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Verônica Barbosa Junqueira, Alan Carlos Costa, Tatiana Boff, Caroline Müller, Maria Andréia Corrêa Mendonça, Priscila Ferreira Batista
The use of fungicides in maize has been more frequent due to an increase in the incidence of diseases and also the possible physiological benefits that some of these products may cause. However, some of these products (e.g., strobilurins and triazoles) may interfere with physiological processes and the formation of reproductive organs. Therefore, the effect of these products on plants at different developmental stages needs to be better understood to reduce losses and maximize production. The effect of the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole (P+E) was evaluated at different growth stages in meiosis, pollen grain viability and germination, physiology, and production of maize plants in the absence of disease...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Willem Van Hoesel, Alexandra Tiefenbacher, Nina König, Verena M Dorn, Julia F Hagenguth, Urša Prah, Theresia Widhalm, Viktoria Wiklicky, Robert Koller, Michael Bonkowski, Jan Lagerlöf, Andreas Ratzenböck, Johann G Zaller
Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Naoto Takahashi, Yukari Sunohara, Masami Fujiwara, Hiroshi Matsumoto
In addition to their fungicidal activity, strobilurin-type fungicides are reported to show enhancing effects on crop growth and yield. Previous studies suggested that the fungicide has a mitigating effect on abiotic stresses. However, there are few reports about growth enhancement through abiotic stress alleviation by strobilurin-type fungicides, but the mechanism of action of the growth enhancement is still not clear. The present study revealed that orysastrobin enhanced rice seedling growth after root cutting injury and chilling stress...
February 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lai Chen, Yu-Jie Zhu, Zhi-Jin Fan, Xiao-Feng Guo, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Jing-Hua Xu, Ying-Qi Song, Morzherin Y Yurievich, Nataliya P Belskaya, Vasiliy A Bakulev
Strobilurin fungicides play a crucial role in protecting plants against different pathogens and securing food supplies. A series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole and thiazole-based strobilurins were rationally designed, synthesized, characterized, and tested against various fungi. Introduction of 1,2,3-thiadiazole greatly improved the fungicidal activity of the target molecules. Compounds 8a, 8c, 8d, and 10i exhibited a relatively broad spectrum of fungicidal activity. Compound 8a showed excellent activities against Gibberella zeae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Rhizoctonia cerealis with median effective concentrations (EC50) of 2...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yoonjeong Jang, Ji-Eun Kim, Sang-Hee Jeong, Min-Kyoung Paik, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
Trifloxystrobin is a strobilurin class fungicide, the mode of action of which is to block the mitochondrial electron transport chain and inhibit energy production in fungi. Although adverse effects have been reported by occupational or environmental exposure of fungicides, the pathophysiological mechanism in human cells remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the impact of trifloxystrobin on exposed skin at the cellular organelle level using HaCaT, the human skin keratinocyte cell line...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Christina H Hagerty, Nicole P Anderson, Christopher C Mundt
Fungicide resistance can cause disease control failure in agricultural systems, and is particularly concerning with Zymoseptoria tritici, the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch of wheat. In North America, the first quinone outside inhibitor resistance in Z. tritici was discovered in the Willamette Valley of Oregon in 2012, which prompted this hierarchical survey of commercial winter wheat fields to monitor azoxystrobin- and propiconazole-resistant Z. tritici. Surveys were conducted in June 2014, January 2015, May 2015, and January 2016...
March 2017: Phytopathology
Clara Chepkirui, Christian Richter, Josphat Clement Matasyoh, Marc Stadler
Eight previously undescribed compounds were isolated and characterised from the supernatant and mycelium of a culture of the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera originating from Kakamega equatorial rainforest in Kenya. These were: 9- oxostrobilurins A, G, K and I and the four monochlorinated calocerins A, B, C and D. The calocerins extend our knowledge of halogenated compounds obtained from natural sources. Four further known compounds were also identified: strobilurin G, favolon, pterulinic acid and 2,3 -dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivative...
December 2016: Phytochemistry
Feng Cui, Tingting Chai, Xiaoxu Liu, Chengju Wang
Strobilurins constitute a new class of fungicides that is the most widely used in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the aquatic toxicity of 3 common strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) to Daphnia magna. The neonate acute immobilization test showed that the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 443.3 µg/L, 20.9 µg/L, and 23.0 µg/L, respectively. In addition, the 3 strobilurins significantly induced activity of the important detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in D...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Evangelia Flampouri, Sofia Mavrikou, Akrivi-Chara Mouzaki-Paxinou, Spiridon Kintzios
In this paper we elucidate the effects of the cytochrome bc1 inhibitor, strobilurin fungicide kresoxim-methyl, on the redox balance of a mammalian renal cell line. To explore whether mammalian exposure to sub-nephrotoxic concentrations of kresoxim-methyl induces cellular and biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, its effects on cellular viability and, in particular, several parameters related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory function and apoptosis were examined in fibroblast-like renal Vero cells...
August 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ping Wu, Wen Zhu Wu, Zhi Hua Han, Hong Yang
Phenamacril (JS399-19 with independent intellectual property developed by China), azoxystrobin, and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicide. Due to their broad spectrum and good control of most of known fungi, strobilurin fungicide has been widely used in agriculture management. Thus, it is important to evaluate their environmental behaviors particularly in soils and underground water. In this study, the sorption/desorption and mobility of strobilurin fungicides in three Chinese soils (Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil) were conducted using comprehensively analytic approaches including batch experiment and soil thin-layer chromatography...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Quansheng Wang, Peng Wei, Mengchao Cao, Yanan Liu, Mengcen Wang, Yirong Guo, Guonian Zhu
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a new strobilurin fungicide mixed with fluazinam (Flu) into 40 % suspension concentrate (SC) formulation to improve fungicidal efficacy and to reduce the risk of resistance on cucumber. However, the fate of the fungicide residues in a cucumber plantation remains unclear. Thus, an efficient method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation was developed to simultaneously determine the BKM and Flu residues in cucumber and soil samples to investigate their residual behavior and risk assessment in the cucumber plantation...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hancheng Wang, Jin Wang, Qingyuan Chen, Maosheng Wang, Tom Hsiang, Shenghua Shang, Zhihe Yu
Azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicides, and are effective in controlling many plant diseases, including Fusarium wilt. The mode of action of this kind of chemical is inhibition of respiration. This research investigated the sensitivities of Fusarium kyushuense to azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl, and to the alternative oxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). The Biolog FF MicroPlate is designed to examine substrate utilization and metabolic profiling of micro-organisms, and was used here to study the activity of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and SHAM against F...
June 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
D Debona, K J T Nascimento, J G O Gomes, C E Aucique-Perez, F A Rodrigues
Strobilurins are among the most important fungicides that are used for plant disease control worldwide. In addition to their fungicide effect, strobilurins can also improve crop physiology. Nonetheless, the impact of azoxystrobin (Az), the main marketed strobilurin, on rice physiology is still unknown. Detailed gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis were used to examine the Az effects on the photosynthetic performance of rice plants (cultivar Metica-1) either challenged or not with Bipolaris oryzae, the causal agent of brown spot...
June 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yoonjeong Jang, Ah Young Lee, Seung-Hee Chang, Sang-Hee Jeong, Kyung-Hun Park, Min-Kyoung Paik, Nam-Joon Cho, Ji-Eun Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
As the outermost layer of the body, the skin plays an important role in exposure to pesticides, which could have negative impacts on human health. Trifloxystrobin is a widely used fungicide of the strobilurin class, however, there is little information regarding the skin contact-associated toxic mechanism. Therefore, the present study was performed in order to identify the skin toxicity mechanism of trifloxystrobin using HaCaT (keratinocyte of human skin) cells. Following 24 or 48 h treatment, cell viability, and subsequent Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay, TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed to investigate the cell death mechanism of trifloxystrobin...
January 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
S Lazić, D Šunjka
In this study a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole in suspension concentrate pesticide formulations, with the aim of the product quality control. Azoxystrobin, strobilurin fungicide and difenoconazole (cis,trans-3-chloro-4-[4-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]phenyl 4-chlorophenyl ether), triazole fungicide, are used for the protection of plants from wide spectrum of fungal diseases...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Sudisha Jogaiah, Hunthrike Shekar Shetty, Shin-Ichi Ito, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S...
August 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Magdalena Frąc, Agata Gryta, Karolina Oszust, Natalia Kotowicz
The need for finding fungicides against Fusarium is a key step in the chemical plant protection and using appropriate chemical agents. Existing, conventional methods of evaluation of Fusarium isolates resistance to fungicides are costly, time-consuming and potentially environmentally harmful due to usage of high amounts of potentially toxic chemicals. Therefore, the development of fast, accurate and effective detection methods for Fusarium resistance to fungicides is urgently required. MT2 microplates (Biolog(TM)) method is traditionally used for bacteria identification and the evaluation of their ability to utilize different carbon substrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexandra Rehfus, Simone Miessner, Janosch Achenbach, Dieter Strobel, Rosie Bryson, Gerd Stammler
BACKGROUND: Net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres is an important disease of barley worldwide. In addition to strobilurins (quinone ouside inhibitors) and azoles (demethylation inhibitors), succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) are very effective fungicides for net blotch control. Recently, SDHI-resistant isolates have been found in the field. Intensive sensitivity monitoring programmes across Europe were carried out to investigate the situation concerning SDHI resistance in P. teres...
October 2016: Pest Management Science
Elżbieta Wołejko, Bożena Łozowicka, Piotr Kaczyński, Magdalena Jankowska, Jolanta Piekut
The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of strobilurin and carbocyamides commonly used in chemical protection of lettuce depending on carefully selected effective microorganisms (EM) and yeast (Y). Additionally, the assessment of the chronic health risk during a 2-week experiment was performed. The statistical method for correlation of physico-chemical parameters and time of degradation for pesticides was applied. In this study, the concentration of azoxystrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin and iprodione using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the matrix of lettuce plants was performed, and there was no case of concentration above maximum residues levels...
January 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Panagiota Filippou, Chrystalla Antoniou, Toshihiro Obata, Katrien Van Der Kelen, Vaggelis Harokopos, Loukas Kanetis, Vassilis Aidinis, Frank Van Breusegem, Alisdair R Fernie, Vasileios Fotopoulos
Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as fungal infection and drought, cause major yield losses in modern agriculture. Kresoxim-methyl (KM) belongs to the strobilurins, one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides displaying a direct effect on several plant physiological and developmental processes. However, the impact of KM treatment on salt and drought stress tolerance is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that KM pre-treatment of Medicago truncatula plants results in increased protection to drought and salt stress...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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