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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#1
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#2
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902427/phenotypic-and-genetic-characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-tropics-of-southeast-asia
#3
Siti Norayuni Mohd Zulkeflle, Yus Amira Yusaimi, Norio Sugiura, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Motoo Utsumi, Nor'azizi Bin Othman, Zuriati Zakaria, Hirofumi Hara
Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem throughout the world. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital wastewater is cause for great concern today. In this study, 276 S. aureus isolates were recovered from hospital wastewater samples in Malaysia. All of the isolates were screened for susceptibility to nine different classes of antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CFX), gentamicin (GMN), kanamycin (KMN), erythromycin (ERM), vancomycin (VAN), trimetoprim and sulfamethaxazole (TM-SMZ), chloramphenicol (CMP), tetracycline (TET), and nalidixic acid (NAL)...
November 3, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902411/non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-production-and-severity-in-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-mexico
#4
Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Juan Manuel González-Chávez, Elvira Garza-González, Lorena Nefertiti Castro-Fuentes, Jessica Lizzeth Gutiérrez-Ferman, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortíz, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Araceli Soto-Noguerón, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Cristina Liliana Hernández-Balboa, Jorge M Llaca-Díaz, Samantha Flores-Treviño
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common opportunistic bacterial pathogen that primarily infects the respiratory mucosa. This study was conducted to assess clinical and microbiological data related to disease severity in patients with lower respiratory tract infections caused by NTHi in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. NTHi isolates were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation, and analyses of β-lactamase production, genetic relatedness, and biofilm formation. Clinical and demographic data were retrieved from patients' records...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899063/a-simple-sample-preparation-for-simultaneous-determination-of-chloramphenicol-and-its-succinate-esters-in-food-products-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#5
Vasiliy Amelin, Anton Korotkov
A simple method is described for determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using HPLC/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence of not only chloramphenicol but also its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895857/frequency-of-vana-vanb-and-vanh-variants-amongst-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolated-from-patients-in-central-region-of-iran
#6
Jaafar Rezvani, Reza Nasr, Fatemeh T Shamsabadi, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eidgahi
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the VRE frequency and the rate of each gene in isolated enterococci from patients with intestinal infection in the central region of Iran. BACKGROUND: Enterococci infections are a public health growing concern due to the glycopeptide antibiotics resistance especially vancomycin. Genes, vanA, B, and H contribute to the influence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted from January to July 2014 in Shahrood university hospital...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894805/leaching-behavior-of-veterinary-antibiotics-in-animal-manure-applied-soils
#7
Min Pan, L M Chu
Agricultural fields worldwide are being contaminated by the escalating application of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) via animal manure and biosolids applied as fertilizers or of wastewater for irrigation, resulting in soil degradation and damage to the health of terrestrial environments. This paper describes a series of column studies investigating the leaching behavior of five VAs, tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), under different simulated rainfall conditions that could occur in agricultural environments...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893790/detection-of-a-cfr-b-variant-in-german-enterococcus-faecium-clinical-isolates-and-the-impact-on-linezolid-resistance-in-enterococcus-spp
#8
Jennifer K Bender, Carola Fleige, Ingo Klare, Stefan Fiedler, Alexander Mischnik, Nico T Mutters, Kate E Dingle, Guido Werner
The National Reference Centre for Staphylococci and Enterococci in Germany has received an increasing number of clinical linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates in recent years. Five isolates harbored a cfr(B) variant gene locus the product of which is capable of conferring linezolid resistance. The cfr(B)-like methyltransferase gene was also detected in Clostridium difficile. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for cfr(B)-positive and linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates and two isogenic C. difficile strains...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892525/sxt-r391-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-in-proteus-species-reveal-abundant-genetic-diversity-and-multidrug-resistance
#9
Xinyue Li, Yu Du, Pengcheng Du, Hang Dai, Yujie Fang, Zhenpeng Li, Na Lv, Baoli Zhu, Biao Kan, Duochun Wang
SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891157/the-in-vitro-antimicrobial-effects-of-lavandula-angustifolia-essential-oil-in-combination-with-conventional-antimicrobial-agents
#10
Stephanie de Rapper, Alvaro Viljoen, Sandy van Vuuren
The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889172/safety-assessment-of-tetragenococcus-halophilus-isolates-from-doenjang-a-korean-high-salt-fermented-soybean-paste
#11
Do-Won Jeong, Sojeong Heo, Jong-Hoon Lee
We assessed the safety of 49 Tetragenococcus halophilus strains isolated from doenjang in Korea. Minimum inhibitory concentration assays showed that all strains can be considered as susceptible to ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, and vancomycin, but resistant to ciprofloxacin based on the Enterococcus breakpoint values provided by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing in 2015. Ciprofloxacin resistance was sufficiently high to consider the potential for acquisition of transmissible determinants...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888174/phenotypic-and-antibiogram-pattern-of-v-cholerae-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-mumbai-during-2004-2013-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#12
V Torane, S Kuyare, G Nataraj, P Mehta, S Dutta, B Sarkar
OBJECTIVES: Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India)...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887603/genetic-elements-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance-among-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#13
Amal Awad, Nagah Arafat, Mohamed Elhadidy
BACKGROUND: Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. METHODS: A total of 116 APEC were investigated by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance patterns to 10 antimicrobials, and the genetic mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886036/prevalence-assessment-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-from-raw-chicken-eggs-in-haramaya-ethiopia
#14
Jelalu Kemal, Berhanu Sibhat, Sissay Menkir, Desta Beyene
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products, including eggs, is a global public health concern. This study aimed to estimate the levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from chicken eggs and assess consumers' raw egg consumption and farmers' handling practices. METHODOLOGY: A total of 300 egg samples were collected from Haramaya open market (n = 150) and Haramaya University poultry farm (n = 150) in Ethiopia...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882805/free-radical-formation-in-chloramphenicol-heated-at-different-temperatures-and-the-best-thermal-sterilisation-conditions-application-of-epr-spectroscopy-and-uv-spectrophotometry
#15
Paweł Ramos, Barbara Pilawa
Free radicals in thermally treated chloramphenicol were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The parameters and shape of EPR spectra were analysed and free radical concentrations were obtained in the tested drug samples. Chloramphenicol was thermally sterilised at pharmacopoeia conditions: 100°C (120 minutes). Sterilisation was also carried out at different conditions, 110°C (60 minutes) and 120°C (30 minutes), for comparison with pharmacopeia settings. Microbiological analysis was performed on the samples to confirm sterility...
November 24, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881832/hematogenous-calcaneal-osteomyelitis-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Megan L Mooney, Kirk Haidet, Jiayong Liu, Nabil A Ebraheim
: Osteomyelitis in children commonly affects long bones such as the femur, tibia, and humerus. There have been relatively few documented studies of osteomyelitis at unusual locations, such as the calcaneus. The objective of this study is to systematically review information on the diagnostic and treatment methods of calcaneal osteomyelitis as well as associated complications. Methods included research database searches using primarily PubMed and EMBASE databases. Results of the review show no clear approach to diagnosis and treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis in children...
November 23, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876085/onychomycosis-in-diabetic-patients-in-fako-division-of-cameroon-prevalence-causative-agents-associated-factors-and-antifungal-sensitivity-patterns
#17
Marvlyn Eba, Anna Longdoh Njunda, Rene Njikam Mouliom, Emmanuel Tebit Kwenti, Anold Nsoh Fuh, Gordon Takop Nchanji, Julius Atashili
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is an infection of the nail unit by a fungus. This is a very common infection amongst diabetics. Its occurrence among diabetics in Fako division is unknown. In this study we provide information on the characteristics of onychomycosis in diabetics in Fako division, Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical hospital-based study was conducted in two diabetic clinics in the Buea and Limbe regional hospitals. We recruited 152 consenting diabetics into the study...
November 22, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872722/production-of-monoclonal-antibody-against-recombinant-ns3-protein-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-nadl-strain
#18
Masood Reza Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Maryam Ekhtelat, Masood Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Mohsen Lotfi, Mohamad Rashno
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867083/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-among-bacteroides-species-and-parabacteroides-species-in-the-united-states-from-2010-2012-with-comparison-to-2008-2009
#19
REVIEW
D R Snydman, N V Jacobus, L A McDermott, E J C Goldstein, L Harrell, S G Jenkins, D Newton, R Patel, D W Hecht
The susceptibility trends for Bacteroides fragilis and related species against various antibiotics were determined using data from 3 years of surveillance (2010-2012) on 779 isolates referred by 7 medical centers. The antibiotic test panel included imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, linezolid, chloramphenicol and . MICs were determined using the agar dilution CLSI reference method. Carbapenem resistance remained low (range 1...
November 17, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866016/successful-co-encapsulation-of-benzoyl-peroxide-and-chloramphenicol-in-liposomes-by-a-novel-manufacturing-method-dual-asymmetric-centrifugation
#20
Sveinung G Ingebrigtsen, Nataša Škalko-Basnet, Cristiane de Albuquerque Cavalcanti Jacobsen, Ann Mari Holsæter
Encapsulation of more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient into nanocarriers such as liposomes is an attractive approach to achieve a synergic drug effect and less complicated dosing schedules in multi-drug treatment regimes. Liposomal drug delivery in acne treatment may improve drug efficiency by targeted delivery to pilosebaceous units, reduce adverse effects and improve patient compliance. We therefore aimed to co-encapsulate benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and chloramphenicol (CAM) into liposomes using the novel liposome processing method - dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC)...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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