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Xiaoxu Liu, Yu Wang, Hao Chen, Junli Zhang, Chengju Wang, Xuefeng Li, Sen Pang
Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Gerrit H J Kema, Amir Mirzadi Gohari, Lamia Aouini, Hesham A Y Gibriel, Sarah B Ware, Frank van den Bosch, Robbie Manning-Smith, Vasthi Alonso-Chavez, Joe Helps, Sarrah Ben M'Barek, Rahim Mehrabi, Caucasella Diaz-Trujillo, Elham Zamani, Henk J Schouten, Theo A J van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Maarten A de Waard, Pierre J G M de Wit, Els C P Verstappen, Bart P H J Thomma, Harold J G Meijer, Michael F Seidl
Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We demonstrate that the Z. tritici-wheat interaction complies with the gene-for-gene model by identifying the effector AvrStb6, which is recognized by the wheat resistance protein Stb6. Recognition triggers host resistance, thus implying removal of avirulent strains from pathogen populations. However, Z. tritici crosses on wheat show that sex occurs even with an avirulent parent, and avirulence alleles are thereby retained in subsequent populations...
March 2018: Nature Genetics
Siyu Wu, Lili Lei, Mengting Liu, Yang Song, Shibo Lu, Dan Li, Huahong Shi, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Defu He
The decline in amphibian populations is a critical threat to global biodiversity, and pesticide pollution is considered as one of the major factors. Although effects of single pesticides on amphibians have been documented, toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of pesticides have not been well elucidated. Strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are new types of commonly used pesticides. In this study, effects of three strobilurins (pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin), two SDHIs (isopyrazam and bixafen), and their mixtures on X...
January 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xunyue Liu, Huiming Wu, Tingting Hu, Xia Chen, Xingcheng Ding
Pyraoxystrobin, (E)-2-(2-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yloxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate, is a newly developed strobilurin fungicide with high antifungal efficiency. It has high potential to enter soil environments that might subsequently impact surface and groundwater. Therefore, 14 C-labeled pyraoxystrobin was used as a tracer to study the adsorption/desorption and migration behavior of this compound under laboratory conditions in three typical agricultural soils. The adsorption isotherms conformed with the Freundlich equation...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hui Li, Song Yu, Fangjie Cao, Chengju Wang, Mingqi Zheng, Xuefeng Li, Lihong Qiu
As a newly developed, highly efficient strobilurin fungicide, pyraoxystrobin has been reported to be highly toxic to some aquatic organisms. However, the toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of fish and the potential underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Hence, in the present study, the acute toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of zebrafish (embryo, larva, and adult) was assessed. The developmental toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to zebrafish embryos and its effects on gene transcription in the embryo were also investigated...
April 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tao Lu, Youchao Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Mingjing Ke, Meng Zhang, Chengxia Tan, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
The top-selling strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZ), is a broad-spectrum fungicide that protects against many kinds of pathogenic fungi by preventing their ATP production. The extensive use of AZ can have negative consequences on non-target species and its effects and toxic mechanisms on algae are still poorly understood. In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa that had been grown in BG-11 medium was exposed to AZ (0.5-10 mg L-1 ) for 10 d. The physiological and molecular responses of the algae to AZ treatment, including photosynthetic efficiency, lipid peroxidation level, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcriptome-based analysis of gene expression, were examined to investigate the potential toxic mechanism...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yao Zhou, Huiqin Yang, Yiyin Shi, Jiaxian Chen, Jian Zhu, Xiaojun Deng, Dehua Guo
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six strobilurin fungicide (E-metominostrobin, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) residues in orange, banana, apple and pineapple samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The fragmentation routes of all the compounds were explained by the aid of a fragment predicting software ACD Lab/MS Fragmenter. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile, then cleaned up by amino solid phase extraction cartridges (SupelClean LC-NH2)...
September 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
David H Young, Nick X Wang, Stacy T Meyer, Cruz Avila-Adame
BACKGROUND: Fenpicoxamid is a new fungicide for control of Zymoseptoria tritici, and is a derivative of the natural product UK-2A. Its mode of action and target site interactions have been investigated. RESULTS: UK-2A strongly inhibited cytochrome c reductase, whereas fenpicoxamid was much less active, consistent with UK-2A being the fungicidally active species generated from fenpicoxamid by metabolism. Both compounds caused rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in Z...
February 2018: Pest Management Science
Andrea Rösch, Michele Gottardi, Caroline Vignet, Nina Cedergreen, Juliane Hollender
Azole fungicides are known inhibitors of the important enzyme class cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), thereby influencing the detoxification of co-occurring substances via biotransformation. This synergism in mixtures containing an azole has mostly been studied by effect measurements, while the underlying mechanism has been less well investigated. In this study, six azole fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, ketoconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole) were selected to investigate their synergistic potential and their CYP inhibition strength in the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Caio E C Domingues, Fábio Camargo Abdalla, Paulo José Balsamo, Beatriz V R Pereira, Moema de Alencar Hausen, Monica Jones Costa, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin
Apis mellifera perform important pollination roles in agroecosystems. However, there is often intensive use of systemic pesticides in crops, which can be carried to the colony by forage bees through the collection of contaminated pollen and nectar. Inside the colony, pollen loads are stored by bees that add honey and several enzymes to this pollen. Nevertheless, intra-colonial chronic exposure could induce sublethal effects in young bees exposed to a wide range of pesticides present in these pollen loads. This study was aimed to both determine the survival rate and evaluate the sublethal effects on the hepato-nephrocitic system in response to continuous oral exposure to lower concentrations of neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (TXT) and picoxystrobin fungicide (PXT)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
Jinhao Zhao, Likun Wang, Jingli Cheng, Wei Wang, Qingfu Ye
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a promising broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide widely used to control fungal pathogens in crops. However, information on its environmental fate is limited. To broaden our understanding of this fungicide's kinetic fate in aerobic soils, we labeled BKM with C on its benzoate ring and used ultralow-level liquid scintillation counting coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results show that degradation, mineralization, and bound residue (BR) formation of BKM was controlled by soil type and microbial community composition...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Xiao-Ke Shi, Xiao-Bo Bian, Tao Huang, Bo Wen, Ling Zhao, Huai-Xue Mu, Sarwat Fatima, Bao-Min Fan, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Lin-Fang Huang, Cheng-Yuan Lin
Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis are potential chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Azoxystrobin (AZOX), a methoxyacrylate derived from the naturally occurring strobilurins, is a known fungicide acting as a ubiquinol oxidation (Qo) inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex III. In this study, the effects of AZOX on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 cells were examined and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. AZOX exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation of KYSE-150 cells with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of 2...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Marta Pastor-Belda, Isabel Garrido, Natalia Campillo, Pilar Viñas, Pilar Hellín, Pilar Flores, José Fenoll
A multiresidue method was developed to determine twenty-five fungicides belonging to three different chemical families, oxazoles, strobilurins and triazoles, in water and fruit samples, using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). Solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was used for the analysis in fruits, the extract being used as dispersant solvent in DLLME. Since some of the analytes showed high affinity for chloroform and the others were more efficiently extracted with undecanol, a mixture of both solvents was used as extractant in DLLME...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Sanghyuck Lee, Oh Seok Kwon, Chang-Soo Lee, Misun Won, Hyun Seung Ban, Choon Sup Ra
We designed and synthesized strobilurin analogues as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) inhibitors based on the molecular structure of kresoxim-methyl. Biological evaluation in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells showed that most of the synthesized kresoxim-methyl analogues possessed moderate to potent inhibitory activity against hypoxia-induced HIF-1 transcriptional activation. Three candidates, compounds 11b, 11c, and 11d were identified as potent inhibitors against HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.60-0...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xin Guo, Kun Wang, Guan-Hua Chen, Jie Shi, Xian Wu, Lu-Lu Di, Yi Wang
A nonaqueous micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method with indirect LIF was developed for the determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables. Hydrophobic CdTe quantum dots (QDs) synthesized in aqueous phase were used as background fluorescent substance. The BGE solution, QD concentration, and separation voltage were optimized to obtain the best separation efficiency and the highest signal intensity. The optimal BGE solution consists of 40 mM phosphate, 120 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 15% v/v water and 15% v/v hydrophobic CdTe QDs in formamide, of which apparent pH is 9...
August 2017: Electrophoresis
W John Owen, Chenglin Yao, Kyung Myung, Greg Kemmitt, Andrew Leader, Kevin G Meyer, Andrew J Bowling, Thomas Slanec, Vincent J Kramer
BACKGROUND: The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross-resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq™ active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. RESULTS: Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC50 , 0.051 mg L(-1) ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z...
October 2017: Pest Management Science
Judith Van Dingenen, Chrystalla Antoniou, Panagiota Filippou, Jacob Pollier, Nathalie Gonzalez, Stijn Dhondt, Alain Goossens, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Dirk Inzé
Strobilurins are an important class of agrochemical fungicides used throughout the world on a wide variety of crops as protection against fungal pathogens. In addition to this protective role, they are reported to also positively influence plant physiology. In this study, we analysed the effect of Stroby® WG, a commercially available fungicide consisting of 50% (w/w) kresoxim-methyl (KM) as active strobilurin compound, on Arabidopsis leaf growth. Treatment of seedlings with Stroby resulted in larger leaves due to an increase in cell number...
September 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Verônica Barbosa Junqueira, Alan Carlos Costa, Tatiana Boff, Caroline Müller, Maria Andréia Corrêa Mendonça, Priscila Ferreira Batista
The use of fungicides in maize has been more frequent due to an increase in the incidence of diseases and also the possible physiological benefits that some of these products may cause. However, some of these products (e.g., strobilurins and triazoles) may interfere with physiological processes and the formation of reproductive organs. Therefore, the effect of these products on plants at different developmental stages needs to be better understood to reduce losses and maximize production. The effect of the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole (P+E) was evaluated at different growth stages in meiosis, pollen grain viability and germination, physiology, and production of maize plants in the absence of disease...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Willem Van Hoesel, Alexandra Tiefenbacher, Nina König, Verena M Dorn, Julia F Hagenguth, Urša Prah, Theresia Widhalm, Viktoria Wiklicky, Robert Koller, Michael Bonkowski, Jan Lagerlöf, Andreas Ratzenböck, Johann G Zaller
Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Naoto Takahashi, Yukari Sunohara, Masami Fujiwara, Hiroshi Matsumoto
In addition to their fungicidal activity, strobilurin-type fungicides are reported to show enhancing effects on crop growth and yield. Previous studies suggested that the fungicide has a mitigating effect on abiotic stresses. However, there are few reports about growth enhancement through abiotic stress alleviation by strobilurin-type fungicides, but the mechanism of action of the growth enhancement is still not clear. The present study revealed that orysastrobin enhanced rice seedling growth after root cutting injury and chilling stress...
April 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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