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Mary K McGahon, José A Fernández, Durga P Dash, Jon McKee, David A Simpson, Alex V Zholos, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
Purpose: Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. Methods: Rat retinal arterioles were isolated for RT-PCR, Fura-2 Ca2+ microfluorimetry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pressure myography studies...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Aakash Garg, Deepti Virmani, Sahil Agrawal, Chirag Agarwal, Abhishek Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis
Heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly prevalent and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFpEF has a complex pathophysiology, with recent evidence suggesting that an interaction of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities (e.g. obesity, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease) induces an inflammatory state that eventually leads to myocardial structural and functional alterations. Current ACCF/AHA guidelines suggest incorporation of biomarkers along with clinical and imaging tools to establish the diagnosis and disease severity in heart failure (HF)...
October 27, 2016: Cardiology
Xin Zhou, Dewu Han, Ruiling Xu, Huiwen Wu, Chongxiao Qu, Feng Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Yuanchang Zhao
We set out to explore the hypothesis that glycine attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats and the possible mechanism by which is it does. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a diet containing high fat and high sucrose (HSHF) for 24 weeks to induce NASH. Blood and liver tissues were sampled at selected time points throughout the study. Compared with control animals, the content of alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma and the TG and FFA content in the liver was increased from week 4 to 24...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Zamaneh Kassiri, Dickson Leung
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a 72-kDa zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase with intracellular and extracellular functions ranging from the modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling to cell growth and migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. An upregulation of MMP-2 activity has the potential to deregulate lipid metabolism through the cleavage of numerous metabolic mediators including plasma lipoproteins and cell surface receptors of lipoproteins. Paradoxically, MMP-2 deficiency induces inflammation and deregulates metabolism...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
C D C Neves, A C R Lacerda, V K S Lage, L P Lima, R Tossige-Gomes, S F Fonseca, E Rocha-Vieira, M M Teixeira, V A Mendonça
Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke seems to be related to an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and changes in muscular and physical performances of healthy smokers. However, these parameters have not yet been evaluated simultaneously in previous studies. The participants of this study were healthy males divided into two groups: smokers (n=20) and non-smokers (n=20). Inflammation was evaluated by measuring plasma levels of the cytokines IL-10, IL-6 e TNF-α, and of the soluble receptors sTNFR1 and sTNFR2...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
P Abreu, K F Vitzel, I C C R Monteiro, T I Lima, A N Queiroz, J H Leal-Cardoso, S M Hirabara, V M Ceccatto
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Olga Volotskova, Larisa Dubrovsky, Michael Keidar, Michael Bukrinsky
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a specific type of partially ionized gas that is less than 104°F at the point of application. It was recently shown that CAP can be used for decontamination and sterilization, as well as anti-cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of CAP on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We demonstrate that pre-treatment of MDM with CAP reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5, inhibiting virus-cell fusion, viral reverse transcription and integration. In addition, CAP pre-treatment affected cellular factors required for post-entry events, as replication of VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1, which by-passes HIV receptor-mediated fusion at the plasma membrane during entry, was also inhibited...
2016: PloS One
Svenja Winzen, James Ciro Schwabacher, Julius Mueller, Katharina Landfester, Kristin Mohr
Surfactants, even in miniscule amounts, are often used for the synthesis and especially the stabilization of nanomaterials, which is essential for in vivo applications. In this study, we show that the interaction between nanoparticles and proteins strongly depends on the type of stabilizing surfactants and their (small) concentration changes. The reaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) stabilized by an ionic or nonionic surfactant - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Lutensol AT50, respectively - was monitored using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
October 26, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Chuanrui Chen, Emil Karshalev, Jinxing Li, Fernando Soto, Roxanne Castillo, Isaac Campos, Fangzhi Mou, Jianguo Guan, Joseph Wang
Transient self-destroyed micromotors that autonomously disappear in biological media at controlled rates upon completing their task, without leaving a toxic residue, are presented. The propulsion and degradation characteristics of the self-destroyed Mg/ZnO, Mg/Si, Zn/Fe Janus micromotors and single-component Zn micromotors are described. The degradation of the Janus micromotors relies on the different corrosion rates of their core-shell components. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP) measurements are used to probe the time-dependent degradation of the different constituents of the micromotors...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Anna Týčová, Vojtěch Ledvina, Karel Klepárník
This review focuses on the latest development of microseparation electromigration methods in capillaries and microfluidic devices coupled with MS for detection and identification of important analytes. It is a continuation of the review article on the same topic by Kleparnik (Electrophoresis 2015, 36, 159-178). A wide selection of 161 relevant articles covers the literature published from June 2014 till May 2016. New improvements in the instrumentation and methodology of MS interfaced with capillary or microfluidic versions of zone electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and isoelectric focusing are described in detail...
October 26, 2016: Electrophoresis
Lumin Sun, Bingyan Lu, Dongxing Yuan, Wenbo Hao, Ying Zheng
Variations in the composition of stable isotopes of mercury contained in tissues (root, stem, leaf, and hypocotyl or flower) of three typical mangrove plants (Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculata, and Bruguiera gymnorhiza), collected from the mangrove wetland of Jiulong estuary, SE China, were used to investigate the sources and transformation of mercury in the mangrove plants. Tissue samples from the plants were digested and mercury in the solution was pre-concentrated with purge-trap method and then analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS)...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rui Li, Yanan Liu, Ruiwen Mu, Wenyan Cheng, Stéphanie Ognier
Petroleum hydrocarbons released to the environment caused by leakage or illegal dumping pose a threat to human health and the natural environment. In this study, the potential of a pulsed corona discharge plasma system for treating petroleum-polluted soils was evaluated. This system removed 76.93 % of the petroleum from the soil in 60 min with an energy efficiency of 0.20 mg/kJ. Furthermore, the energy and degradation efficiencies for the remediation of soil contaminated by single polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, were also compared, and the results showed that this technology had potential in organic-polluted soil remediation...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael J Boivin, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez
There is growing concern that although the more severe forms of HIV-associated neurologic deficits are reduced following highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), mild to moderate cognitive disorders may persist for years after HAART initiation and this may occur despite complete plasma viral suppression. According to the UNAIDS 2014 report, there were 3.2 million children living with HIV around the world at the end of 2013 and 91 % of these resided in sub-Saharan Africa. In the same year, only 24 % of children who needed antiretroviral treatment (ART) received it and 190,000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses...
October 25, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Adelazil de Brito Fabricio Neta, Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento, Caroline Miranda Biondi, Peter van Straaten, Sheila Maria Bretas Bittar
Fernando de Noronha is a small volcanic archipelago in the Southern Atlantic, some 350 km NE of the city of Natal in NE Brazil. These remote volcanic islands represent a largely pristine environment, distant from sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study was carried out to determine the natural concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the A and B horizons of soils of Fernando de Noronha. The aims of the study were twofold: determine whether there is a relationship between the bedrock geology and soils and to establish quality reference values for soils from Fernando de Noronha...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Simran Chahal, Kanchan Vohra, Ashit Syngle
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Autonomic neuropathy is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Sudomotor dysfunction is well established in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and reflects small fibre neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. However, the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and PAD remains unexplored...
October 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
May Garrett, Timothy Taylor, Diane R Mould, Michael A Amantea, Ying Chen, Antonella Ingrosso, Yazdi K Pithavala
PURPOSE: Axitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, is approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Axitinib is partially metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2, which is induced by chronic heavy smoking. The effect of smoking on axitinib pharmacokinetics was evaluated in a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient population with a large number of active and ex-smokers. METHODS: Data were pooled from six clinical studies-serial pharmacokinetics from two healthy volunteer studies (n = 58) and sparse pharmacokinetics from four NSCLC studies (n = 152)-for a nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM v7...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Haiou Qu, Sean W Linder, Thilak K Mudalige
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is considered as a versatile technique in the size-based separation and speciation of nanomaterials. The electrophoretic mobility is determined by charge and size of an analyte which are affected by the surface composition of nanomaterials. Size-dependent differential electrophoretic mobility is used as a mechanism for size-based separation of nanoparticles. Understanding the effect of surface chemistry on the electrophoretic mobility of nanomaterials in CE is critical in obtaining accurate results in retention-based size calculation...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kenji Sanada, Iñaki Zorrilla, Yusuke Iwata, Cristina Bermúdez-Ampudia, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Ana González-Pinto
Several studies have investigated the relationship between non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in schizophrenia patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to review the efficacy of NPIs on peripheral serum and plasma BDNF in subjects with schizophrenia (including schizoaffective disorder). Meta-analyses were conducted to examine the effects of NPIs on blood BDNF levels by using the standardized mean differences (SMDs) between the intervention groups and controls...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tobias Cohen, Toni M Schwarz, Frederic Vigant, Thomas J Gardner, Rosmel E Hernandez, Benhur Lee, Domenico Tortorella
Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that infects many different cell types through an initial binding to cell surface receptors followed by a fusion event at the cell membrane or endocytic vesicle. A recent high-throughput screen to identify compounds that block a step prior to viral gene expression identified podofilox as a potent and nontoxic inhibitor. Time-of-addition studies in combination with quantitative-PCR analysis demonstrated that podofilox limits an early step of virus entry at the cell surface...
October 24, 2016: Viruses
Robin Kobbe, Stein Schalkwijk, Gabor Dunay, Johanna M Eberhard, Ulf Schulze-Sturm, Bettina Hollwitz, Olaf Degen, Marga Teulen, Angela Colbers, David Burger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2016: AIDS
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