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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818544/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bloodstream-infection-isolates-at-a-large-urban-hospital-in-malawi-1998-2016-a-surveillance-study
#1
Patrick Musicha, Jennifer E Cornick, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil French, Clemens Masesa, Brigitte Denis, Neil Kennedy, Jane Mallewa, Melita A Gordon, Chisomo L Msefula, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance. METHODS: In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016...
August 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813510/construction-of-novel-pjrd215-derived-plasmids-using-chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase-cat-gene-as-a-selection-marker-for-acidithiobacillus-caldus
#2
Rui Wang, Chunmao Lin, Jianqiang Lin, Xin Pang, Xiangmei Liu, Chengjia Zhang, Jianqun Lin, Linxu Chen
BACKGROUND: Acidithiobacillus caldus, a Gram-negative, chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, is widely applied in bioleaching. The absence of an ideal selection marker has become a major obstacle to achieve high efficiency of the gene transfer system for A. caldus. Plasmid pJRD215, widely used in Acidithiobacillus spp., has severe drawbacks in molecular manipulations and potential biosafety issues due to its mobility. Therefore, finding a new selection marker and constructing new plasmids have become an urgent and fundamental work for A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810864/molecular-determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-meat-in-addis-ababa-and-bishoftu-ethiopia
#3
Yohannes Equar Messele, Reta Duguma Abdi, Shimels Tikuye Yalew, Desiye Tesfaye Tegegne, Bezina Arega Emeru, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid
BACKGROUND: Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. METHODS: Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810248/antibiotic-susceptibility-and-molecular-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-o157-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Zonglan Xie, Ziqiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Lusheng Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Chuanjiang Dong
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause diarrhoea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uraemic syndrome. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are good methods for molecular typing and the extensive use of antibiotics is a contributing factor to the increasing incidence of antimicrobial-resistant for these strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic diversity of E...
August 16, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803549/comparative-gut-microbiota-and-resistome-profiling-of-intensive-care-patients-receiving-selective-digestive-tract-decontamination-and-healthy-subjects
#5
Elena Buelow, Teresita D J Bello González, Susana Fuentes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Leo Lahti, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline A M Majoor, Johanna C Braat, Maaike S M van Mourik, Evelien A N Oostdijk, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Mark W J van Passel, Hauke Smidt, Willem van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802217/comparatively-evaluating-the-pharmacokinetic-of-fifteen-constituents-in-normal-and-blood-deficiency-rats-after-oral-administration-of-xin-sheng-hua-granule-by-uplc-ms-ms
#6
Han-Qing Pang, Yu-Ping Tang, Yu-Jie Cao, Ya-Jie Tan, Yi Jin, Xu-Qin Shi, Sheng-Liang Huang, Da-Zheng Sun, Jin Sun, Zhi-Shu Tang, Jin-Ao Duan
Xin-Sheng-Hua Granule (XSHG), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription, are clinically applied for the treatment of postpartum disease through nourishing blood and promoting blood circulation. In this investigation, a multi-constituents (trigonelline, stachydrine hydrochloride, hydroxysafflor yellow A, chlorogenic acid, amygdalin, leonurine, liquiritin, ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, glycyrrhizic acid, senkyunolide A, ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and glycyrrhetinic acid) pharmacokinetic study of XSHG was conducted for the first time...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796905/aerobic-uterine-isolates-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-mares-with-post-partum-metritis
#7
M S Ferrer, R Palomares
BACKGROUND: The potential for life-threatening complications of metritis requires prompt initiation of antimicrobial treatment, often before microbiological test results are reported. However, published studies to guide first-line antibiotic selection are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To report the most frequent bacterial species, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cases of equine metritis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of uterine bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results from mares with metritis...
August 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796877/conjunctival-bacteria-flora-of-glaucoma-patients-during-long-term-administration-of-prostaglandin-analog-drops
#8
Shinichiro Ohtani, Kimiya Shimizu, Ryohei Nejima, Fumie Kagaya, Makoto Aihara, Takuya Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Shoji, Kazunori Miyata
Purpose: To investigate the effects of the long-term use of prostaglandin analogs for glaucoma treatment on the indigenous flora of the conjunctiva. Methods: Bacterial isolates were collected from the conjunctival sacs of 68 patients at Miyata Eye Hospital from February to September 2014, who had been receiving continuous monotherapy with prostaglandin analogs for glaucoma for at least 1 year. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, cefmenoxime, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin against the isolates were measured to determine susceptibility...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795221/development-of-the-first-gene-expression-system-for-salinicoccus-strains-with-potential-application-in-bioremediation-of-hypersaline-wastewaters
#9
Dahe Zhao, Haibo Yang, Junyu Chen, Feiyue Cheng, Sumit Kumar, Jing Han, Ming Li, Jian Zhou, Hua Xiang
Salinicoccus salsiraiae IM408 (=CGMCC13032) is a novel halophilic bacterium that we isolated from the saline soil of Da Gang Oilfield. It tolerates 60 g/l sodium chloride and up to 123 g/l (1.5 M) sodium acetate and has shown a potential application in bioremediation of wastewater with high salt and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Two plasmids, pS408-1 and pS408-2, were identified in S. salsiraiae IM408, and the sequences and copy numbers of the plasmids were determined. Based on these plasmids, two shuttle vectors containing a replicon for Escherichia coli, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol resistance genes, as well as the replicon from pS408-1 or pS408-2, were constructed and named as pTCS101 and pTCS201, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792540/antibiotics-resistance-in-el-tor-vibrio-cholerae-01-isolated-during-cholera-outbreaks-in-mozambique-from-2012-to-2015
#10
Liliana Candida Dengo-Baloi, Cynthia Amino Semá-Baltazar, Lena Vania Manhique, Jucunu Elias Chitio, Dorteia Luísa Inguane, José Paulo Langa
RATIONALE: Mozambique has recorded cyclically epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Antibiotic therapy is recommended in specific situations for management and control of cholera outbreaks. However, an increase in resistance rates to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae has been reported in several epidemic outbreaks worldwide. On the other hand, there are few recent records of continuous surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of V. cholerae in Mozambique. GOALS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during Cholera outbreaks in Mozambique to commonly used antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783901/chloramphenicol-interaction-with-functionalized-biochar-in-water-sorptive-mechanism-molecular-imprinting-effect-and-repeatable-application
#11
Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, John L Zhou, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Md Abu Hasan Johir, Kireesan Sornalingam, M Sahedur Rahman
Biochar and functionalized biochar (fBC-1 and fBC-2) were prepared and applied to remove antibiotic chloramphenicol from deionized water, lake water and synthetic wastewater. Results showed that chloramphenicol removal on biochar was pH dependent and maximum sorption occurred at pH4.0-4.5. The sorption data of chloramphenicol fitted better with the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model with the maximum Langmuir sorption capacity of 233μMg(-1) using fBC-2. Chloramphenicol sorption on fBC-2 followed the trend: deionized water>lake water>synthetic wastewater...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783417/molecular-characterization-of-italian-isolates-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-streptococcus-agalactiae-and-relationships-with-chloramphenicol-resistance
#12
Serena Simoni, Chiara Vincenzi, Andrea Brenciani, Gianluca Morroni, Patrizia Bagnarelli, Eleonora Giovanetti, Pietro E Varaldo, Marina Mingoia
A total number of 368 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) were collected in 2010-2016 from three hospitals in a region of central Italy. Fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant isolates were selected using levofloxacin. Levofloxacin-resistant (LR) strains (11/368, 2.99%) were characterized for several features, and their FQ resistance was analyzed phenotypically and genotypically using seven additional FQs. Their gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions were sequenced...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781944/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-and-serotypes-of-salmonella-spp-isolated-at-jeollanam-do-in-korea
#13
Ki-Bok Yoon, Byung-Joon Song, Mi-Yeong Shin, Hyun-Cheol Lim, Yeon-Hee Yoon, Doo-Young Jeon, Hoon Ha, Soo-In Yang, Jung-Beom Kim
OBJECTIVES: Few long-term studies have been conducted on the serotype and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella speices (spp.) The aim of this study was to determine the serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated at Jeollanam-do in Korea from 2004 to 2014. METHODS: A total of 276 Salmonella samples were evaluated. Serotyping was carried out according to the Kauffmann-White scheme. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Vitek II system with an AST-N169 card...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781237/heterogeneity-of-stop-codon-readthrough-in-single-bacterial-cells-and-implications-for-population-fitness
#14
Yongqiang Fan, Christopher R Evans, Karl W Barber, Kinshuk Banerjee, Kalyn J Weiss, William Margolin, Oleg A Igoshin, Jesse Rinehart, Jiqiang Ling
Gene expression noise (heterogeneity) leads to phenotypic diversity among isogenic individual cells. Our current understanding of gene expression noise is mostly limited to transcription, as separating translational noise from transcriptional noise has been challenging. It also remains unclear how translational heterogeneity originates. Using a transcription-normalized reporter system, we discovered that stop codon readthrough is heterogeneous among single cells, and individual cells with higher UGA readthrough grow faster from stationary phase...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771369/isolation-and-characterization-of-2-4-d-butyl-ester-degrading-acinetobacter-sp-zx02-from-a-chinese-ginger-cultivated-soil
#15
Lin Xiao, Hai-Fei Jia, In-Hong Jeong, Young-Joon Ahn, Yong-Zhe Zhu
Strain ZX02 was isolated from Chinese ginger cultivated soil contaminated with various pesticides, which could utilize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D butyl ester) as the sole carbon source. Based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as well as the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of strain ZX02, the organism belonged to Gram-negative bacterium and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. ZX02. The strain ZX02 showed a remarkable performance in 2,4-D butyl ester degradation (100% removal in <96 h) in pure culture...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771141/risk-factors-and-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-mexico
#16
Sandra Abril Herrera-Heredia, César Pezina-Cantú, Elvira Garza-González, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Laura Paláu-Davila, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Samantha Flores-Treviño
PURPOSE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. Our aim was to evaluate the risk factors and mechanisms associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) resistance in S. maltophilia infections in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: Clinical isolates and patients' demographic and clinical data were collected from February 2007 to August 2015 in two tertiary-care hospitals in Mexico. Antimicrobial susceptibility and analysis of sul and SmeABC and SmeDEF efflux pump overexpression were performed in all isolates...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769915/the-transient-multidrug-resistance-phenotype-of-salmonella-enterica-swarming-cells-is-abolished-by-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-antimicrobial-compounds
#17
Oihane Irazoki, Susana Campoy, Jordi Barbé
Swarming motility is the rapid and coordinated multicellular migration of bacteria across a moist surface. During swarming, bacterial cells exhibit increased resistance to multiple antibiotics, a phenomenon described as adaptive or transient resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, or chloramphenicol, but not that of amikacin, colistin, kanamycin or tetracycline, impair Salmonella enterica swarming. Chloramphenicol-treated S. enterica cells exhibited a clear decrease in their flagellar content, while treatment with other antibiotics that reduced swarming (cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim) inhibited polar chemoreceptor array assembly...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764183/acquired-inhibitor-of-factor-viii-presenting-as-delayed-wound-healing
#18
Sushma Nayar, Kishore Babu Esakkimuthu Parvathi, Mayilananthi Kaliannan, Premlatha Sivasailam
Acquired coagulation factor VIII inhibitor leads to a rare disease i.e., acquired haemophilia which is idiopathic in majority of cases and is seen with autoimmune diseases, haematologic and solid tumours, infections, in the post-partum period and also with certain long-term use of drugs like penicillin and its derivatives, phenytoin, sulfa antibiotics, chloramphenicol, methyldopa, chlorpromazine, levodopa, interferon-α, fludarabine, clopidogrel. We report a case here, with acquired Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitor acquisition which presented with delayed wound healing as a result of protracted bleeding into the wound...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764168/drug-resistance-pattern-in-the-recent-isolates-of-salmonella-typhi-with-special-reference-to-cephalosporins-and-azithromycin-in-the-gangetic-plain
#19
Shesh Raj Patel, Sujit Bharti, Chandra Bhan Pratap, Gopal Nath
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is an endemic disease in India against which many antibiotics are available. In the recent times, emerging resistance to traditional antibiotics, such as Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Azithro-mycin and third generation Cephalosporins are being reported and increasingly being used in the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. However, the latter two drugs have been reported with occasional clinical failures. Currently, we do not have data regarding their drug resistance levels in the recent isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763019/use-of-antibiotics-for-maintenance-of-axenic-cultures-of-amphidinium-carterae-for-the-analysis-of-translation
#20
Chieh-Lun Liu, Allen R Place, Rosemary Jagus
Most dinoflagellates in culture are bacterized, complicating the quantification of protein synthesis, as well as the analysis of its regulation. In bacterized cultures of Amphidinium carterae Hulbert, up to 80% of protein synthetic activity appears to be predominantly bacterial based on responses to inhibitors of protein synthesis. To circumvent this, axenic cultures of A. carterae were obtained and shown to respond to inhibitors of protein synthesis in a manner characteristic of eukaryotes. However, these responses changed with time in culture correlating with the reappearance of bacteria...
August 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
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