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IBD-associated colorectal cancer

Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Rachelle N Damle, Julie M Flahive, Jennifer S Davids, Justin A Maykel, Paul R Sturrock, Karim Alavi
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in outcomes are well described among surgical patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to identify any racial disparities in the receipt of a minimally invasive approach for colorectal surgery. DESIGN: Adults undergoing colorectal surgery were studied using the University HealthSystem Consortium. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to identify predictors for the receipt of a minimally invasive approach...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Malgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Sabina Gorska, Dorota Diakowska, Bartosz Kapturkiewicz, Magdalena Podkowik, Andrzej Gamian, Iwona Bednarz-Misa
Midkine is a multifunctional cytokine and growth factor displaying proinflammatory and pro-tumorigenic activity. Its association with bowel diseases has not been fully elucidated. Our purpose was to delineate midkine expression pattern by RT-qPCR in inflamed/cancerous bowel (n=208) and whole blood (n=150) in colorectal cancer (CRC), Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to evaluate midkine dynamics in early postoperative period following colorectal surgery. The expression of midkine was significantly up-regulated in stage III CRC and independently associated with lymph node metastasis...
September 28, 2016: Cytokine
Parambir S Dulai, William J Sandborn, Samir Gupta
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of mucosal inflammation. This chronic mucosal inflammation has several potential consequences, one of which is the occurrence of colitis associated colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past decade our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and overall approach to diagnosing and managing colitis associated CRC, has grown considerably. In the current review article, we outline these advancements and highlight areas in need of further research...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Gut dysbiosis may result in various diseases, such as metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), especially during development, may also increase the risk for such disorders. An unexplored possibility is that EDC-exposure might alter the gut microbial composition. Gut flora and their products may thus be mediating factors for the disease-causing effects of these chemicals. To examine the effects of EDCs on the gut microbiome, female and male monogamous and biparental California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were exposed to BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or EE (0...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Montserrat Fraga, Nicolas Fournier, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Valérie Pittet, Sébastien Godat, Alex Straumann, Andreas Nydegger, Stephan R Vavricka, Darius Moradpour, Alain M Schoepfer
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) represents the most common hepatobiliary extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to assess the prevalence of PSC in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study, to identify associated risk factors, and to describe the long-term evolution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of patients enrolled into the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify risk factors for PSC...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lauranne A A P Derikx, Lisa J T Smits, Shannon van Vliet, Evelien Dekker, Cora M Aalfs, Mariëtte C A van Kouwen, Fokko M Nagengast, Iris D Nagtegaal, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Frank Hoentjen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lynch Syndrome (LS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Whether CRC risk is further increased in patients with both LS and IBD is unknown. We therefore aimed to establish CRC risk in this subgroup. METHODS: A multicenter LS cohort was established and linked to PALGA (Dutch nationwide Pathology Registry) to identify those having IBD. Subsequently, we compared CRC risk in LS patients with IBD (cases) and without IBD (controls)...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Halima Cheddani, Luc Dauchet, Mathurin Fumery, Cloé Charpentier, Anne Marie Bouvier, Jean-Louis Dupas, Benjamin Pariente, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Guillaume Savoye, Corinne Gower-Rousseau
OBJECTIVES: Cancer may be a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or its treatment. In elderly onset IBD patients the risk of malignancy is of particular concern. We studied this risk in a population-based cohort of elderly onset IBD patients. METHODS: In a French population-based cohort, we identified 844 patients aged >60 years at IBD diagnosis from 1988 to 2006, including 370 Crohn's disease (CD) and 474 ulcerative colitis (UC). We compared incidence of cancer among IBD patients with that observed in the French Network of population-based Cancer Registries (FRANCIM)...
October 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Carol J Díaz-Díaz, Sean M Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Manabu Nukaya, Peter G Geiger, Silvia Balbo, Romel Dator, Bryant W Megna, Patrick R Carney, Christopher A Bradfield, Gregory D Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis. BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in United States. Chronic intestinal inflammation increases the risk for the development of CRC. We investigated the involvement of AHR, a ligand-activated transcriptional regulator, in colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis. METHODS: We used a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis that employs treatment with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate...
September 2016: Annals of Surgery
Francesco De Francesco, Maurizio Romano, Laura Zarantonello, Cesare Ruffolo, Daniele Neri, Nicolò Bassi, Antonio Giordano, Giacomo Zanus, Giuseppe A Ferraro, Umberto Cillo
Inflammatory bowel diseases are an increasing phenomenon in western countries and in growing populations. The physiopathology of these conditions is linked to intestinal stem cells homeostasis and regenerative potential in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment. Patients with IBD present an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), or colitis associated cancer (CAC). Conventional treatment for IBD target the inflammatory process (and include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs) with biological agents emerging as a therapeutic approach for non-responders to traditional therapy...
September 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Valery Hrad, Yoftahe Abebe, Syed Haris Ali, Jared Velgersdyk, Mohammed Al Hallak, Mohamad Imam
Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Mayuko Yamamoto, Satoshi Matsumoto
The mucosal immune system is unique to the gastrointestinal mucosa, in which a large number of immune cells are located and exert multiple functions. Meanwhile, ~100 trillion microorganisms are thought to co-inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, immune cells and gut microbiota have a mutual influence and the maintenance of this symbiotic relationship results in gut homeostasis. A recent study suggested that a disturbance of gut microbiota-so called "dysbiosis"-is related to various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated cancer (CAC)...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Chelle L Wheat, Kindra Clark-Snustad, Beth Devine, David Grembowski, Timothy A Thornton, Cynthia W Ko
Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Sasha Taleban, Emad Elquza, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Cancer may be a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or its treatments. In older Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients, the risk of malignancy is of particular concern. IBD diagnosis at an advanced age is associated with earlier development of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Thiopurine use in older IBD patients is tied to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer, and urinary tract cancers. Additionally, older age is accompanied by multimorbidity, an increased risk of malnutrition, and decreased life expectancy, factors that complicate the management of cancer in the elderly...
October 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Mohannad Dugum, Jingmei Lin, Rocio Lopez, Bassam Estfan, Elena Manilich, Luca Stocchi, Bo Shen, Xiuli Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Studies have shown tumorigenetic and histomorphological differences between IBD-associated CRC and non-IBD CRC, suggesting differences in tumor behavior and response to treatment. We aimed to compare tumor recurrence and survival rates following postoperative chemotherapy in CRC patients with and without IBD. METHODS: Search of the Cleveland Clinic's CRC database revealed 65 patients who had IBD-associated CRC and received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy between 1994 and 2010...
June 8, 2016: Gastroenterology Report
Jordan E Axelrad, Simon Lichtiger, Vijay Yajnik
In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The pathogenesis of colitis-associated cancer is distinct from sporadic colorectal carcinoma and the critical molecular mechanisms underlying this process have yet to be elucidated. Patients with IBD have also been shown to be at increased risk of developing extra-intestinal malignancies. Medical therapies that diminish the mucosal inflammatory response represent the foundation of treatment in IBD, and recent evidence supports their introduction earlier in the disease course...
May 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nathalie Vergnolle
The GI tract is the most exposed organ to proteases, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. For digestive purposes, the lumen of the upper GI tract contains large amounts of pancreatic proteases, but studies have also demonstrated increased proteolytic activity into mucosal tissues (both in the upper and lower GI tract), associated with pathological conditions. This review aims at outlining the evidences for dysregulated proteolytic homeostasis in GI diseases and the pathogenic mechanisms of increased proteolytic activity...
July 2016: Gut
Amit Kumar, Pragna Lakshmi Thotakura, Basant Kumar Tiwary, Ramadas Krishna
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its association with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Treatment with berberine was shown to reverse F. nucleatum-induced CRC progression in mice by balancing the growth of opportunistic pathogens in tumor microenvironment. Intestinal microbiota imbalance and the infections caused by F. nucleatum might be regulated by therapeutic intervention...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Tim R A van den Heuvel, Dion S J Wintjens, Steven F G Jeuring, Maartje H H Wassink, Marielle J L Romberg-Camps, Liekele E Oostenbrug, Silvia Sanduleanu, Wim H Hameeteman, Maurice P Zeegers, Ad A Masclee, Daisy M Jonkers, Marie J Pierik
The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sushil K Garg, Edward V Loftus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been increasing use of immunosuppressive medications as well as better surveillance techniques in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is associated with an increased risk of intestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. We assessed the temporal trends of cancer incidence in IBD patients by reviewing the biomedical literature, performing meta-regression of existing studies, and examining trends in hospitalizations for cancer in IBD patients using a national hospitalization database...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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