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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526268/structural-and-functional-aspects-of-the-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-condensation-domain-superfamily-discovery-dissection-and-diversity
#1
REVIEW
Kristjan Bloudoff, T Martin Schmeing
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are incredible macromolecular machines that produce a wide range of biologically- and therapeutically-relevant molecules. During synthesis, peptide elongation is performed by the condensation (C) domain, as it catalyzes amide bond formation between the nascent peptide and the amino acid it adds to the chain. Since their discovery more than two decades ago, C domains have been subject to extensive biochemical, bioinformatic, mutagenic, and structural analyses. They are composed of two lobes each with homology to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, have two binding sites for their two peptidyl carrier protein-bound ligands, and have an active site with conserved motif HHxxxDG located between the two lobes...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525841/ll-37-derived-short-antimicrobial-peptide-kr-12-a5-and-its-d-amino-acid-substituted-analogs-with-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-synergistic-effect-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#2
Eun Young Kim, Ganesan Rajasekaran, Song Yub Shin
KR-12-a5 is a 12-meric α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities designed from human cathelicidin LL-37. We designed and synthesized a series of d-amino acid-substituted analogs of KR-12-a5 with the aim of developing novel α-helical AMPs that possess higher cell selectivity than KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity. d-amino acid incorporation into KR-12-a5 induced a significant improvement in the cell selectivity by 2.6- to 13.6-fold as compared to KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521744/determination-of-the-sources-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-isolated-from-the-poultry-industry-in-southern-ethiopia
#3
Reta Duguma Abdi, Fisseha Mengstie, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Takele Beyene, Hika Waktole, Bedasso Mammo, Dinka Ayana, Fufa Abunna
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#4
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507638/antibiotic-utilization-in-pediatric-hospitalized-patients-a-single-center-study
#5
Hasime Qorraj Bytyqi, Rexhep Hoxha, Elton Bahtiri, Valon Krasniqi, Shaip Krasniqi
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in paediatrics. In most cases, antibiotics are started on an empirical basis, without proof of a bacterial infection, either before the start of therapy or afterwards. AIM: The main objective of this study was to analyse the consumption of antibiotics in hospitalised paediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the consumption of antimicrobials in defined daily doses (DDDs according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical/DDD index) in Pulmonology, Gastroenterology and Nephrology Departments at Pediatric Clinic of the tertiary hospital...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507116/toxic-electrophiles-induce-expression-of-the-multi-drug-efflux-pump-mexef-oprn-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-through-a-novel-transcriptional-regulator-cmra
#6
Paulo Juarez, Katy Jeannot, Patrick Plésiat, Catherine Llanes
The multidrug efflux system MexEF-OprN is produced at low levels in wild-type strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, mutational alteration of gene mexS results in constitutive overexpression of the pump along with an increased resistance of the bacterium to chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim. In this study, analysis of in vitro selected chloramphenicol-resistant clones of strain PA14 led to the identification of a new class of mutants (called nfxC2) exhibiting alterations in a so far uncharacterized gene, PA14_38040 (homolog of PA2047 in strain PAO1)...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506801/old-drug-new-wrapping-a-possible-comeback-for-chloramphenicol
#7
Sveinung G Ingebrigtsen, Alena Didriksen, Mona Johannessen, Nataša Škalko-Basnet, Ann Mari Holsæter
The antimicrobial drug chloramphenicol (CAM) exhibits activity against resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, its use has been limited due to its toxicity. As the threat of antibiotic resistance continues to grow, a promising approach might be to increase the use of historical antimicrobial agents that demonstrate clinical efficacy, but are hampered by toxicity. We therefore aimed to prepare a liposome-in-hydrogel system for dermal delivery of CAM. Chitosan (CS) was used as the hydrogel vehicle due to its antimicrobial activity and excellent biocompatibility...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504897/clonal-complexes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-dogs-in-the-united-states
#8
Ricardo Videla, Samar M Solyman, Akshar Brahmbhatt, Leslie Sadeghi, David A Bemis, Stephen A Kania
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the primary cause of canine pyoderma and has been associated with diseases in other animals, including human beings. A high prevalence of methicillin and multidrug resistance has been reported in this bacterium in some geographic regions of the United States. Multilocus sequence type (MLST) 68 was implicated, initially, as the major clonal genotype based on a limited number of samples. The objectives of this study were to determine the population genetics of S. pseudintermedius isolated from a cross-section of the United States using a seven-locus multilocus sequence typing method, to identify clonal complexes (CCs), and to correlate sequence types with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504616/prevalence-and-characterization-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolated-from-retail-chicken-in-tianjin-china
#9
Hui Ma, Yulan Su, Luyao Ma, Lina Ma, Ping Li, Xinjun Du, Greta Gölz, Shuo Wang, Xiaonan Lu
Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide; however, there is a lack of information on the prevalence and antibiotic-resistant profile of C. jejuni in the People's Republic of China. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni on the retail level in Tianjin, one of the five national central cities in China. A total of 227 samples of chicken wings, legs, and breasts were collected from supermarkets and wet markets; 42 of these samples were confirmed to be positive for Campylobacter contamination...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499353/transposon-insertion-sequencing-reveals-t4ss-as-the-major-genetic-trait-for-conjugation-transfer-of-multi-drug-resistance-peib202-from-edwardsiella
#10
Yang Liu, Yanan Gao, Xiaohong Liu, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Qiyao Wang, Jingfan Xiao
BACKGROUND: Conjugation is a major type of horizontal transmission of genes that involves transfer of a plasmid into a recipient using specific conjugation machinery, which results in an extended spectrum of bacterial antibiotics resistance. However, there is inadequate knowledge about the regulator and mechanisms that control the conjugation processes, especially in an aquaculture environment where a cocktail of antibiotics may be present. Here, we investigated these with pEIB202, a typical multi-drug resistant IncP plasmid encoding tetracycline, streptomycin, sulfonamide and chloramphenicol resistance in fish pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida strain EIB202...
May 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494870/nontargeted-metabolomics-reveals-the-multilevel-response-to-antibiotic-perturbations
#11
Mattia Zampieri, Michael Zimmermann, Manfred Claassen, Uwe Sauer
Microbes have shown a remarkable ability in evading the killing actions of antimicrobial agents, such that treatment of bacterial infections represents once more an urgent global challenge. Understanding the initial bacterial response to antimicrobials may reveal intrinsic tolerance mechanisms to antibiotics and suggest alternative and less conventional therapeutic strategies. Here, we used mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to monitor the immediate metabolic response of Escherichia coli to a variety of antibiotic perturbations...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483600/phenotypic-and-genotypic-study-of-biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#12
F Fallah, M Yousefi, M R Pourmand, A Hashemi, A Nazari Alam, D Afshar
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent types of nosocomial and community acquired infections in humans. Management of multidrug-resistant Enterococci UTI due to the limited therapeutic options is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The role of bacterial biofilms in recurrent urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance has great importance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern as well as the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm formation ability of Enterococci isolates from patients with UTI...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483510/novel-in-situ-gel-forming-solid-dosage-form-gfsdf-prepared-by-the-simple-syringe-based-moulding-a-screening-study
#13
Margherita Falavigna, Nataša Škalko-Basnet, Cristina Cavallari, Andrea Pini, Barbara Luppi, Massimiliano Pio di Cagno
The aim of this study was to prepare and optimize a novel type of in situ gel-forming solid dosage form (gfSDF) to be used in the treatment of mucosal/skin ulcerations. For this purpose, a simple but reliable syringe-based hot melt/moulding method was employed. Chloramphenicol (antibiotic) and ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory) were chosen as model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to be loaded into the gfSDFs. To optimize the formulations, the gfSDFs of different compositions were studied in terms of APIs release from the matrix, solid-state characteristics, gellification properties and gfSDFs resistance to mechanical stress...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477056/discovery-of-potent-alk-inhibitors-using-pharmacophore-informatics-strategy
#14
Nivya James, K Ramanathan
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase is a tyrosine kinase receptor protein belonging to insulin receptor superfamily. Gene fusions in anaplastic lymphoma kinase are associated with non-small cell lung cancer development. Hence, they are of immense importance in targeted therapies. Thus, for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, effective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors are of great significance. Therefore, our objective is to find hit compounds that could have better inhibitory activity than the existing anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors...
May 6, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470080/genetic-characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-i-staphylococcus-aureus-i-isolated-from-commercial-broiler-chickens-in-the-durban-metropolitan-area-south-africa
#15
Nelisiwe Mkize, Oliver T Zishiri, Samson Mukaratirwa
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in human and veterinary medicine is a serious worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in commercial broiler chickens as well as to establish antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of genetic determinants conferring resistance and virulence. One hundred and ninety-four samples were aseptically collected from broiler chicken slaughterhouses and retail outlets around the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467948/integrating-uhplc-ms-ms-quantification-and-das-analysis-to-investigate-the-effects-of-wine-processing-on-the-tissue-distributions-of-bioactive-constituents-of-herbs-in-rats-exemplarily-shown-for-dipsacus-asper
#16
Yi Tao, Yingshan Du, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai, Liuqing Di, Liyun Shi, Lihong Hu
Wine-processing, which is sauteing with rice wine, will change the inclination and direction of herbs' actions. After being wine-processed, the effects of nourishing liver and kidney of Dipsacus asper will be strengthened. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The following study is to establish and validate an UHPLC-MS/MS approach to determine six bioactive constituents in tissue samples, including loganin, loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid and asperosaponin VI and apply the approach to a comparative tissue distribution study of raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper in rats...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463083/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-isolates-from-chicken-carcasses-in-retail-markets-in-yangon-myanmar
#17
Aung Zaw Moe, Peter Paulsen, Duangporn Pichpol, Reinhard Fries, Herlinde Irsigler, Maximilian P O Baumann, Kyaw Naing Oo
A cross-sectional investigation was conducted concerning prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance patterns, and serovar diversity of Salmonella in chicken meat sold at retail in Yangon, Myanmar. The 141 chicken meat samples were collected at 141 retail markets in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. Information on hygienic practices (potential risk factors) was retrieved via checklists. Salmonella was isolated and identified according to International Organization for Standardization methods (ISO 6579:2002) with minor modifications...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461826/effects-of-clarithromycin-treatment-in-scrub-typhus-in-children-comparison-with-chloramphenicol-and-azithromycin
#18
Min Lee, June Kim, Dae Sun Jo
PURPOSE: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are not recommended for treating scrub typhus in pediatric patients because of potential side effects, such as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. While clarithromycin has recently been used in adults, few reports have been published on its effects in pediatric patients. We report the clinical profiles of pediatric scrub typhus and the effects of clarithromycin on scrub typhus in children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 56 children with scrub typhus who were admitted between 2004 and 2013 to Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456769/neuroprotective-effect-of-resveratrol-against-late-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-oxidative-stress-damage-involves-upregulation-of-osteopontin-and-inhibition-of-interleukin-1beta
#19
H Al Dera
This study was carried out to investigate the expression pattern and role of osteopontin (OPN) in late global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury with or without resveratrol (RES) pre-treatment. Young male rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 12) of I) sham, II) I/R model group and III) I/R + RES. Vehicle and RES (20 mg/kg) were administered to designed groups intraperitoneally 30 days prior global I/R injury (2-VO) induction and continued for 7 days, later. Then, percentages of infarct areas, mRNA levels of OPN, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and other biochemical parameter related to endogenous antioxidants activities and inflammation were measured in the cerebral cortices of all groups...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454005/competitive-sorption-affinity-of-sulfonamides-and-chloramphenicol-antibiotics-toward-functionalized-biochar-for-water-and-wastewater-treatment
#20
Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, John L Zhou, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Md Abu Hasan Johir, Dalel Belhaj
Competitive sorption of sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ) and chloramphenicol (CP) toward functionalized biochar (fBC) was highly pH dependent with maximum sorption at pH ∼4.0-4.25. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Langmuir and Freundlich models in the order STZ>SMX>CP>SMT. Kinetics data were slightly better fitted by the pseudo second-order model than pseudo first-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. Maximum sorptive interactions occurred at pH 4...
April 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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