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Strobilurins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202416/evaluation-of-the-toxic-response-induced-by-azoxystrobin-in-the-non-target-green-alga-chlorella-pyrenoidosa
#1
Tao Lu, Youchao Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Mingjing Ke, Meng Zhang, Chengxia Tan, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
The top-selling strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZ), is a broad-spectrum fungicide that protects against many kinds of pathogenic fungi by preventing their ATP production. The extensive use of AZ can have negative consequences on non-target species and its effects and toxic mechanisms on algae are still poorly understood. In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa that had been grown in BG-11 medium was exposed to AZ (0.5-10 mg L-1) for 10 d. The physiological and molecular responses of the algae to AZ treatment, including photosynthetic efficiency, lipid peroxidation level, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcriptome-based analysis of gene expression, were examined to investigate the potential toxic mechanism...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048855/-determination-of-strobilurin-fungicides-in-fruits-and-their-mass-fragmentation-routes-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Yao Zhou, Huiqin Yang, Yiyin Shi, Jiaxian Chen, Jian Zhu, Xiaojun Deng, Dehua Guo
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six strobilurin fungicide (E-metominostrobin, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) residues in orange, banana, apple and pineapple samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The fragmentation routes of all the compounds were explained by the aid of a fragment predicting software ACD Lab/MS Fragmenter. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile, then cleaned up by amino solid phase extraction cartridges (SupelClean LC-NH2)...
September 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960782/characterization-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-fenpicoxamid-fungicide-and-its-metabolite-uk-2a
#3
David H Young, Nick X Wang, Stacy T Meyer, Cruz Avila-Adame
BACKGROUND: Fenpicoxamid is a new fungicide for control of Zymoseptoria tritici, and is a derivative of the natural product UK-2A. Its mode of action and target site interactions have been investigated. RESULTS: UK-2A strongly inhibited cytochrome c reductase, whereas fenpicoxamid was much less active, consistent with UK-2A being the fungicidally active species generated from fenpicoxamid by metabolism. Both compounds caused rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in Z...
September 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921992/mechanistic-understanding-of-the-synergistic-potential-of-azole-fungicides-in-the-aquatic-invertebrate-gammarus-pulex
#4
Andrea Rösch, Michele Gottardi, Caroline Vignet, Nina Cedergreen, Juliane Hollender
Azole fungicides are known inhibitors of the important enzyme class cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), thereby influencing the detoxification of co-occurring substances via biotransformation. This synergism in mixtures containing an azole has mostly been studied by effect measurements, while the underlying mechanism has been less well investigated. In this study, six azole fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, ketoconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole) were selected to investigate their synergistic potential and their CYP inhibition strength in the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835008/thiamethoxam-and-picoxystrobin-reduce-the-survival-and-overload-the-hepato-nephrocitic-system-of-the-africanized-honeybee
#5
Caio E C Domingues, Fábio Camargo Abdalla, Paulo José Balsamo, Beatriz V R Pereira, Moema de Alencar Hausen, Monica Jones Costa, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin
Apis mellifera perform important pollination roles in agroecosystems. However, there is often intensive use of systemic pesticides in crops, which can be carried to the colony by forage bees through the collection of contaminated pollen and nectar. Inside the colony, pollen loads are stored by bees that add honey and several enzymes to this pollen. Nevertheless, intra-colonial chronic exposure could induce sublethal effects in young bees exposed to a wide range of pesticides present in these pollen loads. This study was aimed to both determine the survival rate and evaluate the sublethal effects on the hepato-nephrocitic system in response to continuous oral exposure to lower concentrations of neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (TXT) and picoxystrobin fungicide (PXT)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724104/fate-characterization-of-benzene-kresoxim-methyl-a-strobilurin-fungicide-in-different-aerobic-soils
#6
Jinhao Zhao, Likun Wang, Jingli Cheng, Wei Wang, Qingfu Ye
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a promising broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide widely used to control fungal pathogens in crops. However, information on its environmental fate is limited. To broaden our understanding of this fungicide's kinetic fate in aerobic soils, we labeled BKM with C on its benzoate ring and used ultralow-level liquid scintillation counting coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results show that degradation, mineralization, and bound residue (BR) formation of BKM was controlled by soil type and microbial community composition...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567017/azoxystrobin-induces-apoptosis-of-human-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-kyse-150-cells-through-triggering-of-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#7
Xiao-Ke Shi, Xiao-Bo Bian, Tao Huang, Bo Wen, Ling Zhao, Huai-Xue Mu, Sarwat Fatima, Bao-Min Fan, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Lin-Fang Huang, Cheng-Yuan Lin
Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis are potential chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Azoxystrobin (AZOX), a methoxyacrylate derived from the naturally occurring strobilurins, is a known fungicide acting as a ubiquinol oxidation (Qo) inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex III. In this study, the effects of AZOX on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 cells were examined and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. AZOX exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation of KYSE-150 cells with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of 2...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530613/combination-of-solvent-extractants-for-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-of-fungicides-from-water-and-fruit-samples-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Marta Pastor-Belda, Isabel Garrido, Natalia Campillo, Pilar Viñas, Pilar Hellín, Pilar Flores, José Fenoll
A multiresidue method was developed to determine twenty-five fungicides belonging to three different chemical families, oxazoles, strobilurins and triazoles, in water and fruit samples, using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). Solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was used for the analysis in fruits, the extract being used as dispersant solvent in DLLME. Since some of the analytes showed high affinity for chloroform and the others were more efficiently extracted with undecanol, a mixture of both solvents was used as extractant in DLLME...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526370/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-kresoxim-methyl-analogues-as-novel-inhibitors-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-1-accumulation-in-cancer-cells
#9
Sanghyuck Lee, Oh Seok Kwon, Chang-Soo Lee, Misun Won, Hyun Seung Ban, Choon Sup Ra
We designed and synthesized strobilurin analogues as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) inhibitors based on the molecular structure of kresoxim-methyl. Biological evaluation in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells showed that most of the synthesized kresoxim-methyl analogues possessed moderate to potent inhibitory activity against hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transcriptional activation. Three candidates, compounds 11b, 11c, and 11d were identified as potent inhibitors against HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.60-0...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497571/determination-of-strobilurin-fungicide-residues-in-fruits-and-vegetables-by-nonaqueous-micellar-electrokinetic-capillary-chromatography-with-indirect-laser-induced-fluorescence
#10
Xin Guo, Kun Wang, Guan-Hua Chen, Jie Shi, Xian Wu, Lu-Lu Di, Yi Wang
A nonaqueous micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method with indirect LIF was developed for the determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables. Hydrophobic CdTe quantum dots (QDs) synthesized in aqueous phase were used as background fluorescent substance. The BGE solution, QD concentration, and separation voltage were optimized to obtain the best separation efficiency and the highest signal intensity. The optimal BGE solution consists of 40 mM phosphate, 120 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 15% v/v water and 15% v/v hydrophobic CdTe QDs in formamide, of which apparent pH is 9...
August 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471527/biological-characterization-of-fenpicoxamid-a-new-fungicide-with-utility-in-cereals-and-other-crops
#11
W John Owen, Chenglin Yao, Kyung Myung, Greg Kemmitt, Andrew Leader, Kevin G Meyer, Andrew J Bowling, Thomas Slanec, Vincent J Kramer
BACKGROUND: The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross-resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq™ active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. RESULTS: Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC50 , 0.051 mg L(-1) ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z...
October 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444690/strobilurins-as-growth-promoting-compounds-how-stroby-regulates-arabidopsis-leaf-growth
#12
Judith Van Dingenen, Chrystalla Antoniou, Panagiota Filippou, Jacob Pollier, Nathalie Gonzalez, Stijn Dhondt, Alain Goossens, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Dirk Inzé
Strobilurins are an important class of agrochemical fungicides used throughout the world on a wide variety of crops as protection against fungal pathogens. In addition to this protective role, they are reported to also positively influence plant physiology. In this study, we analysed the effect of Stroby® WG, a commercially available fungicide consisting of 50% (w/w) kresoxim-methyl (KM) as active strobilurin compound, on Arabidopsis leaf growth. Treatment of seedlings with Stroby resulted in larger leaves due to an increase in cell number...
April 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364803/pollen-viability-physiology-and-production-of-maize-plants-exposed-to-pyraclostrobin-epoxiconazole
#13
Verônica Barbosa Junqueira, Alan Carlos Costa, Tatiana Boff, Caroline Müller, Maria Andréia Corrêa Mendonça, Priscila Ferreira Batista
The use of fungicides in maize has been more frequent due to an increase in the incidence of diseases and also the possible physiological benefits that some of these products may cause. However, some of these products (e.g., strobilurins and triazoles) may interfere with physiological processes and the formation of reproductive organs. Therefore, the effect of these products on plants at different developmental stages needs to be better understood to reduce losses and maximize production. The effect of the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole (P+E) was evaluated at different growth stages in meiosis, pollen grain viability and germination, physiology, and production of maize plants in the absence of disease...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270821/single-and-combined-effects-of-pesticide-seed-dressings-and-herbicides-on-earthworms-soil-microorganisms-and-litter-decomposition
#14
Willem Van Hoesel, Alexandra Tiefenbacher, Nina König, Verena M Dorn, Julia F Hagenguth, Urša Prah, Theresia Widhalm, Viktoria Wiklicky, Robert Koller, Michael Bonkowski, Jan Lagerlöf, Andreas Ratzenböck, Johann G Zaller
Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214729/improved-tolerance-to-transplanting-injury-and-chilling-stress-in-rice-seedlings-treated-with-orysastrobin
#15
Naoto Takahashi, Yukari Sunohara, Masami Fujiwara, Hiroshi Matsumoto
In addition to their fungicidal activity, strobilurin-type fungicides are reported to show enhancing effects on crop growth and yield. Previous studies suggested that the fungicide has a mitigating effect on abiotic stresses. However, there are few reports about growth enhancement through abiotic stress alleviation by strobilurin-type fungicides, but the mechanism of action of the growth enhancement is still not clear. The present study revealed that orysastrobin enhanced rice seedling growth after root cutting injury and chilling stress...
April 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055187/synthesis-of-1-2-3-thiadiazole-and-thiazole-based-strobilurins-as-potent-fungicide-candidates
#16
Lai Chen, Yu-Jie Zhu, Zhi-Jin Fan, Xiao-Feng Guo, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Jing-Hua Xu, Ying-Qi Song, Morzherin Y Yurievich, Nataliya P Belskaya, Vasiliy A Bakulev
Strobilurin fungicides play a crucial role in protecting plants against different pathogens and securing food supplies. A series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole and thiazole-based strobilurins were rationally designed, synthesized, characterized, and tested against various fungi. Introduction of 1,2,3-thiadiazole greatly improved the fungicidal activity of the target molecules. Compounds 8a, 8c, 8d, and 10i exhibited a relatively broad spectrum of fungicidal activity. Compound 8a showed excellent activities against Gibberella zeae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Rhizoctonia cerealis with median effective concentrations (EC50) of 2...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853101/trifloxystrobin-induced-mitophagy-through-mitochondrial-damage-in-human-skin-keratinocytes
#17
Yoonjeong Jang, Ji-Eun Kim, Sang-Hee Jeong, Min-Kyoung Paik, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
Trifloxystrobin is a strobilurin class fungicide, the mode of action of which is to block the mitochondrial electron transport chain and inhibit energy production in fungi. Although adverse effects have been reported by occupational or environmental exposure of fungicides, the pathophysiological mechanism in human cells remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the impact of trifloxystrobin on exposed skin at the cellular organelle level using HaCaT, the human skin keratinocyte cell line...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827010/temporal-dynamics-and-spatial-variation-of-azoxystrobin-and-propiconazole-resistance-in-zymoseptoria-tritici-a-hierarchical-survey-of-commercial-winter-wheat-fields-in-the-willamette-valley-oregon
#18
Christina H Hagerty, Nicole P Anderson, Christopher C Mundt
Fungicide resistance can cause disease control failure in agricultural systems, and is particularly concerning with Zymoseptoria tritici, the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch of wheat. In North America, the first quinone outside inhibitor resistance in Z. tritici was discovered in the Willamette Valley of Oregon in 2012, which prompted this hierarchical survey of commercial winter wheat fields to monitor azoxystrobin- and propiconazole-resistant Z. tritici. Surveys were conducted in June 2014, January 2015, May 2015, and January 2016...
March 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745908/monochlorinated-calocerins-a-d-and-9-oxostrobilurin-derivatives-from-the-basidiomycete-favolaschia-calocera
#19
Clara Chepkirui, Christian Richter, Josphat Clement Matasyoh, Marc Stadler
Eight previously undescribed compounds were isolated and characterised from the supernatant and mycelium of a culture of the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera originating from Kakamega equatorial rainforest in Kenya. These were: 9- oxostrobilurins A, G, K and I and the four monochlorinated calocerins A, B, C and D. The calocerins extend our knowledge of halogenated compounds obtained from natural sources. Four further known compounds were also identified: strobilurin G, favolon, pterulinic acid and 2,3 -dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivative...
December 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283376/toxicity-of-three-strobilurins-kresoxim-methyl-pyraclostrobin-and-trifloxystrobin-on-daphnia-magna
#20
Feng Cui, Tingting Chai, Xiaoxu Liu, Chengju Wang
Strobilurins constitute a new class of fungicides that is the most widely used in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the aquatic toxicity of 3 common strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) to Daphnia magna. The neonate acute immobilization test showed that the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 443.3 µg/L, 20.9 µg/L, and 23.0 µg/L, respectively. In addition, the 3 strobilurins significantly induced activity of the important detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in D...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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