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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087807/field-validation-of-the-los-angeles-motor-scale-as-a-tool-for-paramedic-assessment-of-stroke-severity
#1
Joon-Tae Kim, Pil-Wook Chung, Sidney Starkman, Nerses Sanossian, Samuel J Stratton, Marc Eckstein, Frank D Pratt, Robin Conwit, David S Liebeskind, Latisha Sharma, Lucas Restrepo, May-Kim Tenser, Miguel Valdes-Sueiras, Jeffrey Gornbein, Scott Hamilton, Jeffrey L Saver
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) is a 3-item, 0- to 10-point motor stroke-deficit scale developed for prehospital use. We assessed the convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the LAMS when performed by paramedics in the field at multiple sites in a large and diverse geographic region. METHODS: We analyzed early assessment and outcome data prospectively gathered in the FAST-MAG trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium phase 3) among patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (cerebral ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage) within 2 hours of onset, transported by 315 ambulances to 60 receiving hospitals...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078093/health-communication-implications-of-the-perceived-meanings-of-terms-used-to-denote-unhealthy-foods
#2
Simone Pettigrew, Zenobia Talati, Iain S Pratt
BACKGROUND: Using appropriate terminology in nutrition education programs and behaviour change campaigns is important to optimise the effectiveness of these efforts. To inform future communications on the topic of healthy eating, this study explored adults' perceptions of the meaning of four terms used to describe unhealthy foods: junk food, snack food, party food, and discretionary food. METHODS: Australian adults were recruited to participate in an online survey that included demographic items and open-ended questions relating to perceptions of the four terms...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069006/methods-and-design-of-a-10-week-multi-component-family-meals-intervention-a-two-group-quasi-experimental-effectiveness-trial
#3
Catherine Rogers, Sarah E Anderson, Jamie S Dollahite, Tisa F Hill, Chris Holloman, Carla K Miller, Keeley J Pratt, Carolyn Gunther
BACKGROUND: Given the ongoing childhood obesity public health crisis and potential protective effect of family meals, there is need for additional family meals research, specifically experimental studies with expanded health outcomes that focus on the at-risk populations in highest need of intervention. Future research, specifically intervention work, would also benefit from an expansion of the target age range to include younger children, who are laying the foundation of their eating patterns and capable of participating in family meal preparations...
January 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065738/disability-identity-development-model-voices-from-the-ada-generation
#4
Anjali J Forber-Pratt, Marianne P Zape
BACKGROUND: For persons with disabilities, 2015 was a historic year, marking the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the 40th anniversary of the passing of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It is important to consider the effects of this fundamental shift towards equal opportunity and participation on persons with disabilities' identity development. In practice, however, there are few empirical studies that have looked at this phenomenon and even fewer models of disability identity development...
January 1, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063179/integrated-carbon-sulfur-and-nitrogen-isotope-chemostratigraphy-of-the-ediacaran-lantian-formation-in-south-china-spatial-gradient-ocean-redox-oscillation-and-fossil-distribution
#5
W Wang, C Guan, C Zhou, Y Peng, L M Pratt, X Chen, L Chen, Z Chen, X Yuan, S Xiao
The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South China is a prime target for geobiological investigation because it offers opportunities to integrate chemostratigraphic and paleobiological data. Previous studies were mostly focused on successions in shallow-water shelf facies, but data from deep-water successions are needed to fully understand basinal redox structures. Here, we report δ(13) Ccarb , δ(13) Corg , δ(34) Spyr , δ(34) SCAS , and δ(15) Nsed data from a drill core of the fossiliferous Lantian Formation, which is a deep-water equivalent of the Doushantuo Formation...
January 6, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063136/intervening-response-events-between-identification-targets-do-not-always-turn-repetition-benefits-into-repetition-costs
#6
Matthew D Hilchey, Jason Rajsic, Greg Huffman, Jay Pratt
When there is a relatively long interval between two successive stimuli that must be detected or localized, there are robust processing costs when the stimuli appear at the same location. However, when two successive visual stimuli that must be identified appear at the same location, there are robust same location costs only when the two stimuli differ in their responses; otherwise same location benefits are observed. Two separate frameworks that inhibited attentional orienting and episodic integration, respectively, have been proposed to account for these patterns...
January 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056636/the-price-of-information-increased-inspection-costs-reduce-the-confirmation-bias-in-visual-search
#7
Jason Rajsic, Daryl E Wilson, Jay Pratt
In visual search, there is a confirmation bias such that attention is biased towards stimuli that match a target template, which has been attributed to covert costs of updating the templates that guide search (Rajsic, Wilson, & Pratt, 2015). In order to provide direct evidence for this speculation, the present study increased the cost of inspections in search by using gaze- and mouse-contingent searches, which restrict the manner in which information in search displays can be accrued, and incur additional motor costs (in the case of mouse-contingent searches)...
January 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056539/mothers-perspectives-on-the-development-of-their-preschoolers-dietary-and-physical-activity-behaviors-and-parent-child-relationship
#8
Keeley J Pratt, Catherine Van Fossen, Jennifer Cotto-Maisonet, Elizabeth N Palmer, Ihuoma Eneli
The study explores female caregivers' reflections on their relationship with their child (2-5 years old) and the development of their child's dietary and physical activity behaviors. Five, 90-minute semistructured focus groups were conducted to inquire about children's growth, eating behaviors and routines, physical activity, personality, and the parent-child relationship. Nineteen female caregivers diverse in race/ethnicity, age, and educational attainment participated. Participants reported that they maintained a schedule, but needed to be flexible to accommodate daily responsibilities...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052994/local-delivery-of-the-tlr9-ligand-cpg-down-regulates-host-immune-and-inflammatory-responses-ameliorating-established-leishmania-viannia-panamensis-chronic-infection
#9
Allison K Ehrlich, Olga L Fernández, Daniel Rodriguez-Pinto, Tiago M Castilho, Maria J Corral Caridad, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Nancy Gore Saravia, Diane McMahon-Pratt
Infection by Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, the predominant etiologic agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia, is characterized by a chronic mixed-inflammatory response. Current treatment options are plagued by toxicity, lengthy treatment regimens and growing evidence of drug resistance. Immunotherapy, modulating the immune system to mount a protective response, may provide an alternate therapeutic approach. We investigated the ability of the TLR9 ligand, CpG, to modulate established disease in the L...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050595/cervical-cancer-prevention-training-in-south-east-asian-lmics
#10
Joseph Soon-Yau Ng, Ida Ismail-Pratt
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a confederation of 10 sovereign states occupying approximately 1.7 million square miles of Southeast Asia with an estimated population of just under 630 million. Southeast Asia continues to have one of the world's highest rates of cervical cancer-related death. Organised training in cervical cancer screening is essential but lacking in low to middle income countries (LMICs). Systematic training of local doctors is an essential part of an effective screening program and an effective strategy to reduce cervical cancer-related mortality...
February 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049277/adults-and-children-prefer-a-plate-food-guide-relative-to-a-pyramid
#11
Zenobia Talati, Simone Pettigrew, Sarah Moore, Iain S Pratt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study explored attitudes toward two food guides currently being widely used in Australia: the Healthy Eating Pyramid and the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Plate. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Ten focus groups were conducted with adults (aged 18+ years) and children (aged 10-17 years) across various locations in Perth, Western Australia. The discussions focused on liked and disliked aspects of each food guide and the implications for participants' perceptions of their relative usefulness...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038956/penicillin-acylase-and-o-aryloxycarbonyl-hydroxamates-two-acyl-enzymes-one-leading-to-hydrolysis-the-other-to-inactivation
#12
S A Adediran, R F Pratt
O-Aryloxycarbonyl hydroxamates have previously been shown to covalently inactivate serine/amine amidohydrolases such as class C β-lactamases and a N-terminal hydrolase, the proteasome. We report here reactions between O-aryloxycarbonyl hydroxamates and another N-terminal hydrolase, penicillin acylase. O-Aryloxycarbonyl hydroxamates, as non-symmetric carbonates, have two different leaving groups attached to the reactive central carbonyl group. We propose that these compounds can bind to the active site in either of two orientations and that either leaving group can be displaced from either orientation...
January 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038939/skin-fragility-in-the-wild-derived-inbred-mouse-strain-mus-pahari-eij
#13
C Herbert Pratt, Christopher S Potter, Thomas J Sproule, Raoul V Kuiper, Son Yong Karst, Soheil S Dadras, Derry C Roopenian, John P Sundberg
Mus pahari is a wild-derived, inbred mouse strain. M. pahari colony managers observed fragility of this strain's skin resulting in separation of tail skin from the mouse if handled incorrectly. Tail skin tension testing of M. pahari resulted in significantly lowered force threshold for caudal skin rupture and loss in comparison to closely related inbred mouse species and subspecies and even more than a model for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Histologically, the tail skin separated at the subdermal level with the dermis firmly attached to the epidermis, excluding the epidermolysis bullosa complex of diseases...
December 27, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033079/sustained-improvement-in-right-ventricular-chamber-dimensions-10-years-following-xenograft-pulmonary-valve-replacement
#14
Heidi B Schubmehl, Michael F Swartz, Nader Atallah-Yunes, Carol Wittlieb-Weber, Rebecca E Pratt, George M Alfieris
BACKGROUND: The goals following pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) are to optimize right ventricular hemodynamics and minimize the need for subsequent reoperations on the right ventricular outflow tract. We hypothesized PVR using a xenograft valved conduit would result in superior freedom from reoperation with sustained improvement in right ventricular chamber dimensions. METHODS: Xenograft valved conduits placed in patients aged >16 years were reviewed from 2000 to 2010 to allow for a 5-year minimum follow-up...
January 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032918/illness-management-and-recovery-program-for-mental-health-problems-reducing-symptoms-and-increasing-social-functioning
#15
Chay Huang Sharon Tan, Rohaida Binte Ishak, Tan Xiong Gentatsu Lim, Palaniappan Marimuthusamy, Kuldip Kaurss, Jern-Yi Joseph Leong
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Illness-Management and Recovery Program in comparison to the current standard of care in terms of reduction of symptoms, re-hospitalization rates and social functioning in Asia. BACKGROUND: Focus of treatment for Mental Health had been shifted from mere management of symptoms to that of achievement of recovery. In the recovery process, strategies to achieve higher level of functioning were utilized (McGuire et al...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030516/scotoma-visibility-and-reading-rate-with-bilateral-central-scotomas
#16
Joshua D Pratt, Scott B Stevenson, Harold E Bedell
PURPOSE: In this experiment, we tested whether perceptually delineating the scotoma location and border with a gaze contingent polygon overlay improves reading speed and reading eye movements in patients with bilateral central scotomas. METHODS: Eight patients with age-related macular degeneration and bilateral central scotomas read aloud MNRead style sentences with their preferred eye. Eye movement signals from an EyeLink II eyetracker were used to create a gaze contingent display in which a polygon overlay delineating the area of the patient's scotoma was superimposed on the text during 18 of the 42 trials...
December 27, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029279/recellularization-via-the-bile-duct-supports-functional-allogenic-and-xenogenic-cell-growth-on-a-decellularized-rat-liver-scaffold
#17
Wessam Hassanein, Mehmet C Uluer, John Langford, Jhade D Woodall, Arielle Cimeno, Urmil Dhru, Avraham Werdesheim, Joshua Harrison, Carlos Rivera-Pratt, Stephen Klepfer, Ali Khalifeh, Bryan Buckingham, Philip S Brazio, Dawn Parsell, Charlie Klassen, Cinthia Drachenberg, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina
Recent years have seen a proliferation of methods leading to successful organ decellularization. In this experiment we examine the feasibility of a decellularized liver construct to support growth of functional multilineage cells. Bio-chamber systems were used to perfuse adult rat livers with 0.1% SDS for 24 hours yielding decellularized liver scaffolds. Initially, we recellularized liver scaffolds using a human tumor cell line (HepG2, introduced via the bile duct). Subsequent studies were performed using either human tumor cells co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, introduced via the portal vein) or rat neonatal cell slurry (introduced via the bile duct)...
December 28, 2016: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028777/spatial-attention-is-necessary-for-object-based-attention-evidence-from-temporal-order-judgments
#18
Ian Donovan, Jay Pratt, Sarah Shomstein
Attentional selection is a dynamic process that relies on multiple types of representations. That object representations contribute to attentional selection has been known for decades; however, most evidence for this contribution has been gleaned from studies that have relied on various forms of spatial cueing (some endogenous and some exogenous). It has thus remained unclear whether object-based attentional selection is a direct result of spatial cuing, or whether it still emerges without any spatial marker...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024240/governance-of-global-health-research-consortia-sharing-sovereignty-and-resources-within-future-health-systems
#19
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance...
November 29, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018264/implicit-prosody-and-cue-based-retrieval-l1-and-l2-agreement-and-comprehension-during-reading
#20
Elizabeth Pratt, Eva M Fernández
This project focuses on structural and prosodic effects during reading, examining their influence on agreement processing and comprehension in native English (L1) and Spanish-English bilingual (L2) speakers. We consolidate research from several distinct areas of inquiry-cognitive processing, reading fluency, and L1/L2 processing-in order to support the integration of prosody with a cue-based retrieval mechanism for subject-verb agreement. To explore this proposal, the experimental design manipulated text presentation to influence implicit prosody, using sentences designed to induce subject-verb agreement attraction errors...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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