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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934771/stimulating-the-clinical-academics-of-tomorrow-a-survey-of-research-opportunities-for-medical-students-in-new-zealand
#1
Ibrahim S Al-Busaidi, Cameron I Wells
Developing the clinical academic workforce of the future is a priority of international relevance. Despite a number of measures implemented to address this challenge, a small proportion of medical students engage in research. Lack of knowledge of available research opportunities, and difficulty finding projects and suitable mentors are key barriers to undergraduate medical research. To date, there is no consolidated source of information on undergraduate research training opportunities and their outcomes available to medical students in New Zealand...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933783/reverse-remodelling-and-myocardial-recovery-in-heart-failure
#2
REVIEW
Gene H Kim, Nir Uriel, Daniel Burkhoff
Advances in medical and device therapies have demonstrated the capacity of the heart to reverse the failing phenotype. The development of normative changes to ventricular size and function led to the concept of reverse remodelling. Among heart failure therapies, durable mechanical circulatory support is most consistently associated with the largest degree of reverse remodelling. Accordingly, research to analyse human tissue after a period of mechanical circulatory support continues to yield a wealth of information...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933676/bringing-humanity-into-view-action-research-with-qatar-s-ambulance-service
#3
Gill Coleman, Liz Wiggins
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue for the widening of attention in healthcare improvement efforts, to include an awareness of the humanity of people who work in the sector and an appreciation of the part human connection plays in engagement around good quality work. Theoretical frameworks and research approaches which draw on action-based, interpretive and systemic thinking are proposed, as a complement to current practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes the early stages of an action research (AR) project, which used the appreciative inquiry "4D" framework to conduct participative inquiry in Hamad Medical Corporation's ambulance service in Qatar, in which staff became co-researchers...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933269/drug-delivery-and-cosmeceutical-applications-of-polylactic-acid-based-novel-constructs-a-review
#4
Hafiz M N Iqbal, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz, Elena Ivonne Mancera-Andrade, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, Tajalli Keshavarz
In recent years, there has been a great research interest in bio-based biopolymers due to their potential as alternative polymers to the traditional petroleum-based synthetic counterparts. Research is underway around the globe on the development of 'greener' technologies. Recently, bio-based bio-constructs are being engineered for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world to address growing concerns of a global dependence on non-renewable petroleum-based resources. The utilization of properly designed and structured materials thus allows for the creation of well-defined environment that induces a series of directed measures, and so on...
September 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932979/tuberculous-meningitis-in-children-and-adults-new-insights-for-an-ancient-foe
#5
REVIEW
Alyssa Mezochow, Kiran Thakur, Christopher Vinnard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is the most devastating manifestation of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents a medical emergency. Approximately one half of tuberculous meningitis patients die or suffer severe neurologic disability. The goal of this review will be to review the pathogenic, clinical, and radiologic features of tuberculous meningitis and to highlight recent advancements in translational and clinical science. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacologic therapy includes combination anti-tuberculosis drug regimens and adjunctive corticosteroids...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932873/-interventional-catheter-treatment-of-tricuspid-valve-regurgitation
#6
REVIEW
T Wißt, F Kreidel, M Schlüter, K-H Kuck, C Frerker
BACKGROUND: The tricuspid valve can be considered the "forgotten" valve because in the past hardly any research has been conducted in this field and as a result only few therapeutic options existed. The prognosis of untreated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is poor and mortality is high for patients with severe TR. Patients frequently return to medical practices and hospitals because of cardiac decompensation, with shortness of breath and leg edema. OBJECTIVE: Recent years have seen more development in catheter-based treatment options...
September 20, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932216/mycoviruses-in-aspergilli-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Robert H A Coutts
Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initially an overview of the population studies illustrating the presence of mycoviruses in numerous important Aspergillus species, such as A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930546/tick-host-pathogen-systems-immunobiology-an-interactive-trio
#8
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930272/antimicrobial-activity-of-some-essential-oils-present-status-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Sonam Chouhan, Kanika Sharma, Sanjay Guleria
Extensive documentation on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their constituents has been carried out by several workers. Although the mechanism of action of a few essential oil components has been elucidated in many pioneering works in the past, detailed knowledge of most of the compounds and their mechanism of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important for the determination of the effect of essential oils on different microorganisms, how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, and their interaction with food matrix components...
August 8, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928185/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-protocol-for-an-observational-study
#10
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
INTRODUCTION: WHO treatment guidelines are widely recommended for guiding treatment for millions of children with pneumonia every year across multiple low-income and middle-income countries. Guidelines are based on synthesis of available evidence that provides moderate certainty in evidence of effects for forms of pneumonia that can result in hospitalisation. However, trials have included fewer children from Africa than other settings, and it is suggested that African children with pneumonia have higher mortality...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928183/assessing-the-extent-of-drug-interactions-among-patients-with-multimorbidity-in-primary-and-secondary-care-in-the-west-midlands-uk-a-study-protocol-for-the-mixed-methods-multimorbidity-study-mimms
#11
Ruth Backman, Philip Weber, Alice M Turner, Mark Lee, Ian Litchfield
INTRODUCTION: The numbers of patients with three or more chronic conditions (multimorbidity) are increasing, and will rise to 2.9 million by 2018 in the UK alone. Currently in the UK, conditions are mainly managed using over 250 sets of single-condition guidance, which has the potential to generate conflicting recommendations for lifestyle and concurrent medication for individual patients with more than one condition. To address some of these issues, we are developing a new computer-based tool to help manage these patients more effectively...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927820/a-novel-role-for-cilia-function-in-atopy-adgrv1-and-dnah5-interactions
#12
Pierre-Emmanuel Sugier, Myriam Brossard, Chloé Sarnowski, Amaury Vaysse, Andréanne Morin, Lucile Pain, Patricia Margaritte-Jeannin, Marie-Hélène Dizier, William O C M Cookson, Mark Lathrop, Miriam F Moffatt, Catherine Laprise, Florence Demenais, Emmanuelle Bouzigon
BACKGROUND: Atopy, an endotype underlying allergic diseases, has a substantial genetic component. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify novel genes associated with atopy in asthma-ascertained families. METHODS: We implemented a three-step analysis strategy in three datasets: The Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) dataset: 1,660 subjects; The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) dataset: 1,138 subjects; and The Medical Research Council (MRC) dataset: 446 subjects)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927427/first-molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-zoonotic-bartonella-species-in-fleas-infesting-domestic-animals-in-tunisia
#13
Saba Zouari, Fatma Khrouf, Youmna M'ghirbi, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926991/-found-performance-towards-a-musical-methodology-for-exploring-the-aesthetics-of-care
#14
Stuart Wood
Concepts of performance in fine art reflect key processes in music therapy. Music therapy enables practitioners to reframe patients as performers, producing new meanings around the clinical knowledge attached to medical histories and constructs. In this paper, music therapy practices are considered in the wider context of art history, with reference to allied theories from social research. Tracing a century in art that has revised the performativity of found objects (starting with Duchamp's "Fountain"), and of found sound (crystallised by Cage's 4' 33) this paper proposes that music therapy might be a pioneer methodology of "found performance"...
September 18, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926561/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection
#15
Theofilos Chrysanthidis, Georgia Loli, Simeon Metallidis, Georgios Germanidis
Although there is evidence that HCV progresses rapidly in HIV/HCV coinfected patients in comparison with HCV monoinfected, the HIV-, HCV- and host/genetic-related factors, as well as the exact mechanisms implicated in this process are not fully elucidated. Furthermore, cure of HCV in those coinfected seems possible with the new antiviral drugs, but high cost as well as insufficient identification, linkage with care and treatment hamper the achievement of this goal. Research on the subject, could reveal an important prognostic marker for the effectiveness of persuasion of patients with HIV/HCV coinfection with a predicted accelerated fibrosis course, in order to facilitate and prioritize, not in terms of guidelines but in the real life situation, their treatment with a medically just framework...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925498/electronic-diary-for-recording-headaches-triggers-and-medication-use-development-and-evaluation
#16
Siavash Bandarian-Balooch, Paul R Martin, Brenton McNally, Arissa Brunelli, Sharon Mackenzie
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an e-diary developed for measuring headaches, triggers, and medication consumption, in terms of reliability and validity, and variables such as ease of use and participant compliance. BACKGROUND: For many decades, behavioral treatment of headaches has been evaluated via participants completing paper diaries recording their headaches and associated phenomena. There is some limited evidence supporting the reliability and validity of paper diaries, and criticisms have been offered such as the large amount of effort involved for both participants and researchers...
September 19, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925418/mhealth-application-areas-and-technology-combinations-a-comparison-of-literature-from-high-and-low-middle-income-countries
#17
Haitham Abaza, Michael Marschollek
BACKGROUND: With the continuous and enormous spread of mobile technologies, mHealth has evolved as a new subfield of eHealth. While eHealth is broadly focused on information and communication technologies, mHealth seeks to explore more into mobile devices and wireless communication. Since mobile phone penetration has exceeded other infrastructure in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), mHealth is seen as a promising component to provide pervasive and patient-centered care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our research work for this paper is to examine the mHealth literature to identify application areas, target diseases, and mHealth service and technology types that are most appropriate for LMICs...
August 8, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#18
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924574/structural-similarity-index-family-for-image-quality-assessment-in-radiological-images
#19
Gabriel Prieto Renieblas, Agustín Turrero Nogués, Alberto Muñoz González, Nieves Gómez-Leon, Eduardo Guibelalde Del Castillo
The structural similarity index (SSIM) family is a set of metrics that has demonstrated good agreement with human observers in tasks using reference images. These metrics analyze the viewing distance, edge information between the reference and the test images, changed and preserved edges, textures, and structural similarity of the images. Eight metrics based on that family are proposed. This new set of metrics, together with another eight well-known SSIM family metrics, was tested to predict human performance in some specific tasks closely related to the evaluation of radiological medical images...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923936/isolation-of-exosomes-from-whole-blood-by-integrating-acoustics-and-microfluidics
#20
Mengxi Wu, Yingshi Ouyang, Zeyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chuyi Chen, Hui Li, Peng Li, David Quinn, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Yoel Sadovsky, Tony Jun Huang
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that play an important role in many biological processes, including intercellular communications, antigen presentation, and the transport of proteins, RNA, and other molecules. Recently there has been significant interest in exosome-related fundamental research, seeking new exosome-based biomarkers for health monitoring and disease diagnoses. Here, we report a separation method based on acoustofluidics (i.e., the integration of acoustics and microfluidics) to isolate exosomes directly from whole blood in a label-free and contact-free manner...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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