefit from further support for inclusive management schemes. This paper makes use of case studies from Germany, England and Spain to explore the potential opportunities and challenges of different participatory management approaches...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220107/eating-out-with-a-food-allergy-in-the-uk-change-in-the-eating-out-practices-of-consumers-with-food-allergy-following-introduction-of-allergen-information-legislation
#9
Fiona M Begen, Julie Barnett, Ros Payne, Hazel M Gowland, Audrey DunnGalvin, Jane S Lucas
BACKGROUND: Strict allergen avoidance is important in day-to-day management of food allergy and avoidance when eating outside the home can present particular difficulties. EU legislation (EU FIC) introduced in December 2014 aimed to improve food allergen information provision for customers by requiring retailers of non-prepacked foods to provide information related to the content of one or more of 14 specified food allergens within their foods. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of EU FIC on the behaviours, experiences and attitudes of consumers with food allergy when eating out...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219940/factors-influencing-postpartum-fatigue-in-vaginal-birth-women-testing-a-path-model
#10
Ching-Hsing Hsieh, Chien-Lan Chen, Tan-Ju Han, Pei-Ju Lin, Hui-Chun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Postpartum fatigue is a very common complaint among postpartum women. Although current evidence indicates that several factors (e.g., parity, epidural analgesia, perineal trauma, perineal pain, and longer second stage of labor) are associated with postpartum, not enough is known about the relationships among these physical factors simultaneously and how they contribute to the development of postpartum fatigue. Increased awareness of the complex relationships among these factors will help nurses assess, prevent, and alleviate postpartum fatigue...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219909/a-thematic-analysis-of-self-described-authentic-leadership-behaviors-among-experienced-nurse-executives
#11
Catherine Alexander, Ruth Palan Lopez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to understand the behaviors experienced nurse executives use to create healthy work environments (HWEs). The constructs of authentic leadership formed the conceptual framework for the study. BACKGROUND: The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses recommends authentic leadership as the preferred style of leadership for creating and sustaining HWEs. Behaviors associated with authentic leadership in nursing are not well understood...
January 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218957/impact-of-health-literacy-on-medication-adherence-in-older-people-with-chronic-diseases
#12
Yun-Mi Lee, Hye Yon Yu, Mi-Ae You, Youn-Jung Son
Medication adherence is a key factor of the therapy of chronic diseases in older people with chronic diseases. Inadequate health literacy results in poor health outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of health literacy on medication adherence to provide information for improving health outcomes in older people with chronic disease. This was a cross-sectional study of older people (people aged over 65 years) with chronic diseases in Korea taking one or more medications for 6 months and over from an academic referral medical center...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218226/hamman-s-syndrome-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#13
Alexandra Rose Pain, Josh Pomroy, Andrea Benjamin
Hamman's syndrome (spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum) is a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), with a multifactorial etiology. Awareness of this syndrome is important: it is likely underdiagnosed as the main symptom of shortness of breath is often attributed to Kussmaul's breathing and the findings on chest radiograph can be subtle and easily missed. It is also important to be aware of and consider Boerhaave's syndrome as a differential diagnosis, a more serious condition with a 40% mortality rate when diagnosis is delayed...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217935/bronchoscopy-in-nigerian-clinical-practice-a-survey-of-medical-doctors-perception-use-and-associated-challenges
#14
Adekunle Olatayo Adeoti, Olufemi Olumuyiwa Desalu, Joseph Olusesan Fadare, Wemimo Alaofin, Cajetan Chigozie Onyedum
Background: Bronchoscopy is a vital diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in pulmonological practice. The aim of this study was to determine the perception, use and challenges encountered by Nigerian medical doctors involved in this procedure. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 medical doctors recruited from three major tertiary institutions in Nigeria between September 2013 and June 2014. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered to adult physicians, paediatricians, and surgeons as well as their trainees to obtain their perception, use and associated challenges in the use of bronchoscopy in clinical practice...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216441/change-in-sense-of-nondual-awareness-and-spiritual-awakening-in-response-to-a-multidimensional-well-being-program
#15
Paul J Mills, Christine Tara Peterson, Meredith A Pung, Sheila Patel, Lizabeth Weiss, Kathleen L Wilson, P Murali Doraiswamy, Jeffery A Martin, Rudolph E Tanzi, Deepak Chopra
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of a comprehensive mind-body program on sense of nondual awareness and spiritual awakening. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: The study compared the effects of participation in an intensive 6-day Ayurveda-based mind-body program that addressed physical, emotional, and spiritual domains as compared with a control condition. SETTING: Resort setting. SUBJECTS: Participants were 69 healthy women and men (mean age 53...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215138/premenstrual-syndrome-and-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorders-among-jordanian-women
#16
Abla Albsoul-Younes, Eman Alefishat, Rana Abu Farha, Lina Tashman, Enas Hijjih, Rasha AlKhatib
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, associated factors, and management approaches of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in Jordanian women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three hundred premenopausal women completed a self-administered questionnaire. FINDINGS: Moderate-severe PMS was reported by 29% of women, while 14% had PMDD. Younger unmarried women had the more severe condition. Herbal remedies and no medication were the most common approaches used to manage PMS/PMDD...
December 7, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214141/new-trends-in-anaphylaxis
#17
REVIEW
Margitta Worm, Gunter Sturm, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Victoria Cardona, Ioana Maris, Sabine Dölle
This review presents the current trends in anaphylaxis management discussed at the fourth International Network for Online-Registration of Anaphylaxis (NORA) conference held in Berlin in April 2017. Current data from the anaphylaxis registry show that Hymenoptera venom, foods, and pharmaceutical drugs are still among the most frequent triggers of anaphylaxis. Rare triggers include chicory, cardamom, asparagus, and goji berries. A meta-analysis on recent trends in insect venom anaphylaxis demonstrated for the first time that, although data on the efficacy of insect venom immunotherapy is limited, the occurrence of severe reactions upon repeated sting events can be prevented and patients' quality of life improved...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213530/disease-awareness-may-increase-risk-of-suicide-in-young-onset-dementia-a-case-report
#18
Maria Alice Tourinho Baptista, Raquel Luiza Santos, Nathália Kimura, Isabel Barbeito Lacerda, Marcia Cristina Nascimento Dourado
Studies report that people with young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD) have higher levels of disease awareness compared to those with late onset AD. We report a case of a man with YOAD who had preserved awareness of disease, depression and risk of suicide associated with the development of the dementia. Cognitive functioning, disease severity, depressive symptoms and awareness of disease were assessed using validated measures. The person with YOAD showed a moderate level of disease severity and high degree of dependence for activities of daily living...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213208/awareness-of-malaria-and-treatment-seeking-behaviour-among-persons-with-acute-undifferentiated-fever-in-the-endemic-regions-of-myanmar
#19
Phyo Aung Naing, Thae Maung Maung, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Tin Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Aung Thi
Background: Myanmar has a high burden of malaria with two-third of the population at risk of malaria. One of the basic elements of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative to fight against malaria is early diagnosis and treatment within 24 h of fever. Public awareness about malaria is a key factor in malaria prevention and control and in improving treatment-seeking behaviour. Methods: A large community-based survey was carried out in 27 townships of malaria endemic regions in Myanmar in 2015 which reported on the knowledge, behaviour and practices around malaria in the general population...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212828/detecting-anxiety-in-individuals-with-parkinson-disease-a-systematic-review
#20
Bria Mele, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Eric E Smith, Tamara Pringsheim, Zahinoor Ismail, Zahra Goodarzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine diagnostic accuracy of anxiety detection tools compared with a gold standard in outpatient settings among adults with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, EMABASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to April 7, 2017. Prevalence of anxiety and diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were gathered. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was calculated using Mantel-Haenszel-weighted DerSimonian and Laird models...
December 6, 2017: Neurology
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