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Seed Priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331924/gene-expression-patterns-regulating-the-seed-metabolism-in-relation-to-deterioration-ageing-of-primed-mung-bean-vigna-radiata-l-seeds
#1
Satyendra Nath Sharma, Ankita Maheshwari, Chitra Sharma, Nidhi Shukla
We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD...
January 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310584/long-branch-chains-of-amylopectin-with-b-type-crystallinity-in-rice-seed-with-inhibition-of-starch-branching-enzyme-i-and-iib-resist-in-situ-degradation-and-inhibit-plant-growth-during-seedling-development-degradation-of-rice-starch-with-inhibition-of-sbei
#2
Ting Pan, Lingshang Lin, Juan Wang, Qiaoquan Liu, Cunxu Wei
BACKGROUND: Endosperm starch provides prime energy for cereal seedling growth. Cereal endosperm with repression of starch branching enzyme (SBE) has been widely studied for its high resistant starch content and health benefit. However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain germination and seedling establishment. A high resistant starch rice line (TRS) has been developed through inhibiting SBEI/IIb, and its starch has very high resistance to in vitro hydrolysis and digestion...
January 8, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281957/when-honesty-and-cheating-pay-off-the-evolution-of-honest-and-dishonest-equilibria-in-a-conventional-signalling-game
#3
Szabolcs Számadó
BACKGROUND: The reliability of signals is a key issue in the study of animal communication. Both empirical work and theoretical models show that communication need not be entirely honest, and thus signals can be deceitful. Aggressive communication appears to be a prime candidate for such deceitful communication, because bluffing has been described in several species. Bluffing in these situations are supposed to be maintained by frequency dependent selection where the fitness of a given type depends on the frequencies of the other types in the population...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261712/mouse-decellularised-liver-scaffold-improves-human-embryonic-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-differentiation-into-hepatocyte-like-cells
#4
Maëlle Lorvellec, Federico Scottoni, Claire Crowley, Rebeca Fiadeiro, Panagiotis Maghsoudlou, Alessandro Filippo Pellegata, Francesca Mazzacuva, Asllan Gjinovci, Anne-Marie Lyne, Justine Zulini, Daniel Little, Olukunbi Mosaku, Deirdre Kelly, Paolo De Coppi, Paul Gissen
Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment of liver failure but donor organ shortage limits its availability. Stem cells are highly expandable and have the potential to differentiate into any specialist cell. Use of patient-derived induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) has the additional advantage for organ regeneration therapies by removing the need for immunosuppression. We compared hepatocyte differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and hiPSCs in a mouse decellularised liver scaffold (3D) with standard in vitro protocol (2D)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249358/initiation-of-antiviral-b-cell-immunity-relies-on-innate-signals-from-spatially-positioned-nkt-cells
#5
Mauro Gaya, Patricia Barral, Marianne Burbage, Shweta Aggarwal, Beatriz Montaner, Andrew Warren Navia, Malika Aid, Carlson Tsui, Paula Maldonado, Usha Nair, Khader Ghneim, Padraic G Fallon, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Dan H Barouch, Alex K Shalek, Andreas Bruckbauer, Jessica Strid, Facundo D Batista
B cells constitute an essential line of defense from pathogenic infections through the generation of class-switched antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in germinal centers. Although this process is known to be regulated by follicular helper T (TfH) cells, the mechanism by which B cells initially seed germinal center reactions remains elusive. We found that NKT cells, a population of innate-like T lymphocytes, are critical for the induction of B cell immunity upon viral infection. The positioning of NKT cells at the interfollicular areas of lymph nodes facilitates both their direct priming by resident macrophages and the localized delivery of innate signals to antigen-experienced B cells...
December 12, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232653/salicylic-acid-and-broad-spectrum-of-nbs-lrr-family-genes-are-involved-in-smv-soybean-interactions
#6
Qiqi Zhao, Haina Li, Hongyu Sun, Aoga Li, Shuxin Liu, Ruonan Yu, Xiuqi Cui, Dejian Zhang, Hada Wuriyanghan
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a severe pathogen reducing crop yield and seed quality of soybean. Although several resistance gene loci including Rsv1, Rsv3 and Rsv4 are identified in some soybean varieties, most of the soybean genes related to SMV infection are still not characterized. In order to reveal genome-wide gene expression profiles in response to SMV infection, we used transcriptome analysis to determine SMV-responsive genes in susceptible variety Hefeng25. Time course RNA-seq analysis at 1, 5 and 10 dpi identified many deregulated pathways and gene families...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226264/generation-of-viable-progeny-from-dead-brooders-of-endangered-catfish-clarias-magur-hamilton-1822
#7
Sullip Kumar Majhi, Santosh Kumar
The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220088/multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-applied-through-seed-priming-influence-early-germination-root-hair-growth-and-yield-of-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#8
Anjali Joshi, Simranjeet Kaur, Keya Dharamvir, Harsh Nayyar, Gaurav Verma
BACKGROUND: Reports of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) incorporated into plants have indicated better yield and productivity, yet the phenomena needs in-depth understanding especially when agricultural crops are tested. We primed wheat seeds with MWCNT to understand the effects on germination, growth, anatomy, physiology and yield. RESULT: This study, carried out in field conditions is a step forward over the previous reports. Early germination, excessive root hair, denser stomata & larger root length result in faster growth and higher yield of wheat plants...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220080/high-salinity-impacts-germination-of-the-halophyte-cakile-maritima-but-primes-seeds-for-rapid-germination-upon-stress-release
#9
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Andreas Pich, Wael Taamalli, Chedly Abdelly, Hans-Peter Braun
Seed germination recovery aptitude is an adaptive trait of overriding significance for the successful establishment and dispersal of extremophile plants in their native ecosystems. Cakile maritima is an annual halophyte frequent on Mediterranean coasts, which transiently produces transiently dormant seeds under high salinity, but that germinate fast when soil salinity is lowered by rainfall. Here, we report eco-physiological and proteomic data about (i) the effect of high salt (200 mM NaCl) on the early developmental stages (germination and seedling) and (ii) the seed germination recovery capacity of this species...
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211130/dentin-sealing-and-bond-strength-evaluation-of-hema-free-and-multi-mode-adhesives-to-biomodified-dentin
#10
Renata Bacelar-Sá, Marcelo Giannini, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Ana Karina Bedran-Russo
This study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodification on the bond strength (BS) and sealing ability (SA) of HEMA-free and multi-mode adhesives after 24 h and 6 months of water storage. Four adhesives were tested: two multi-mode (Scotchbond Universal - SU, and Prime & Bond Elect - PB) and two HEMA-free (All-Bond 3 - AB, and G-Aenial - GA). Human third molars were selected and dentin was treated with two cross-linking agents (5% glutaraldehyde and 6.5% proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract - PACs) for 10 min or kept untreated (control group) (n=6)...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204150/rhizobium-impacts-on-seed-productivity-quality-and-protection-of-pisum-sativum-upon-disease-stress-caused-by-didymella-pinodes-phenotypic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-traits
#11
Nima Ranjbar Sistani, Hans-Peter Kaul, Getinet Desalegn, Stefanie Wienkoop
In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159926/deep-ocean-prokaryotic-communities-are-remarkably-malleable-when-facing-long-term-starvation
#12
Marta Sebastián, Jean-Christophe Auguet, Claudia Ximena Restrepo Ortiz, Maria Montserrat Sala, Celia Marrasé, Josep M Gasol
The bathypelagic ocean is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth, and sustains half of the ocean's microbial activity. This microbial activity strongly relies on surface-derived particles, but there is growing evidence that the carbon released through solubilisation of these particles may not be sufficient to meet the energy demands of deep ocean prokaryotes. To explore how bathypelagic prokaryotes respond to the absence of external inputs of carbon, we followed the long-term (1 yr) dynamics of an enclosed community...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149482/melatonin-alleviates-low-ps-i-limited-carbon-assimilation-under-elevated-co2-and-enhances-the-cold-tolerance-of-offspring-in-chlorophyll-b-deficient-mutant-wheat
#13
Xiangnan Li, Marian Brestic, Dun-Xian Tan, Marek Zivcak, Xiancan Zhu, Shengqun Liu, Fengbin Song, Russel J Reiter, Fulai Liu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and induction of cold tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of melatonin in modulation of carbon assimilation of wild type wheat and the Chl b-deficient mutant ANK32B in response to elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and the transgenerational effects of application of exogenous melatonin (hereafter identified as melatonin priming) on the cold tolerance in offspring. The results showed that the melatonin priming enhanced the carbon assimilation in ANK32B under elevated [CO2 ], via boosting the activities of ATPase and sucrose synthesis and maintaining a relatively higher level of total chlorophyll concentration in leaves...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137633/bi-directional-exosome-driven-intercommunication-between-the-hepatic-niche-and-cancer-cells
#14
Nikolina Dioufa, Amanda M Clark, Bo Ma, Colin H Beckwitt, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the multiple roles exosomes play during tumor progression is still very poor and the contribution of the normal tissue derived exosomes in distant seeding and tumor outgrowth has also not been widely appreciated. METHODS: Using our all-human liver microphysiological system (MPS) platform as a model to closely recapitulate the early metastatic events, we isolated exosomes from both tumor cells and liver microenvironment. RESULTS: We observed that while priming of the hepatic niche (HepN) with MDA-231 breast cancer derived exosomes facilitated seeding of the cancer cells in the liver, subsequent tumor outgrowth was diminished; this was consistent with increased entry into dormancy...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101110/the-biology-of-bone-metastasis
#15
Mark Esposito, Theresa Guise, Yibin Kang
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079796/seed-defense-biopriming-with-bacterial-cyclodipeptides-triggers-immunity-in-cucumber-and-pepper
#16
Geun Cheol Song, Hye Kyung Choi, Young Sook Kim, Jung Sup Choi, Choong-Min Ryu
Seed priming is to expose seeds to specific compounds to enhance seed germination. Few studies of plant immune activation through seed priming have been conducted. Here, we introduce an emerging technology that combines seed priming with elicitation of plant immunity using biologically active compounds. This technology is named 'seed defense biopriming' (SDB). We prepared heat-stable metabolites from 1,825 root-associated Bacillus spp. isolated from the rhizosphere in South Korea. These preparations were tested for their ability to induce SDB in cucumber and pepper seeds and trigger plant immunity...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067995/induction-of-vaginal-resident-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-with-mucosal-prime-boost-immunization
#17
H-X Tan, A K Wheatley, R Esterbauer, S Jegaskanda, J J Glass, D Masopust, R De Rose, S J Kent
Tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD8 T cells survey a range of non-lymphoid mucosal tissues where they rapidly mediate clearance of viral infections at the entry portals. Vaccines that establish CD8 TRM cells in the cervicovaginal mucosa hold promise for effective immunity against sexually transmitted HIV. We demonstrate that HIV-specific CD8 TRM cells can be established in the murine vaginal mucosa using a combined intranasal and intravaginal mucosal immunization with recombinant influenza-HIV vectors. Using in situ tetramer immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that this mucosally administered prime-boost immunization also resulted in the durable seeding of CD8 T cells in the frontline vaginal epithelial compartment as opposed to the vaginal submucosa...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053925/mesenchymal-stem-cell-secretome-improves-tendon-cell-viability-in-vitro-and-tendon-bone-healing-in-vivo-when-a-tissue-engineering-strategy-is-used-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-massive-rotator-cuff-tear
#18
Nuno Sevivas, Fábio Gabriel Teixeira, Raquel Portugal, Bruno Direito-Santos, João Espregueira-Mendes, Filipe J Oliveira, Rui F Silva, Nuno Sousa, Wan Ting Sow, Luong T H Nguyen, Kee Woei Ng, António J Salgado
BACKGROUND: Massive rotator cuff tears (MRCTs) represent a major clinical concern, especially when degeneration and chronicity are involved, which highly compromise healing capacity. PURPOSE: To study the effect of the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on tendon cells (TCs) followed by the combination of these activated TCs with an electrospun keratin-based scaffold to develop a tissue engineering strategy to improve tendon-bone interface (TBi) healing in a chronic MRCT rat model...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046679/overexpression-of-npr1-in-brassica-juncea-confers-broad-spectrum-resistance-to-fungal-pathogens
#19
Sajad Ali, Zahoor A Mir, Anshika Tyagi, Hailay Mehari, Rajendra P Meena, Javaid A Bhat, Prashant Yadav, Pradeep Papalou, Sandhya Rawat, Anita Grover
Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) is a commercially important oil seed crop, which is highly affected by many biotic stresses. Among them, Alternaria leaf blight and powdery mildew are the most devastating diseases leading to huge yield losses in B. juncea around the world. In this regard, genetic engineering is a promising tool that may possibly allow us to enhance the B. juncea disease resistance against these pathogens. NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogen-related gene 1) is a bonafide receptor of salicylic acid (SA) which modulates multiple immune responses in plants especially activation of induced and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982297/articular-cartilage-repair-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-chondrogenic-priming-a-pilot-study
#20
Troy Bornes, Adetola Adesida, Nadr Jomha
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cell source for treating articular cartilage defects. The objective of this study was to assess a protocol that involved autologous transplantation of BMSCs into full-thickness cartilage defects in sheep following isolation, expansion and a short period (4 days) of chondrogenic priming. The impact of oxygen tension during pre-implantation culture was investigated. It was hypothesized that chondrogenically primed BMSCs would produce superior cartilaginous repair tissue relative to control defects, and that culture under hypoxia would yield improved repair tissue in comparison to normoxia...
October 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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