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Strobilurins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909323/evaluating-subchronic-toxicity-of-fluoxastrobin-using-earthworms-eisenia-fetida
#1
Cheng Zhang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang, Jinhua Wang, Zhongkun Du, Bing Li, Tongtong Zhou, Chao Cheng, Zuobin Wang
Potential toxicity to soil organisms by fluoxastrobin, a new strobilurin-type fungicide has drawn increasing attention. Thus, the present study investigated the subchronic toxicity induced by exposure to several concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.5 mg kg-1 ) of fluoxastrobin to earthworms on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Biochemical indicators (e.g., reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, activities of antioxidase and detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase), lipid peroxidation (malonaldehyde) and degree of DNA damage) were measured...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896796/synthesis-of-carbon-14-labelled-zj0712-a-novel-strobilurin-fungicide
#2
Zheng-Min Yang, Ya-Jun Xu, Gui-Hua Zhang, Cai-Guang Jian, Li Xiao, Qing-Fu Ye
ZJ0712, a broad-spectrum fungicidal ingredient of strobilurin, exhibits a high protective and curative activity against plant pathogenic fungi. To support the study on its metabolism, residue, environmental behavior and fate for safety evaluation, two versions of carbon-14 labelled ZJ0712, methyl (E)-2-(2-((2,5-dimethylphenoxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxy[2-14 C] acrylate (2) and methyl (E)-2-(2-((2,5-dimethyl [phenyl-U-14 C6 ]phenoxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate (3), were synthesized from barium [14 C] carbonate in six-step yield of 47% and from 2,5-dimethyl [phenyl-U-14 C6 ] phenol in the yield of 91%, respectively...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859490/developmental-toxicity-oxidative-stress-and-immunotoxicity-induced-by-three-strobilurins-pyraclostrobin-trifloxystrobin-and-picoxystrobin-in-zebrafish-embryos
#3
Hui Li, Fangjie Cao, Feng Zhao, Yang Yang, Miaomiao Teng, Chengju Wang, Lihong Qiu
Strobilurins is the most widely used class of fungicides, but is reported highly toxic to some aquatic organisms. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range concentrations of three strobilurins (pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and picoxystrobin) for 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) to assess their aquatic toxicity. The 96-h LC50 values of pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and picoxystrobin to embryos were 61, 55, 86 μg/L, respectively. A series of symptoms were observed in developmental embryos during acute exposure, including decreased heartbeat, hatching inhibition, growth regression, and morphological deformities...
May 25, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843034/effects-of-two-strobilurins-azoxystrobin-and-picoxystrobin-on-embryonic-development-and-enzyme-activities-in-juveniles-and-adult-fish-livers-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#4
Wei Jia, Liangang Mao, Lan Zhang, Yanning Zhang, Hongyun Jiang
Azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin are two primary strobilurin fungicides used worldwide. This study was conducted to test their effects on embryonic development and the activity of several enzyme in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). After fish eggs were separately exposed to azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin from 24 to 144 h post fertilization (hpf), the mortality, hatching, and teratogenetic rates were measured. Additionally, effects of azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin on activities of three important antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD)] and two primary detoxification enzymes [carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish larvae (96 h) and livers of adult zebrafish of both sexes were also assessed for potential toxicity mechanisms...
May 24, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801790/suppression-of-wheat-fusarium-head-blight-by-novel-amphiphilic-aminoglycoside-fungicide-k20
#5
Jon Y Takemoto, Stephen N Wegulo, Gary Y Yuen, Julie A Stevens, Charlene C Jochum, Cheng-Wei T Chang, Yukie Kawasaki, Gene W Miller
K20 is a novel amphiphilic aminoglycoside capable of inhibiting many fungal species. K20's capabilities to inhibit Fusarium graminearum the causal agent wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) and to this disease were examined. K20 inhibited the growth of F. graminearum (minimum inhibitory concentrations, 7.8-15.6 mg L-1 ) and exhibited synergistic activity when combined with triazole and strobilurin fungicides. Application of K20 up to 720 mg L-1 to wheat heads in the greenhouse showed no phytotoxic effects. Spraying wheat heads in the greenhouse with K20 alone at 360 mg L-1 lowered FHB severity below controls while combining K20 with half-label rates of Headline (pyraclostrobin) improved its disease control efficacy...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801215/degradation-and-metabolic-profiling-for-benzene-kresoxim-methyl-using-carbon-14-tracing
#6
Likun Wang, Jinhao Zhao, Laura Delgado-Moreno, Jingli Cheng, Yichen Wang, Sufen Zhang, Qingfu Ye, Wei Wang
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is an effective strobilurin fungicide for controlling fungal pathogens but limited information is available on its degradation and metabolism. This study explored the degradation and metabolic profiling for BKM in soils by carbon-14 tracing and HPLC-TOF-MS2 analyzing. Results indicated that 88%-98% of 14 C-BKM remained as parent or incomplete intermediates after 100 days. Three main radioactive metabolites (M1 to M3, ≥90%) and three subordinate radioactive metabolites (Ma to Mc, ≤2%) were observed, along with a non-radioactive metabolite M4...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777123/synthesis-fungicidal-activity-structure-activity-relationships-sars-and-density-functional-theory-dft-studies-of-novel-strobilurin-analogues-containing-arylpyrazole-rings
#7
Yuanyuan Liu, Kunzhi Lv, Yi Li, Qiuli Nan, Jinyuan Xu
A series of novel strobilurin analogues (1a-1f, 2a-2e, 3a-3e) containing arylpyrazole rings were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 1f, 2b and 3b were also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These analogues were collected together with other twenty-eight similar compounds 4a-4f, 5a-5h, 6a-6h and 7a-7f from our previous studies, for in vitro bioassays and thorough structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies. Most compounds exhibited excellent-to-good fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, especially 5c, 7a, 6c, and 3b with 98...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741370/design-synthesis-antiviral-bioactivity-and-defense-mechanisms-of-novel-dithioacetal-derivatives-bearing-a-strobilurin-moiety
#8
Jin Chen, Jing Shi, Lu Yu, Dengyue Liu, Xiuhai Gan, Song Baoan, De-Yu Hu
A series of dithioacetal derivatives bearing a strobilurin moiety were designed and synthesized on the basis of our previous work. The antiviral activities of these compounds against Potato virus Y (PVY), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were systematically evaluated. Bioassay results indicated that C14 elicited excellent curative and protective activities against PVY, CMV, and TMV. The former had 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 125.3, 108.9, and 181.7 μg/mL, respectively, and the latter had 148...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653384/acute-toxicity-and-associated-mechanisms-of-four-strobilurins-in-algae
#9
Xiaoxu Liu, Yu Wang, Hao Chen, Junli Zhang, Chengju Wang, Xuefeng Li, Sen Pang
Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434356/stress-and-sexual-reproduction-affect-the-dynamics-of-the-wheat-pathogen-effector-avrstb6-and-strobilurin-resistance
#10
Gerrit H J Kema, Amir Mirzadi Gohari, Lamia Aouini, Hesham A Y Gibriel, Sarah B Ware, Frank van den Bosch, Robbie Manning-Smith, Vasthi Alonso-Chavez, Joe Helps, Sarrah Ben M'Barek, Rahim Mehrabi, Caucasella Diaz-Trujillo, Elham Zamani, Henk J Schouten, Theo A J van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Maarten A de Waard, Pierre J G M de Wit, Els C P Verstappen, Bart P H J Thomma, Harold J G Meijer, Michael F Seidl
Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We demonstrate that the Z. tritici-wheat interaction complies with the gene-for-gene model by identifying the effector AvrStb6, which is recognized by the wheat resistance protein Stb6. Recognition triggers host resistance, thus implying removal of avirulent strains from pathogen populations. However, Z. tritici crosses on wheat show that sex occurs even with an avirulent parent, and avirulence alleles are thereby retained in subsequent populations...
March 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407742/single-and-mixture-toxicity-of-strobilurin-and-sdhi-fungicides-to-xenopus-tropicalis-embryos
#11
Siyu Wu, Lili Lei, Mengting Liu, Yang Song, Shibo Lu, Dan Li, Huahong Shi, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Defu He
The decline in amphibian populations is a critical threat to global biodiversity, and pesticide pollution is considered as one of the major factors. Although effects of single pesticides on amphibians have been documented, toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of pesticides have not been well elucidated. Strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are new types of commonly used pesticides. In this study, effects of three strobilurins (pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin), two SDHIs (isopyrazam and bixafen), and their mixtures on X...
May 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349621/adsorption-and-leaching-of-novel-fungicide-pyraoxystrobin-on-soils-by-14-c-tracing-method
#12
Xunyue Liu, Huiming Wu, Tingting Hu, Xia Chen, Xingcheng Ding
Pyraoxystrobin, (E)-2-(2-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yloxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate, is a newly developed strobilurin fungicide with high antifungal efficiency. It has high potential to enter soil environments that might subsequently impact surface and groundwater. Therefore, 14 C-labeled pyraoxystrobin was used as a tracer to study the adsorption/desorption and migration behavior of this compound under laboratory conditions in three typical agricultural soils. The adsorption isotherms conformed with the Freundlich equation...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304412/developmental-toxicity-and-potential-mechanisms-of-pyraoxystrobin-to-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
Hui Li, Song Yu, Fangjie Cao, Chengju Wang, Mingqi Zheng, Xuefeng Li, Lihong Qiu
As a newly developed, highly efficient strobilurin fungicide, pyraoxystrobin has been reported to be highly toxic to some aquatic organisms. However, the toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of fish and the potential underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Hence, in the present study, the acute toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of zebrafish (embryo, larva, and adult) was assessed. The developmental toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to zebrafish embryos and its effects on gene transcription in the embryo were also investigated...
April 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202416/evaluation-of-the-toxic-response-induced-by-azoxystrobin-in-the-non-target-green-alga-chlorella-pyrenoidosa
#14
Tao Lu, Youchao Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Mingjing Ke, Meng Zhang, Chengxia Tan, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
The top-selling strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZ), is a broad-spectrum fungicide that protects against many kinds of pathogenic fungi by preventing their ATP production. The extensive use of AZ can have negative consequences on non-target species and its effects and toxic mechanisms on algae are still poorly understood. In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa that had been grown in BG-11 medium was exposed to AZ (0.5-10 mg L-1 ) for 10 d. The physiological and molecular responses of the algae to AZ treatment, including photosynthetic efficiency, lipid peroxidation level, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcriptome-based analysis of gene expression, were examined to investigate the potential toxic mechanism...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048855/-determination-of-strobilurin-fungicides-in-fruits-and-their-mass-fragmentation-routes-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Yao Zhou, Huiqin Yang, Yiyin Shi, Jiaxian Chen, Jian Zhu, Xiaojun Deng, Dehua Guo
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six strobilurin fungicide (E-metominostrobin, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) residues in orange, banana, apple and pineapple samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The fragmentation routes of all the compounds were explained by the aid of a fragment predicting software ACD Lab/MS Fragmenter. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile, then cleaned up by amino solid phase extraction cartridges (SupelClean LC-NH2)...
September 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960782/characterization-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-fungicide-fenpicoxamid-and-its-metabolite-uk-2a
#16
David H Young, Nick X Wang, Stacy T Meyer, Cruz Avila-Adame
BACKGROUND: Fenpicoxamid is a new fungicide for control of Zymoseptoria tritici, and is a derivative of the natural product UK-2A. Its mode of action and target site interactions have been investigated. RESULTS: UK-2A strongly inhibited cytochrome c reductase, whereas fenpicoxamid was much less active, consistent with UK-2A being the fungicidally active species generated from fenpicoxamid by metabolism. Both compounds caused rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in Z...
February 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921992/mechanistic-understanding-of-the-synergistic-potential-of-azole-fungicides-in-the-aquatic-invertebrate-gammarus-pulex
#17
Andrea Rösch, Michele Gottardi, Caroline Vignet, Nina Cedergreen, Juliane Hollender
Azole fungicides are known inhibitors of the important enzyme class cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), thereby influencing the detoxification of co-occurring substances via biotransformation. This synergism in mixtures containing an azole has mostly been studied by effect measurements, while the underlying mechanism has been less well investigated. In this study, six azole fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, ketoconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole) were selected to investigate their synergistic potential and their CYP inhibition strength in the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835008/thiamethoxam-and-picoxystrobin-reduce-the-survival-and-overload-the-hepato-nephrocitic-system-of-the-africanized-honeybee
#18
Caio E C Domingues, Fábio Camargo Abdalla, Paulo José Balsamo, Beatriz V R Pereira, Moema de Alencar Hausen, Monica Jones Costa, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin
Apis mellifera perform important pollination roles in agroecosystems. However, there is often intensive use of systemic pesticides in crops, which can be carried to the colony by forage bees through the collection of contaminated pollen and nectar. Inside the colony, pollen loads are stored by bees that add honey and several enzymes to this pollen. Nevertheless, intra-colonial chronic exposure could induce sublethal effects in young bees exposed to a wide range of pesticides present in these pollen loads. This study was aimed to both determine the survival rate and evaluate the sublethal effects on the hepato-nephrocitic system in response to continuous oral exposure to lower concentrations of neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (TXT) and picoxystrobin fungicide (PXT)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724104/fate-characterization-of-benzene-kresoxim-methyl-a-strobilurin-fungicide-in-different-aerobic-soils
#19
Jinhao Zhao, Likun Wang, Jingli Cheng, Wei Wang, Qingfu Ye
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a promising broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide widely used to control fungal pathogens in crops. However, information on its environmental fate is limited. To broaden our understanding of this fungicide's kinetic fate in aerobic soils, we labeled BKM with C on its benzoate ring and used ultralow-level liquid scintillation counting coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results show that degradation, mineralization, and bound residue (BR) formation of BKM was controlled by soil type and microbial community composition...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567017/azoxystrobin-induces-apoptosis-of-human-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-kyse-150-cells-through-triggering-of-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#20
Xiao-Ke Shi, Xiao-Bo Bian, Tao Huang, Bo Wen, Ling Zhao, Huai-Xue Mu, Sarwat Fatima, Bao-Min Fan, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Lin-Fang Huang, Cheng-Yuan Lin
Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis are potential chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Azoxystrobin (AZOX), a methoxyacrylate derived from the naturally occurring strobilurins, is a known fungicide acting as a ubiquinol oxidation (Qo) inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex III. In this study, the effects of AZOX on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 cells were examined and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. AZOX exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation of KYSE-150 cells with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of 2...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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