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Clara Chepkirui, Christian Richter, Josphat Clement Matasyoh, Marc Stadler
Eight previously undescribed compounds were isolated and characterised from the supernatant and mycelium of a culture of the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera originating from Kakamega equatorial rainforest in Kenya. These were: 9- oxostrobilurins A, G, K and I and the four monochlorinated calocerins A, B, C and D. The calocerins extend our knowledge of halogenated compounds obtained from natural sources. Four further known compounds were also identified: strobilurin G, favolon, pterulinic acid and 2,3 -dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivative...
October 13, 2016: Phytochemistry
Feng Cui, Tingting Chai, Xiaoxu Liu, Chengju Wang
The strobilurins is new class of fungicides and becomes most largely used fungicide group in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the aquatic toxicity of three common strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) on Daphnia magna. The neonate acute immobilization test showed that the 48-h EC50 (50% effective concentration) of kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were 443.3 µg/L, 20.9 µg/L and 23.0 µg/L, respectively. In addition, the three strobilurins significantly induced activity of the important detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST) in D...
June 10, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Evangelia Flampouri, Sofia Mavrikou, Akrivi-Chara Mouzaki-Paxinou, Spiridon Kintzios
In this paper we elucidate the effects of the cytochrome bc1 inhibitor, strobilurin fungicide kresoxim-methyl, on the redox balance of a mammalian renal cell line. To explore whether mammalian exposure to sub-nephrotoxic concentrations of kresoxim-methyl induces cellular and biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, its effects on cellular viability and, in particular, several parameters related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory function and apoptosis were examined in fibroblast-like renal Vero cells...
August 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ping Wu, Wen Zhu Wu, Zhi Hua Han, Hong Yang
Phenamacril (JS399-19 with independent intellectual property developed by China), azoxystrobin, and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicide. Due to their broad spectrum and good control of most of known fungi, strobilurin fungicide has been widely used in agriculture management. Thus, it is important to evaluate their environmental behaviors particularly in soils and underground water. In this study, the sorption/desorption and mobility of strobilurin fungicides in three Chinese soils (Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil) were conducted using comprehensively analytic approaches including batch experiment and soil thin-layer chromatography...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Quansheng Wang, Peng Wei, Mengchao Cao, Yanan Liu, Mengcen Wang, Yirong Guo, Guonian Zhu
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a new strobilurin fungicide mixed with fluazinam (Flu) into 40 % suspension concentrate (SC) formulation to improve fungicidal efficacy and to reduce the risk of resistance on cucumber. However, the fate of the fungicide residues in a cucumber plantation remains unclear. Thus, an efficient method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation was developed to simultaneously determine the BKM and Flu residues in cucumber and soil samples to investigate their residual behavior and risk assessment in the cucumber plantation...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hancheng Wang, Jin Wang, Qingyuan Chen, Maosheng Wang, Tom Hsiang, Shenghua Shang, Zhihe Yu
Azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicides, and are effective in controlling many plant diseases, including Fusarium wilt. The mode of action of this kind of chemical is inhibition of respiration. This research investigated the sensitivities of Fusarium kyushuense to azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl, and to the alternative oxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). The Biolog FF MicroPlate is designed to examine substrate utilization and metabolic profiling of micro-organisms, and was used here to study the activity of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and SHAM against F...
June 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
D Debona, K J T Nascimento, J G O Gomes, C E Aucique-Perez, F A Rodrigues
Strobilurins are among the most important fungicides that are used for plant disease control worldwide. In addition to their fungicide effect, strobilurins can also improve crop physiology. Nonetheless, the impact of azoxystrobin (Az), the main marketed strobilurin, on rice physiology is still unknown. Detailed gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis were used to examine the Az effects on the photosynthetic performance of rice plants (cultivar Metica-1) either challenged or not with Bipolaris oryzae, the causal agent of brown spot...
June 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yoonjeong Jang, Ah Young Lee, Seung-Hee Chang, Sang-Hee Jeong, Kyung-Hun Park, Min-Kyoung Paik, Nam-Joon Cho, Ji-Eun Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
As the outermost layer of the body, the skin plays an important role in exposure to pesticides, which could have negative impacts on human health. Trifloxystrobin is a widely used fungicide of the strobilurin class, however, there is little information regarding the skin contact-associated toxic mechanism. Therefore, the present study was performed in order to identify the skin toxicity mechanism of trifloxystrobin using HaCaT (keratinocyte of human skin) cells. Following 24 or 48 h treatment, cell viability, and subsequent Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay, TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed to investigate the cell death mechanism of trifloxystrobin...
May 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
S Lazić, D Šunjka
In this study a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole in suspension concentrate pesticide formulations, with the aim of the product quality control. Azoxystrobin, strobilurin fungicide and difenoconazole (cis,trans-3-chloro-4-[4-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]phenyl 4-chlorophenyl ether), triazole fungicide, are used for the protection of plants from wide spectrum of fungal diseases...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Sudisha Jogaiah, Hunthrike Shekar Shetty, Shin-Ichi Ito, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S...
August 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Magdalena Frąc, Agata Gryta, Karolina Oszust, Natalia Kotowicz
The need for finding fungicides against Fusarium is a key step in the chemical plant protection and using appropriate chemical agents. Existing, conventional methods of evaluation of Fusarium isolates resistance to fungicides are costly, time-consuming and potentially environmentally harmful due to usage of high amounts of potentially toxic chemicals. Therefore, the development of fast, accurate and effective detection methods for Fusarium resistance to fungicides is urgently required. MT2 microplates (Biolog(TM)) method is traditionally used for bacteria identification and the evaluation of their ability to utilize different carbon substrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexandra Rehfus, Simone Miessner, Janosch Achenbach, Dieter Strobel, Rosie Bryson, Gerd Stammler
BACKGROUND: Net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres is an important disease of barley worldwide. In addition to strobilurins (quinone ouside inhibitors) and azoles (demethylation inhibitors), succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) are very effective fungicides for net blotch control. Recently, SDHI-resistant isolates have been found in the field. Intensive sensitivity monitoring programmes across Europe were carried out to investigate the situation concerning SDHI resistance in P. teres...
October 2016: Pest Management Science
Elżbieta Wołejko, Bożena Łozowicka, Piotr Kaczyński, Magdalena Jankowska, Jolanta Piekut
The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of strobilurin and carbocyamides commonly used in chemical protection of lettuce depending on carefully selected effective microorganisms (EM) and yeast (Y). Additionally, the assessment of the chronic health risk during a 2-week experiment was performed. The statistical method for correlation of physico-chemical parameters and time of degradation for pesticides was applied. In this study, the concentration of azoxystrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin and iprodione using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the matrix of lettuce plants was performed, and there was no case of concentration above maximum residues levels...
January 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Panagiota Filippou, Chrystalla Antoniou, Toshihiro Obata, Katrien Van Der Kelen, Vaggelis Harokopos, Loukas Kanetis, Vassilis Aidinis, Frank Van Breusegem, Alisdair R Fernie, Vasileios Fotopoulos
Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as fungal infection and drought, cause major yield losses in modern agriculture. Kresoxim-methyl (KM) belongs to the strobilurins, one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides displaying a direct effect on several plant physiological and developmental processes. However, the impact of KM treatment on salt and drought stress tolerance is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that KM pre-treatment of Medicago truncatula plants results in increased protection to drought and salt stress...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sergio Armenta, Miguel de la Guardia, Antonio Abad-Fuentes, Antonio Abad-Somovilla, Francesc A Esteve-Turrillas
The extreme specificity of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) columns coupled to the high sensitivity of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) measurements makes this combination really useful for rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of a high variety of analytes in different samples. The capabilities of the IAC-IMS coupling have been highlighted under three different scenarios: (i) multiclass residue analysis using a single IAC column, (ii) multiclass residue analysis using stacked IAC columns, and (iii) isomer analysis...
December 24, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Dan Li, Mengyun Liu, Yongsheng Yang, Huahong Shi, Junliang Zhou, Defu He
Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure...
January 2016: Environmental Pollution
Natalia Campillo, María Jesús Iniesta, Pilar Viñas, Manuel Hernández-Córdoba
Seven strobilurin fungicides were pre-concentrated from soya-based drinks using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with a prior protein precipitation step in acid medium. The enriched phase was analysed by liquid chromatography (LC) with dual detection, using diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS). After selecting 1-undecanol and methanol as the extractant and disperser solvents, respectively, for DLLME, the Taguchi experimental method, an orthogonal array design, was applied to select the optimal solvent volumes and salt concentration in the aqueous phase...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ashish Khandelwal, Suman Gupta, Vijay T Gajbhiye, Eldho Varghese
In the present investigation, persistence of kresoxim-methyl (a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide) was studied in water. Results revealed that kresoxim-methyl readily form acid metabolite. Therefore, residues of kresoxim-methyl were quantified on the basis of parent molecule alone and sum total of kresoxim-methyl and its acid metabolite. In water, influence of various abiotic factors like pH, temperature, light and atmospheric carbon dioxide level on dissipation of kresoxim-methyl was studied. The half life value for kresoxim-methyl and total residue varied from 1 to 26...
January 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shilpi Khare, Steven L Roach, S Whitney Barnes, Dominic Hoepfner, John R Walker, Arnab K Chatterjee, R Jeffrey Neitz, Michelle R Arkin, Case W McNamara, Jaime Ballard, Yin Lai, Yue Fu, Valentina Molteni, Vince Yeh, James H McKerrow, Richard J Glynne, Frantisek Supek
Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T...
July 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Lang Chen, Yufang Song, Baohua Tang, Xueying Song, Hairong Yang, Baiyu Li, Yu Zhao, Chengtian Huang, Xue Han, Shaoye Wang, Zhaoli Li
The ecotoxicological effects of pyraoxystrobin, a novel strobilurin fungicide, were studied using outdoor freshwater microcosms and the species sensitivity distribution approach. The microcosms were treated with pyraoxystrobin at concentrations of 0, 1.0, 3.0, 10, 30 and 100µg/L. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves were constructed by means of acute toxicity data using the BurrliOZ model for fourteen representatives of sensitive invertebrates, algae and fish and eleven taxa of invertebrates and algae, respectively...
October 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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