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Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Xin-Li An, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Jian-Qiang Su
Struvite recovered from wastewater is promising for recycling phosphorus into soil as fertilizers. However, struvite application may prompt the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant. This study examined the impacts of struvite application and biochar amendment on integrons abundance and gene cassette contexts in rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere using quantitative PCR and clone library analysis. Microcosm experiments revealed that class 1 integron was the most prevalent in all samples, with higher concentration and higher relative abundance in rhizosphere than those in phyllosphere...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Toye Gabriel Olajide, Kayode Shuaib Aremu, Olaide T Esan, Adepeju Oluwatona Dosunmu, Mustapha Muhammad Raji
Background: Self-medication is a common habit in our country; Nigeria, especially among patients with otorhinolaryngological disorders. Medication when taken wrongly may bring dire consequences to the individual, such as masking developing diseases and may cause many other undesirable effects. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to analyze topical ear drop self-medication practices among respondents attending the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido Ekiti, Nigeria...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Paulo Juarez, Isabelle Broutin, Christophe Bordi, Patrick Plésiat, Catherine Llanes
When overproduced, the multidrug efflux system MexEF-OprN increases resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim. In this work, we demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in regulatory gene mexT result in oligomerization of LysR regulator MexT, in constitutive upregulation of the efflux pump and increased resistance in clinical isolates.
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Monika Wieczerzak, Błażej Kudłak, Galina Yotova, Stefan Tsakovski, Vasil Simeonov, Jacek Namieśnik
Assessment of the impact of pharmaceutical residues on living organisms is a very complex subject. Apart from taking into account the toxicity of individual compounds, environmental factors should also be taken into account. In this paper, attempts were made to assess the impact of coexisting inorganic ions and changes in pH on the toxicity of ten selected pharmaceuticals. Two bioassays were used to measure the estrogenic and androgenic effects (XenoScreen YES/YAS - Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and acute toxicity (Microtox® - Vibrio fischeri)...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Faidad Khan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal diseases in the world, but unfortunately studies in this demanding research area are limited in the region. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the next generation pneumococcal vaccine candidate as the protein locates on the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface. Its gene, pspA, might be encoded by all pneumococci, and the protein has proven immunogenicity. The molecular characterization of PspA, pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility are important for regional diversity studies...
March 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Li-Oon Chuah, Ahamed-Kamal Shamila Syuhada, Ismail Mohamad Suhaimi, Tajudin Farah Hanim, Gulam Rusul
This article describes the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clustering of the predominant Salmonella strains ( Salmonella ser. Albany, Salmonella ser. Brancaster, and Salmonella ser. Corvallis) isolated from poultry and processing environment in wet market and small-scale processing plant in Penang and Perlis, the northern states of Malaysia. Agar disk diffusion assay was performed to determine the phenotypic antibiotic resistance of these Salmonella strains. The most common antibiograms among the three predominant Salmonella serovars were reported...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Sani Ousmane, Bouli A Diallo, Rasmata Ouedraogo
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 is the first cause of pneumococcal meningitis Niger. To determine the underlying mechanism of resistance to tetracycline in serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae , a collection of 37 isolates recovered from meningitis patients over the period of 2002 to 2009 in Niger were analyzed for drug susceptibility, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for molecular analyses. MIC level was determined for 31/37 (83.8%) isolates and allowed detection of full resistance (MIC = 8 µg) in 24/31 (77...
March 6, 2018: Antibiotics
Yongjin Liu, Steven Kyle, Paul D Straight
Competitive interactions between bacteria reveal physiological adaptations that benefit fitness. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive species with several adaptive mechanisms for competition and environmental stress. Biofilm formation, sporulation, and motility are the outcomes of widespread changes in a population of B. subtilis . These changes emerge from complex, regulated pathways for adapting to external stresses, including competition from other species. To identify competition-specific functions, we cultured B...
January 2018: MSphere
Lingjun Xu, Shuwen Han, Linjie Yan, Haifeng Wang, Haihui Peng, Fener Chen
A family of novel chloramphenicol base-amide organocatalysts possessing a NH functionality at C-1 position as monodentate hydrogen bond donor were developed and evaluated for enantioselective organocatalytic alcoholysis of meso -cyclic anhydrides. These structural diversified organocatalysts were found to induce high enantioselectivity in alcoholysis of anhydrides and was successfully applied to the asymmetric synthesis of ( S )-GABOB.
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Nada Hanna, Pan Sun, Qiang Sun, Xuewen Li, Xiwei Yang, Xiang Ji, Huiyun Zou, Jakob Ottoson, Lennart E Nilsson, Björn Berglund, Oliver James Dyar, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in different types of environmental samples including water samples in rural Shandong province, China. Further, to characterize the potential ecological risk for development of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and the potential direct human health risk of exposure to antibiotics via drinking water and vegetables. METHODS: Environmental samples (n = 214) (river water, waste water, drinking water, sediments, manure, soil and edible parts of vegetables) were collected in twelve villages in Shandong province in eastern China...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
S W Zuo, Z L Ni, Y B Yao, R S Yang, S K Wang, Y H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella and to provide a scientific basis for rational drug use and effective treatment of patients with brucellosis. Methods: A total of 41 Brucella strains were isolated from the blood of patients with brucellosis in 5 counties and 2 districts in Yuxi City, China from 2014 to 2016. The susceptibility to 23 antimicrobial drugs was tested using Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disk diffusion method and the sizes of antimicrobial rings were recorded. The susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Drug Susceptibility Testing Guideline (2009 version) ...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Sagar Katva, Satyajeet Das, Harpreet Singh Moti, Anupam Jyoti, Sanket Kaushik
Background: Enterococcus faecalis (Ef) is a multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria associated with hospital-acquired infections. Ef is involved in a number of infectious diseases. It generally infects patients with the weekend immune system, i.e. a person mostly acquires Ef infections in the hospital, especially in intensive care units and thus, is more likely to be resistant to many antibiotics. Development of resistance against various antibiotics and emergence of drug-resistant strains is a growing global concern...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Enrique Laval
During the historical development of typhoid fever in Chile, its confusion with other infectious diseases is particularly noteworthy, especially with murine typhus, a problem that was mainly resolved during the 1918 epidemic. The importance of chloramphenicol treatment is also highlighted, which meant an enormous improvement in typhoid/paratyphoid fevers, in combination with public health and health education actions that allowed to almost eliminate these infectious diseases in our country.
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Sergio Villalpando-Guzmán, Carlos Ramón Vázquez-Quiñones, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Everardo Curiel-Quesada, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas
BACKGROUND: Food of animal origin is often involved in salmonellosis outbreaks. AIM: To evaluate the frequency of Salmonella enterica in chicken, beef and pork ground meat (a total of 2,592 samples) obtained from travelling markets and supermarkets at the Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, in order to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and adherence capacity of isolated strains. METHODS: Isolation of S. enterica was carried out according to the BAM-FDA, the microbial susceptibility according with CLSI and adherence assay on HEp-2 cell line according with Baffone et al...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Happiness H Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Marco van Zwetselaar, Oksana Lukjancenko, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Blandina T Mmbaga, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
Objective: To determine molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Tanzania using whole genome sequencing. Methods: DNA from 33 Staphylococcus species was recovered from subcultured archived Staphylococcus isolates. Whole genome sequencing was performed on Illumina Miseq using paired-end 2 × 250 bp protocol. Raw sequence data were analyzed using online tools. Results: Full susceptibility to vancomycin and chloramphenicol was observed...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Dongryeoul Bae, Ji-Hee Park, Saeed Khan, Kidon Sung
Clostridium perfringens causes diarrhea and other diseases in animals and humans. We investigated the prevalence, toxin gene profiles, and antibiotic resistance of C. perfringens isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in two animal hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Fecal samples were collected from clinically diarrheic (DD; n= 49) and non-diarrheic dogs (ND; n= 34). C. perfringens was isolated from 31 out of 49 DD (63%) and 21 out of 34 ND dogs (62%). All strains were positive for the α toxin gene, but not for the β , ε , and ι toxin genes; therefore, all the strains were identified as type A C...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Erich Michel, Olivier Duss, Frédéric H-T Allain
Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) is an important control mechanism that modulates bacterial metabolism, motility, and pathogenesis. Using the bacterial carbon storage regulator/regulator of secondary metabolism (Csr/Rsm) system, we here describe an E. coli-based cell-free translation assay that allows a quantitative analysis of translation regulation by ncRNAs and their corresponding translation repressor proteins. The assay quantifies the translation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in cell-free expression reactions that contain defined amounts of ncRNA and repressor protein...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Longping Li, Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Integrons are mobile DNA elements and they have an important role in acquisition and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. However, there are limited data available on integrons of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from bovine mastitis, especially from Chinese dairy cows. To address this knowledge gap, bovine mastitis-inducing S. aureus isolates were investigated for the presence of integrons as well as characterization of gene cassettes. Integrons were detected using PCR reactions and then further characterized by a restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis and amplicon sequencing...
February 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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