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premedication children

M Barburoglu, A Arat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is very limited data concerning utilization of flow diverters in children. Our aim is to report results for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms and carotid cavernous fistulas by using flow diverters in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of children (17 years of age or younger) treated with flow diverters between May 2011 and July 2014 was performed. Clinical and laboratory data and angiographic findings were extracted...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
David Smith, High Cheek, Brenda Denson, Christopher M Pruitt
OBJECTIVE: Intranasal (IN) midazolam is a commonly prescribed medication for pediatric sedation and anxiolysis. One of its most frequently-encountered adverse effects is discomfort with administration. While it has been proposed that premedicating with lidocaine reduces this undesirable consequence, this combination has not been thoroughly researched. The objective of our study was to assess whether topical lidocaine lessens the discomfort associated with IN midazolam administration. METHODS: This was a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial performed in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Babita Ghai, Kajal Jain, Akshay Kumar Saxena, Nidhi Bhatia, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing computerized tomography (CT) frequently require sedation to allay their anxiety, and prevent motion artifacts and stress of intravenous (IV) cannulation. AIMS: The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of oral midazolam and intranasal dexmedetomidine as sole premedicants in children for carrying out both IV cannulation as well as CT scanning, without the need for additional IV sedatives. METHODS: Fifty-nine children, aged 1-6 years, scheduled to undergo CT imaging under sedation were randomized to receive either 0...
October 13, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Valérie Zimmermann, Mélanie Porte, Karine Patte
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus on the question of pain induced by injections of botulinum toxin in children. The objective of this study is the evaluation of our practice as well as the resources, which are employed to relieve children, in order to improve a better management of pain. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a six month prospective observational monocentric study. The consent was obtained for each child. The main criterion was the hetero-evaluation of injection related pain with the modified scale FLACC...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Yiquan Lin, Ying Chen, Jingxia Huang, Hongbin Chen, Weihua Shen, Wenjun Guo, Qianru Chen, Hongfeng Ling, Xiaoliang Gan
STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that premedication with a single dose of intranasal dexmedetomidine (DEX) could not only reduce preoperative anxiety but also minimize the emergence agitation in children undergoing cataract surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia. DESIGN: Single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical comparison study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS: Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 children scheduled for cataract surgery...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Ileana Muster, Thorsten Haas, Daniel Quandt, Oliver Kretschmar, Walter Knirsch
Anticoagulation using intravenous bolus administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH) aims to prevent thromboembolic complications in children undergoing cardiac catheterization (CC). Optimal UFH dosage is needed to reduce bleeding complications. We analyzed the effect of bolus UFH on activated clotting time (ACT) in children undergoing CC focusing on age-dependent, anesthesia-related, or disease-related influencing factors. This retrospective single-center study of 183 pediatric patients receiving UFH during CC analyzed ACT measured at the end of CC...
August 11, 2016: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Goran Rakić, Danica Stanić, Anna Uram Benka, Marina Pandurov, Jovana M Simin, Biljana Drasković
INTRODUCTION: Children who are subjected to surgical treatment for scoliosis usually end up receiving a lot of blood transfusions since they tend to lose one or more blood volumes during the surgery. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent, increasingly used in children to reduce perioperative blood loss in various settings, including corrective surgery of scoliosis. CASE REPORT: A 12-year-old girl, weighing 44 kg, was admitted to our hospital for scoliosis correction...
March 2016: Medicinski Pregled
S Prakash, V K Pai, M Dhar, A A Kumar
Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
R Wang, W H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intranasal midazolam premedication on children who undergoing inhaled induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane. METHODS: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA)Ⅰ-Ⅱ children undergoing elective operations in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were randomly assigned into 2 groups, and 50 cases in each group. Patients received different intranasal premedication giving 30 min before anesthesia: midazolam 0...
June 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Aysun Ankay Yılbaş, Banu Ayhan, Seda Banu Akıncı, Fatma Sarıcaoğlu, Ülkü Aypar
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of different intraoperative end-tidal desflurane concentrations on bispectral index (BIS) values in normal children and children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty normal children (Group N) and 20 children with non-communicative/nonverbal cerebral palsy (Group CP), between 2 and 15 years of age, undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery were included in the study. Following premedication with midazolam, anaesthesia was induced by infusing 1% propofol at a rate of 200 mL hr(-1) until BIS reached 50...
December 2013: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Kolathu Parambil Radhika, Melveetil S Sreejit, Konnanath T Ramadas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ravi Bhat, M C B Santhosh, Venkatesh M Annigeri, Raghavendra P Rao
BACKGROUND: Goal of premedication in pediatric anesthesia are relieving pre and postoperative anxiety, good parental separation, and smooth induction of anesthesia. Anxiety can produce aggressive reactions, increased distress, increased postoperative pain and postoperative agitation. The benzodiazepine, midazolam, is the most frequently used premedication in pediatric anesthesia. Midazolam has a number of beneficial effects when used as premedication in children: Sedation, fast onset, and limited duration of action...
May 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Chengxiang Lu, Li-Ming Zhang, Yuehong Zhang, Yanlu Ying, Ling Li, Lixin Xu, Xiangcai Ruan
BACKGROUND: Intranasal dexmedetomidine, a well-tolerated and convenient treatment option, has been shown to induce a favorable perioperative anxiolysis in children. We investigate intranasal dexmedetomidine as a sedative premedication for anesthesia recovery in an adult population. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial; 81 adult patients scheduled for elective suspension laryngoscopy received intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 μg∙kg-1) or a placebo 45-60 min before anesthetic induction...
2016: PloS One
Xiang Wu, Li Hua Hang, Hong Wang, Dong Hua Shao, Yi Guo Xu, Wei Cui, Zheng Chen
PURPOSE: Intranasal dexmedetomidine is an effective sedative for premedication and is regularly used to reduce preoperative tension and anxiety in children. This study aimed to assess the effect of intranasally adjunctive dexmedetomidine on perioperative sedative and analgesic requirements in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into four groups to receive preoperative administration of saline, intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg, and intravenous dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg, respectively...
July 2016: Yonsei Medical Journal
Marco Aurélio Soares Amorim, Catia Sousa Govêia, Edno Magalhães, Luís Cláudio Araújo Ladeira, Larissa Govêia Moreira, Denismar Borges de Miranda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sevoflurane is often used in pediatric anesthesia and is associated with high incidence of psychomotor agitation. In such cases, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used, but its benefit and implications remain uncertain. We assessed the effects of DEX on agitation in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. METHOD: Meta-analysis of randomized clinical and double-blind studies, with children undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using DEX or placebo...
May 4, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
S Gera, J S Dali, K R Sharma, R Garg, M Arya
BACKGROUND: The use of sevoflurane without muscle relaxant for tracheal intubation has been widely investigated in children. Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers have long duration of action and do not provide rapid return of spontaneous ventilation. Use of suc-cinylcholine has been found to be associated with various side-effects especially in children. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the effect of propofol 1.5 mg/kg without muscle relaxant, on intubating conditions in children 2-8 yrs of age and we compare them with those achieved with rocuronium 0...
2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica
N Al-Yateem, M Brenner, A A Shorrab, C Docherty
BACKGROUND: Perioperative experience can be one of the most distressful experiences in a child's life if not managed properly by healthcare professionals. Its consequences can extend well beyond surgery and recovery into the child's future life. Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to decrease the anxiety associated with this experience, improve the child's and the parent's experience and prevent negative consequences. This has traditionally been performed through pharmacological treatment which might have negative side effects...
July 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Laure Elens, Elisabeth Norman, Maja Matic, Anders Rane, Vineta Fellman, Ron H N van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in pain control might predispose to exaggerated sensitivity or difference in opioid analgesic effect. The relevance of the KCNJ6 -1250G>A (rs6517442, c.-1787G>A) and the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) c.472G>A (rs4680, ValMet) single-nucleotide polymorphisms were studied in preterm infants needing intubation and randomized to a premedication strategy including remifentanil (n = 17) or morphine (n = 17). METHODS: Pain was scored with Astrid Lindgren and Lund Children's Hospital Pain Assessment Scale every 30 minutes for 6 hours...
August 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Daniel J Pallin, Richard C Dwyer, Ron M Walls, Calvin A Brown
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe emergency department (ED) intubation practices for children younger than 16 years through multicenter prospective surveillance. METHODS: Academic and community EDs in the United States, Canada, and Australia recorded data electronically, from 2002 to 2012, with verified greater than or equal to 90% reporting. RESULTS: Ten of 18 participating centers provided qualifying data, reporting 1,053 encounters. Emergency physicians initiated 85% of intubations...
May 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Karolline A Viana, Anelise Daher, Lucianne C Maia, Paulo S Costa, Carolina C Martins, Saul M Paiva, Luciane R Costa
BACKGROUND: Some sedatives used in children and adolescents can affect memory function. Memory impairment of traumatic experience can minimize the chance of future psychological trauma. Knowledge about the potential of different sedatives to produce amnesia can help in the decision-making process of choosing a sedative regimen. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of different sedatives on memory of perioperative events in children and adolescents. METHODS/DESIGN: Electronic databases and other sources, such as trial registers, gray literature, and conference abstracts will be searched...
2016: Systematic Reviews
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