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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106820/current-and-emerging-technology-for-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#1
REVIEW
Cheng Chen, Xue-Ling Zhao, Zhan-Hong Li, Zhi-Gang Zhu, Shao-Hong Qian, Andrew J Flewitt
Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105519/translating-hba1c-measurements-into-estimated-average-glucose-values-in-pregnant-women-with-diabetes
#2
Graham R Law, Mark S Gilthorpe, Anna L Secher, Rosemary Temple, Rudolf Bilous, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Helen R Murphy, Eleanor M Scott
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the relationship between average glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and HbA1c levels in pregnant women with diabetes to determine whether calculations of standard estimated average glucose (eAG) levels from HbA1c measurements are applicable to pregnant women with diabetes. METHODS: CGM data from 117 pregnant women (89 women with type 1 diabetes; 28 women with type 2 diabetes) were analysed...
January 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098839/continuous-glucose-monitoring-enables-the-detection-of-losses-in-infusion-set-actuation-lisas
#3
Daniel P Howsmon, Faye Cameron, Nihat Baysal, Trang T Ly, Gregory P Forlenza, David M Maahs, Bruce A Buckingham, Juergen Hahn, B Wayne Bequette
Reliable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) enables a variety of advanced technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In addition to artificial pancreas algorithms that use CGM to automate continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), CGM can also inform fault detection algorithms that alert patients to problems in CGM or CSII. Losses in infusion set actuation (LISAs) can adversely affect clinical outcomes, resulting in hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin delivery. Prolonged hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis-a serious metabolic complication in type 1 diabetes...
January 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098809/the-clinical-benefits-and-accuracy-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-systems-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-scoping-review
#4
REVIEW
Sigrid C J van Steen, Saskia Rijkenberg, Jacqueline Limpens, Peter H J van der Voort, Jeroen Hermanides, J Hans DeVries
Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) systems could improve glycemic control in critically ill patients. We aimed to identify the evidence on the clinical benefits and accuracy of CGM systems in these patients. For this, we performed a systematic search in Ovid MEDLINE, from inception to 26 July 2016. Outcomes were efficacy, accuracy, safety, workload and costs. Our search retrieved 356 articles, of which 37 were included. Randomized controlled trials on efficacy were scarce (n = 5) and show methodological limitations...
January 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055230/improved-postprandial-glycemic-control-with-faster-acting-insulin-aspart-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-using-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#5
Bruce W Bode, Joseph A Johnson, Liselotte Hyveled, Søren C Tamer, Marek Demissie
BACKGROUND: Faster aspart is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation, which in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in subjects with type 1 diabetes has shown a faster onset and offset of glucose-lowering effect than IAsp. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, crossover active-controlled trial compared 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) response, following 2 weeks of CSII with faster aspart or IAsp. Primary endpoint: mean change in PPG 2 h after a standardized meal test (ΔPGav,0-2h)...
January 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046072/effects-of-protease-addition-and-replacement-of-soybean-meal-by-corn-gluten-meal-on-the-growth-of-broilers-and-on-the-environmental-performances-of-a-broiler-production-system-in-greece
#6
Ilias Giannenas, Eleftherios Bonos, Vasileios Anestis, Georgios Filioussis, Dimitrios K Papanastasiou, Thomas Bartzanas, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Athina Tzora, Ioannis Skoufos
An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032465/diurnal-glucose-exposure-profiles-of-patients-treated-with-lixisenatide-before-breakfast-or-the-main-meal-of-the-day-an-analysis-using-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#7
Richard M Bergenstal, Ellie Strock, Roger Mazze, Margaret A Powers, Arlene M Monk, Sara Richter, Elisabeth Souhami, Bo Ahren
BACKGROUND: In the parent study of this analysis, patients with type 2 diabetes received lixisenatide before breakfast or the main meal of the day. This sub-study was designed to examine the effect of lixisenatide administered before breakfast or the main meal of the day on continuously assessed 24-hour patient glucose profiles. METHODS: A subset of patients from the parent study underwent two 14-day periods of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) at the start and end of the 24-week study...
December 29, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031395/blood-brain-barrier-leakage-is-more-widespread-in-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#8
C Eleana Zhang, Sau May Wong, Harm J van de Haar, Julie Staals, Jacobus F A Jansen, Cécile R L P N Jeukens, Paul A M Hofman, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Walter H Backes
OBJECTIVE: As blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may occur in normal aging but may also play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), we used dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI to quantify the rate and the spatial extent of BBB leakage in patients with cSVD and age- and sex-matched controls to discern cSVD-related BBB leakage from aging-related leakage. METHODS: We performed structural brain MRI and DCE-MRI in 80 patients with clinically overt cSVD and 40 age- and sex-matched controls...
December 28, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007348/home-use-of-a-bihormonal-bionic-pancreas-versus-insulin-pump-therapy-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-a-multicentre-randomised-crossover-trial
#9
Firas H El-Khatib, Courtney Balliro, Mallory A Hillard, Kendra L Magyar, Laya Ekhlaspour, Manasi Sinha, Debbie Mondesir, Aryan Esmaeili, Celia Hartigan, Michael J Thompson, Samir Malkani, J Paul Lock, David M Harlan, Paula Clinton, Eliana Frank, Darrell M Wilson, Daniel DeSalvo, Lisa Norlander, Trang Ly, Bruce A Buckingham, Jamie Diner, Milana Dezube, Laura A Young, April Goley, M Sue Kirkman, John B Buse, Hui Zheng, Rajendranath R Selagamsetty, Edward R Damiano, Steven J Russell
BACKGROUND: The safety and effectiveness of a continuous, day-and-night automated glycaemic control system using insulin and glucagon has not been shown in a free-living, home-use setting. We aimed to assess whether bihormonal bionic pancreas initialised only with body mass can safely reduce mean glycaemia and hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes who were living at home and participating in their normal daily routines without restrictions on diet or physical activity. METHODS: We did a random-order crossover study in volunteers at least 18 years old who had type 1 diabetes and lived within a 30 min drive of four sites in the USA...
December 20, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004007/clinical-efficacy-of-two-different-methods-to-initiate-sensor-augmented-insulin-pumps-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Jesus Moreno-Fernandez, Francisco Javier Gómez, Maria Ángeles Gálvez Moreno, Justo P Castaño
Aim. To analyze clinical effect of a novel approach to initiate sensor-augmented insulin pumps in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients through early real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) initiation. Methods. A 26-week pilot study with T1DM subjects randomized (1 : 1) to start RT-CGM three weeks before continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM pre-CSII) or adding RT-CGM three weeks after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM post-CSII). Results. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999822/glucose-200%C3%A2-mg-dl-during-continuous-glucose-monitoring-identifies-adult-patients-at-risk-for-development-of-cystic-fibrosis-related-diabetes
#11
J L Taylor-Cousar, J S Janssen, A Wilson, C G St Clair, K M Pickard, M C Jones, S J Brayshaw, C S Chacon, C M Barboa, M K Sontag, F J Accurso, D P Nichols, M T Saavedra, J A Nick
Rationale. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common comorbidity in patients with CF. In spite of increased screening, diagnosis, and treatment of CFRD, the mortality rate in patients with CFRD still far exceeds the mortality rate in those without CFRD. Guidelines suggest that screening for CFRD be performed annually using the 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Adherence to recommended screening has been poor, with only approximately one-quarter of adults with CF undergoing OGTT in 2014...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997712/effect-of-acrylodan-conjugation-and-forced-oxidation-on-the-structural-integrity-conformational-stability-and-binding-activity-of-a-glucose-binding-protein-sm4-used-in-a-prototype-continuous-glucose-monitor
#12
John M Hickey, Neha Sahni, Rajoshi Chaudhuri, Ajit D'Souza, Andrew Metters, Sangeeta B Joshi, C Russell Middaugh, David B Volkin
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices offer diabetes patients a convenient approach to assist in controlling blood glucose levels. A prototype CGM has been developed that uses the emission profile of a polarity-sensitive fluorophore (acrylodan) conjugated to a glucose/galactose-binding protein (SM4-AC) to measure the concentration of glucose in vivo. During development, a decrease in the devices signal intensity was observed in vivo over time, which was postulated to be result of oxidative degradation of SM4-AC...
December 20, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996321/measures-of-glycemic-variability-in-type-1-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-real-time-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#13
Ahmed H El-Laboudi, Ian F Godsland, Desmond G Johnston, Nick S Oliver
OBJECTIVE: To report the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glycemic variability (GV) indices, factors predictive of change, and to correlate variability with conventional markers of glycemia. METHODS: Data from the JDRF study of CGM in participants with type 1 diabetes were used. Participants were randomized to CGM or self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG). GV indices at baseline, at 26 weeks in both groups, and at 52 weeks in the control group were analyzed...
December 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996319/hypoglycemia-in-older-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
Stephanie N DuBose, Ruth S Weinstock, Roy W Beck, Anne L Peters, Grazia Aleppo, Richard M Bergenstal, Henry Rodriguez, Joseph F Largay, Elaine M Massaro, Irl B Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is a major concern in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and there is limited knowledge in this population. We examined data from 199 adults, ≥60 years of age, who participated in a T1D Exchange study assessing factors associated with severe hypoglycemia (SH) in older adults with T1D: 100 with SH in the prior year and 99 with no SH in prior 3 years (mean age 68; mean diabetes duration 40 years; 47% female; 92% non-Hispanic white). Hypoglycemia was assessed with up to 14 days of blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...
December 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995593/exenatide-add-on-to-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-therapy-reduces-bolus-insulin-doses-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-open-label-trial
#15
Feng-Fei Li, Lanlan Jiang, Liyuan Fu, Hong-Hong Zhu, Peihua Zhou, Danfeng Zhang, Xiao-Fei Su, Jin-Dan Wu, Lei Ye, Jian-Hua Ma
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adding exenatide to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy on the precise insulin doses required by type 2 diabetic patients to maintain glycemic control. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label trial. Uncontrolled T2D patients were recruited between March 2010 and November 2011 at Nanjing First Hospital, China. Subjects were randomly assigned (1:1) to either an exenatide add-on to CSII group or a CSII therapy only (i...
December 19, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990776/sglt2-inhibitor-use-and-dietary-carbohydrate-intake-in-japanese-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-open-label-3-arm-parallel-comparative-exploratory-study
#16
Daisuke Yabe, Masahiro Iwasaki, Hitoshi Kuwata, Takuya Haraguchi, Yoshiyuki Hamamoto, Takeshi Kurose, Kiminobu Sumita, Hitoshi Yamazato, Shigeto Kanada, Yutaka Seino
This study investigated safety and efficacy of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin under differing carbohydrate intake in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Subjects were randomly assigned to three carbohydrate-adjusted meals for 14 days (Days 1-14) [HC-HGI, 55% total energy carbohydrate (TEC) and high glycemic index (GI); HC-LGI, 55% TEC and low GI; and LC-HGI, 40% TEC and high GI]. All subjects received luseogliflozin for the last 7 days (Days 8-14); continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before and after luseogliflozin treatment (Days 5-8 and Days 12-15); and blood tests on Days 1, 8, and 15...
December 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988114/lactation-and-body-composition-responses-to-fat-and-protein-supplies-during-the-dry-period-in-under-conditioned-dairy-cows
#17
G Jaurena, J M Moorby
An experiment was designed to study the effect of precalving supplementation with protein (Pr) and rumen-inert fat (F) on body composition and subsequent milk production and composition. Forty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in the dry period (DP) based on a first-cut ryegrass silage, with 6 mature (in their third or greater pregnancy) and 4 young (in their second pregnancy) cows per treatment. These were low Pr, low F (silage alone); low Pr, high F (silage with 10% rumen-inert fat, mixed on a dry matter basis); high Pr, low F [silage with 5% high-protein corn gluten meal (CGM)]; and high Pr, high F (silage with 5% CGM and 10% rumen-inert fat)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983910/active-subjects-with-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes-have-better-metabolic-profiles-than-sedentary-controls
#18
M Adamo, R Codella, F Casiraghi, A Ferrulli, C Macrì, E Bazzigaluppi, I Terruzzi, L Inverardi, C Ricordi, L Luzi
<p>Previous studies in humans with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and in non-obese diabetic mice have investigated the beneficial immunomodulatory potential of aerobic physical activity. Performing high volume of aerobic exercise may favorably regulate autoimmunity in diabetes. We tested whether increased physical activity is a self-sufficient positive factor in T1D subjects.</p><p>During a 3-month observational period, active (6M; 40.5±6.1 years; BMI 24.5±2.1) and sedentary (4M, 3F; 35.9±8.9 years; BMI 25...
20, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942800/the-effects-of-2%C3%A2-weeks-of-interval-vs-continuous-walking-training-on-glycaemic-control-and-whole-body-oxidative-stress-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-controlled-randomised-crossover-trial
#19
Kristian Karstoft, Margaret A Clark, Ida Jakobsen, Ida A Müller, Bente K Pedersen, Thomas P J Solomon, Mathias Ried-Larsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oxygen consumption-matched short-term interval walking training (IWT) vs continuous walking training (CWT) on glycaemic control, including glycaemic variability, in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We also assessed whether any training-induced improvements in glycaemic control were associated with systemic oxidative stress levels. METHODS: Participants (n = 14) with type 2 diabetes completed a crossover trial using three interventions (control intervention [CON], CWT and IWT), each lasting 2 weeks...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941663/continuous-glucose-monitoring-sensors-past-present-and-future-algorithmic-challenges
#20
Andrea Facchinetti
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors are portable devices that allow measuring and visualizing the glucose concentration in real time almost continuously for several days and are provided with hypo/hyperglycemic alerts and glucose trend information. CGM sensors have revolutionized Type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, improving glucose control when used adjunctively to self-monitoring blood glucose systems. Furthermore, CGM devices have stimulated the development of applications that were impossible to create without a continuous-time glucose signal, e...
December 9, 2016: Sensors
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