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Erin M Warshaw, Solveig L Hagen, Denis Sasseville, Howard I Maibach, Joel G DeKoven, Donald V Belsito, Joseph F Fowler, Kathryn A Zug, James S Taylor, C G Toby Mathias, Anthony F Fransway, Vincent A DeLeo, James G Marks, Melanie D Pratt, Matthew J Zirwas, Frances J Storrs
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatoses are common in mechanic and repair occupations. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among mechanics/repairers patch tested from 1998 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants, and their sources, and (3) compare results among 3 occupational subgroups (mechanics, electrical/electronic, and other). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1998 and 2014...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Joel G DeKoven, Erin M Warshaw, Donald V Belsito, Denis Sasseville, Howard I Maibach, James S Taylor, James G Marks, Joseph F Fowler, C G Toby Mathias, Vince A DeLeo, Melanie D Pratt, Matthew J Zirwas, Kathryn A Zug
BACKGROUND: Patch testing is the most important diagnostic tool for the assessment of allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: This study documents the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch testing results from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014. METHODS: At 13 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a screening series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
R L Openshaw, D M Thomson, J M Penninger, J A Pratt, B J Morris
RATIONALE: Members of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and the upstream kinase MKK7, have all been strongly linked with synaptic plasticity and with the development of the neocortex. However, the impact of disruption of this pathway on cognitive function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we test the hypothesis that reduced MKK7 expression is sufficient to cause cognitive impairment. METHODS: Attentional function in mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7 (Map2k7 (+/-) mice) was investigated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT)...
October 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Fernando J Martinez, Gabriel A Pratt, Eric L Van Nostrand, Ranjan Batra, Stephanie C Huelga, Katannya Kapeli, Peter Freese, Seung J Chun, Karen Ling, Chelsea Gelboin-Burkhart, Layla Fijany, Harrison C Wang, Julia K Nussbacher, Sara M Broski, Hong Joo Kim, Rea Lardelli, Balaji Sundararaman, John P Donohue, Ashkan Javaherian, Jens Lykke-Andersen, Steven Finkbeiner, Frank Bennett, Manuel Ares, Christopher B Burge, J Paul Taylor, Frank Rigo, Gene W Yeo
HnRNPA2B1 encodes an RNA binding protein associated with neurodegeneration. However, its function in the nervous system is unclear. Transcriptome-wide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation in mouse spinal cord discover UAGG motifs enriched within ∼2,500 hnRNP A2/B1 binding sites and an unexpected role for hnRNP A2/B1 in alternative polyadenylation. HnRNP A2/B1 loss results in alternative splicing (AS), including skipping of an exon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) that reduces D-serine metabolism...
October 13, 2016: Neuron
Kyle D Custard, Kerri A Pratt, Siyuan Wang, Paul B Shepson
During springtime, unique halogen chemistry involving chlorine and bromine atoms controls the prevalence of volatile organic compounds, ozone, and mercury in the Arctic lower troposphere. In situ measurements of the chlorine monoxide radical (ClO) and its precursor Cl2, along with BrO and Br2, were conducted using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) near Barrow, Alaska in March 2012. To our knowledge, these data represent the first ClO measurements made using CIMS...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Mangesh I Chaudhari, Jijeesh R Nair, Lawrence R Pratt, Fernando A Soto, Perla B Balbuena, Susan Rempe
Lithium ion solvation and diffusion properties in ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are studied by molecular simulation, experiments, and electronic structure calculations. Studies carried out in water provide a reference for interpretation. Classical molecular dynamics simulation results are compared to ab initio molecular dynamics to as- sess non-polarizable force field parameters for solvation structure of the carbonate solvents. Quasi-chemical theory (QCT) is adapted to take advantage of four-fold occupancy of the near-neighbor solvation structure observed in simulations, and used to calculate solvation free energies...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Johannes Schalamon, Thomas Petnehazy, Herwig Ainoedhofer, Christoph Castellani, Holger Till, Georg Singer
BACKGROUND: In an experimental study the performance of different closed abdominal drainage systems was tested. METHODS: A vacuum bottle designed for Redon Drainage, a flexible plastic bulb designed for Jackson-Pratt drains and a V.A.C.(®) Negative Pressure Wound Therapy System were used. In a porcine cadaveric study mimicking the abdominal cavity the intrinsic pressure (IP) at one and three minutes (T0, T3) and the amount of evacuated fluid were measured. RESULTS: The Redon and Jackson drainage displayed a rapid decline to IP values of almost zero comparing T0 and T3...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Marianne H Gillam, Nicole L Pratt, Maria C S Inacio, Elizabeth E Roughead, Sepehr Shakib, Stephen J Nicholls, Stephen E Graves
Background and purpose - It is unclear whether metal particles and ions produced by mechanical wear and corrosion of hip prostheses with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have systemic adverse effects on health. We compared the risk of heart failure in patients with conventional MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA) and in those with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods - We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs health claims database on patients who received conventional THA for osteoarthritis between 2004 and 2012...
October 19, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Kim T Mueser, Min Kim, Jean Addington, Susan R McGurk, Sarah I Pratt, Donald E Addington
The Quality of Life Scale (QLS) is a frequently used semistructured interview for the assessment of functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Despite the use of the QLS for over 30years, the original 4-factor structure of the instrument (Interpersonal Relations, Instrumental Role, Intrapsychic Foundations, and Common Objects and Activities) has not been rigorously examined. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate the factor structure of the QLS in two independent datasets, including a mixed diagnostic sample of multi-episode participants (N=247), and a sample of individuals with a first episode of psychosis (N=337)...
October 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
J E Dietrich, D L Yee, X M Santos, J L Bercaw-Pratt, J Kurkowski, H Soni, Y J Lee-Kim, M D Shah, D Mahoney, L V Srivaths
BACKGROUND: Bleeding disorders (BD) occur in up to 50% of adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This presents unique challenges to healthcare providers given the complexity of treating the condition and such complexity can result in difficulty with patients understanding basic information about their condition, limit communication with medical providers, and patient compliance. SPECIFIC AIMS: To use an electronic approach to enhance patient compliance with medications used to treat their HMB...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Guy Pratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Lancet Haematology
Chafiq Hamdouchi, Steven D Kahl, Anjana Patel Lewis, Guemalli R Cardona, Richard W Zink, Keyue Chen, Thomas E Eessalu, James V Ficorilli, Marialuisa C Marcelo, Keith A Otto, Kelly L Wilbur, Jayana P Lineswala, Jared L Piper, D Scott Coffey, Stephanie A Sweetana, Joseph V Haas, Dawn A Brooks, Edward J Pratt, Ruth M Belin, Mark A Deeg, Xiaosu Ma, Ellen A Cannady, Jason T Johnson, Nathan P Yumibe, Qi Chen, Pranab Maiti, Chahrzad Montrose-Rafizadeh, Yanyun Chen, Anne Reifel Miller
The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) also known as Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFAR1) is highly expressed in pancreatic, islet cells and responds to endogenous fatty acids resulting in amplification of insulin secretion only in the presence of elevated glucose levels. Hypothesis driven structural modifications to endogenous FFAs, focused on breaking planarity and reducing lipophilicity, led to the identification of spiropiperidine and tetrahydroquinoline acid derivatives as GPR40 agonists with unique pharmacology, selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl, Birgit Spiess, Sven Heldt, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wolfler, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prueller, Robert Krause, Mark Reinwald, Holger Flick, Dieter Buchheidt, Tobias Boch
In recent years galactomannan antigen testing (GM) and also Aspergillus PCR have become increasingly important for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Whether or not these tests need to be performed with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; i.e., primary site of infection), or testing of blood samples is sufficient, remains, however, a matter of debate. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, and Aspergillus PCR by using BALF samples and blood samples obtained at the same day from a total of 53 immunocompromised patients (16 with probable/proven IA and 37 with no evidence of IA according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria; 38 patients with hematological malignancies were prospectively enrolled at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, 15 patients with mixed underlying diseases at the Mannheim University Hospital)...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Greg Huffman, Naseem Al-Aidroos, Jay Pratt
In an exogenous cueing task repeating a non-spatial feature can benefit performance if the feature is task-relevant to a discrimination response. Previous studies reporting this effect have used complex displays. In the current study, we look at the generalizability of this effect, by extending it to a simple exogenous cueing paradigm in which the cue and target displays each consist of single-object onsets. We also investigate the influence of task-relevant and irrelevant features independently within the same experiment...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ameer L Elaimy, Aarif Ahsan, Katherine Marsh, William B Pratt, Dipankar Ray, Theodore S Lawrence, Mukesh K Nyati
Heat shock protein 90 is a chaperone that plays an essential role in the stabilization of a large number of signal transduction molecules, many of which are associated with oncogenesis. An Hsp90 isoform (Hsp90α) has been shown to be selectively phosphorylated on two N-terminal threonine residues (threonine 5 and 7) and is involved in the DNA damage response and apoptosis. However, the kinase that phosphorylates Hsp90α after ionizing radiation (IR) and its role in post-radiation DNA repair remains unclear...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Verina Wild, Bridget Pratt
The ethics of health incentive research-a form of public health research-are not well developed, and concerns of justice have been least examined. In this paper, we explore what potential long term harms in relation to justice may occur as a result of such research and whether they should be considered as part of its ethical evaluation. 'Long term harms' are defined as harms that contribute to existing systematic patterns of disadvantage for groups. Their effects are experienced on a long term basis, persisting even once an incentive research project ends...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Matthew D Hilchey, Jay Pratt, John Christie
Decades of research using Posner's classic spatial cueing paradigm has uncovered at least two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) in the aftermath of an exogenous, peripheral orienting cue. One prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that relate to perception- and action- oriented processes, respectively. Another prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that depend on object- and space- based representation, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Pablo G Sanchez, Chetan Pasrija, Matthew J Mulligan, Mandheer Wadhwa, Diana L Pratt, Tieluo Li, James S Gammie, Zachary N Kon, Si M Pham, Bartley P Griffith
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to create a reproducible lung injury model utilizing injection of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular products. Our goal was to characterize the pathophysiologic response to damage-associated molecular pattern mediated organ injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There remain significant gaps in our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome, in part due to the lack of clinically applicable animal models of this disease. Animal models of noninfectious, tissue damage-induced lung injury are needed to understand the signals and responses associated with this injury...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Y Chen, Kevin K Lehmann, Y Peng, L M Pratt, J R White, S B Cadieux, B Sherwood Lollar, G Lacrampe-Couloume, T C Onstott
In this study, near-infrared continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy was applied to the measurement of the δ(2)H of methane (CH4). The cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) system consisted of multiple DFB laser diodes to optimize selection of spectral line pairs. By rapidly switching measurements between spectral line peaks and the baseline regions, the long-term instrumental drift was minimized, substantially increasing measurement precision. The CRDS system coupled with a cryogenic pre-concentrator measured the δ(2)H of terrestrial atmospheric CH4 from 3 standard liters of air with a precision of ±1...
October 2016: Astrobiology
Jean-Pierre Schaller, Daniela Keller, Laurent Poget, Pascal Pratte, Etienne Kaelin, Damian McHugh, Gianluca Cudazzo, Daniel Smart, Anthony R Tricker, Lydia Gautier, Michel Yerly, Roger Reis Pires, Soazig Le Bouhellec, David Ghosh, Iris Hofer, Eva Garcia, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Serge Maeder
The chemical composition, in vitro genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity of the mainstream aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) were compared with those of the mainstream smoke from the 3R4F reference cigarette. In contrast to the 3R4F, the tobacco plug in the THS2.2 is not burnt. The low operating temperature of THS2.2 caused distinct shifts in the aerosol composition compared with 3R4F. This resulted in a reduction of more than 90% for the majority of the analyzed harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), while the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol remained similar...
October 6, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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