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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891373/retrospective-comparison-of-clinical-characteristics-and-in-hospital-outcomes-among-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-adults-with-acute-pyelonephritis
#1
Shailesh C Trivedi, Sanjeev R Phatak, Renu S Trivedi
INTRODUCTION: Acute Pyelonephritis (APN) is a common infection in community. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) may have different effect on clinical characteristics and outcomes of APN compared to non-diabetic individuals. AIM: To compare clinical characteristics and assess outcomes of APN patients with and without DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 122 patients with DM (n=61) and without DM (n=61) was conducted at a single, private, urban set-up from Gujarat, India...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890724/clinical-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-anaerobic-bacteremia-in-an-acute-care-hospital
#2
Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
: This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. MATERIALS & METHODS: Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009-2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing...
November 24, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872080/classical-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-potentiate-the-activity-of-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-colistin-against-acinetobacter-baumannii
#3
George Sakoulas, Warren Rose, Andrew Berti, Joshua Olson, Jason Mungia, Poochit Nonejuie, Eleanna Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak, Joseph Pogliano, Victor Nizet
We asked whether beta-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) increased the activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), peptide antibiotic colistin (COL) against emerging Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, and human host defense peptide cathelicidin LL37 against either pathogen. DAP and LL37 kill curves were performed with or without BLIs against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous-VISA (hVISA). COL and LL37 kill curves were performed against A...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867083/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-among-bacteroides-species-and-parabacteroides-species-in-the-united-states-from-2010-2012-with-comparison-to-2008-2009
#4
REVIEW
D R Snydman, N V Jacobus, L A McDermott, E J C Goldstein, L Harrell, S G Jenkins, D Newton, R Patel, D W Hecht
The susceptibility trends for Bacteroides fragilis and related species against various antibiotics were determined using data from 3 years of surveillance (2010-2012) on 779 isolates referred by 7 medical centers. The antibiotic test panel included imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, linezolid, chloramphenicol and . MICs were determined using the agar dilution CLSI reference method. Carbapenem resistance remained low (range 1...
November 17, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821441/beta-lactamase-inhibitors-enhance-the-synergy-between-beta-lactam-antibiotics-and-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Karl Evans R Henson, Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, George Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak
The evidence for using combination therapy for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is growing. In this study, we investigate the synergistic effect of daptomycin combined with piperacillin+tazobactam and ampicillin+sulbactam against MRSA using time-kill experiments. Six of 8 strains demonstrated synergy between DAP and the β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combination. In 5/8 strains, the synergy occurred only in the presence of the BLI, highlighting a role for BLIs in peptide-beta-lactam synergy...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797327/-investigation-the-role-of-mutations-m182t-and-q39k-in-structure-of-beta-lactamase-tem-72-by-molecular-dynamics-method
#6
D S Shcherbinin, M Yu Rubtsova, V G Grigorenko, I V Uporov, A V Veselovsky, A M Egorov
Synthesis of b-lactamases is one of the common mechanisms of bacterial resistance to b-lactam antibiotics including penicillins and cephalosporins. The widespread use of antibiotics results in appearance of numerous extended-spectrum b-lactamase variants or resistance to inhibitors. Mutations of 92 residues of TEM type were found. Several mutations are the key mutations that determine the extension of spectrum of substrates. However, roles of the most associated mutations, located far from active site, remain unknown...
July 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766023/lower-body-mass-index-is-a-risk-factor-for-in-hospital-mortality-of-elderly-japanese-patients-treated-with-ampicillin-sulbactam
#7
Makoto Miura, Akiko Kuwahara, Akinori Tomozawa, Naoki Omae, Motohiro Yamamori, Kaori Kadoyama, Toshiyuki Sakaeda
Objectives: A retrospective examination was conducted to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality of elderly patients (65 years or older) treated with the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic, ampicillin/sulbactam (ABPC/SBT). Methods: Clinical data from 96 patients who were hospitalized with infectious diseases and treated with ABPC/SBT (9 g/day or 12 g/day) were analyzed. Risk factors examined included demographic and clinical laboratory parameters. Parameter values prior to treatment and changes after treatment were compared between survivors and non-survivors...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572250/involvement-of-the-mex-efflux-pump-in-beta-lactam-antibiotics-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari, Leila Azimi, Malihe Talebi, Fatemeh Fallah, Aslan Bijari, Elnaz Rastegar Lari
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa is being increasing worldwide. Various mechanisms create this cross resistance in this bacterium including, acquisition beta-lactamases and intrinsic mechanisms such as presence of multidrug efflux pumps. Generally, multidrug efflux pumps inhibitor is used as a phenotypic method for detection of active efflux pump systems. METHODS: In this study 100 P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients. Cefepime and imipenem resistant strains were isolated by disc diffusion agar and MIC...
August 29, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528799/ceftazidime-avibactam-a-novel-cephalosporin-nonbeta-lactam-beta-lactamase-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-and-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#9
REVIEW
Jose A Hidalgo, Celeste M Vinluan, Nishaal Antony
There has been greater interest in developing additional antimicrobial agents due to the increasing health care costs and resistance resulting from bacterial pathogens to currently available treatment options. Gram-negative organisms including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are some of the most concerning threats due to their resistance mechanisms: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzymes. Ceftazidime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against P...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458232/crystal-structure-of-the-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-gob-in-the-periplasmic-dizinc-form-reveals-an-unusual-metal-site
#10
Jorgelina Morán-Barrio, María-Natalia Lisa, Nicole Larrieux, Salvador I Drusin, Alejandro M Viale, Diego M Moreno, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Alejandro J Vila
Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are broad-spectrum, Zn(II)-dependent lactamases able to confer resistance to virtually every β-lactam antibiotic currently available. The large diversity of active-site structures and metal content among MBLs from different sources has limited the design of a pan-MBL inhibitor. GOB-18 is a divergent MBL from subclass B3 that is expressed by the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Elizabethkingia meningoseptica This MBL is atypical, since several residues conserved in B3 enzymes (such as a metal ligand His) are substituted in GOB enzymes...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414088/kinetics-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-amoxicillin-clavulanic-acid-and-metronidazole-against-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-bacteroides-fragilis-group
#11
J A García-Rodríguez, J E García Sánchez, I Trujillano, J L Muñoz-Bellido
Bacteroides fragilis group are the most common anaerobic bacteria isolated in clinical specimens. The use of a beta-lactam with a β-lactamase inhibitor should result in a marked increase in the group's sensitivity to the β-lactams. Since the activity (MIC) shown by the amoxicillin + clavulanic acid combination against Bacteroides fragilis group is good, other parameters of in vitro activity have been studied. This study was also done with metronidazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in 26 strains of Bacteroides fragilis group (14 B...
February 1990: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353461/an-evolutionarily-conserved-allosteric-site-modulates-beta-lactamase-activity
#12
Fatma Gizem Avci, Fatma Ece Altinisik, Didem Vardar Ulu, Elif Ozkirimli Olmez, Berna Sariyar Akbulut
Declining efficiency of antibiotic-inhibitor combinatorial therapies in treating beta-lactamase mediated resistance necessitates novel inhibitor development. Allosteric inhibition offers an alternative to conventional drugs that target the conserved active site. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved PWP triad located at the N-terminus of the H10 helix directly interacts with the allosteric site in TEM-1 beta-lactamase and regulates its activity. While point mutations in the PWP triad preserve the overall secondary structures around the allosteric site, they result in a more open and dynamic global structure with decreased chemical stability and increased aggregation propensity...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297743/analysis-of-the-2015-american-and-european-guidelines-for-the-management-of-infective-endocarditis
#13
REVIEW
P Tattevin, J-L Mainardi
The optimal management of infective endocarditis requires a broad range of expertise (infectious disease specialists, cardiologists, microbiologists, cardiac surgeons, and intensivists). Given the low level of evidence currently available to support the management of infective endocarditis, international guidelines have always been particularly awaited and rather well implemented. Their cautious analysis of the medical literature and the range of expertise combined within the groups in charge of these guidelines are usually broadly acknowledged and respected...
December 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238248/antibiotic-consumption-in-turkish-hospitals-a-multi-centre-point-prevalence-study
#14
Ertugrul Guclu, Aziz Ogutlu, Oguz Karabay, Tuna Demirdal, Ibrahim Erayman, Salih Hosoglu, Vedat Turhan, Serpil Erol, Nefise Oztoprak, Ayse Batirel, Fatma Aybala Altay, Gulsum Kaya, Mustafa Karahocagil, Hamdi Sozen, Mustafa Yildirim, Funda Kocak, Bahri Teker
This multi-centre study aimed to determine the antibiotic consumption in Turkish hospitals by point prevalence. Antibiotic consumption of 14 centres was determined using the DDD method. Among hospitalized patients, 44.8% were using antibiotics and the total antibiotic consumption was 674.5 DDD/1000 patient-days (DPD). 189.6 (28%) DPD of the antibiotic consumption was restricted while 484.9 (72%) DPD was unrestricted. Carbapenems (24%) and beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin-sulbactam or amoxicillin-clavulanate; 22%) were the most commonly used restricted and unrestricted antibiotics...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185396/review-of-antibiotic-and-non-antibiotic-properties-of-beta-lactam-molecules
#15
Ochoa-Aguilar Abraham, Ventura-Martinez Rosa, Sotomayor-Sobrino Marco Antonio, Gómez-Acevedo Claudia, Morales-Espinosa María Del Rosario
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam molecules are a family of drugs commonly used for their antibiotic properties; however, recent research has shown that several members of this group present a large number of other effects such as neuroprotective, antioxidant, analgesic or immunomodulatory capabilities. These properties have been used in both preclinical and clinical studies in different diseases such as hypoxic neuronal damage or acute and chronic pain. The present work briefly reviews the antibiotic effect of these molecules, and will then focus specially on the non-antibiotic effects of three beta-lactam subfamilies: penicillins, cephalosporins and beta lactamase inhibitors, each of which have different molecular structure and pharmacokinetics and therefore have several potential clinical applications...
May 17, 2016: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182838/ctx-m-15-type-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-as-causative-agent-of-bovine-mastitis
#16
Faruk Pehlivanoglu, Hulya Turutoglu, Dilek Ozturk
In the present study, 3 quarter milk samples from 3 cows showing clinical signs of mastitis were investigated. Three Escherichia coli were isolated and were found resistant to ceftiofur and cefquinome. The isolates were detected as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL screening test and combined disc method. CTX-M- and TEM-type beta-lactamase genes (blaCTX-M blaTEM) were detected by polymerase chain reaction in the isolates. Sequencing of blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes showed that the isolates were both TEM-1- and CTX-M-15-type beta-lactamase producers...
September 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098166/ceftazidime-avibactam-and-ceftolozane-tazobactam-second-generation-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#17
David van Duin, Robert A Bonomo
Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are 2 novel β-lactam/β-lactamase combination antibiotics. The antimicrobial spectrum of activity of these antibiotics includes multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ceftazidime/avibactam is also active against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases. However, avibactam does not inactivate metallo-β-lactamases such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases. Both ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are only available as intravenous formulations and are dosed 3 times daily in patients with normal renal function...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090172/daptomycin-in-combination-with-ceftolozane-tazobactam-or-cefazolin-against-daptomycin-susceptible-and-nonsusceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-in-vitro-hollow-fiber-model
#18
Jordan R Smith, Anu Arya, Juwon Yim, Katie E Barber, Jessica Hallesy, Nivedita B Singh, Michael J Rybak
Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor with activity against several Gram-negative pathogens. Daptomycin (DAP) has demonstrated synergistic activity with beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with reduced lipopeptide and glycopeptide susceptibilities. Our objective was to determine if DAP and TOL-TAZ possess synergy in hollow-fiber pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models. One isogenic pair of daptomycin-susceptible and daptomycin-nonsusceptible MRSA strains was evaluated...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27078494/frequency-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-food-samples
#19
Yumei Guo, Haijian Zhou, Liyun Qin, Zhizhao Pang, Tian Qin, Hongyu Ren, Zhuo Pan, Jikun Zhou
This study aimed to assess the frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae in food samples and to detect antibiotic resistance phenotypes, antimicrobial resistance genes and the molecular subtypes of the recovered isolates. A total of 998 food samples were collected, and 99 (9.9%) K. pneumoniae strains were isolated; the frequencies were 8.2% (4/49) in fresh raw seafood, 13.8% (26/188) in fresh raw chicken, 11.4% (34/297) in frozen raw food and 7.5% (35/464) in cooked food samples. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against 16 antimicrobials...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025526/treatment-modalities-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-initiatives-in-the-management-of-intra-abdominal-infections
#20
Charles Hoffmann, Matthew Zak, Lisa Avery, Jack Brown
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) commonly results in the empiric use of broad spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems that can select for resistant organisms. This review will discuss the management of uncomplicated and complicated IAIs as well as highlight stewardship initiatives focusing on the proper use of broad spectrum antibiotics...
2016: Antibiotics
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