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Seed Priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634483/elicitor-induced-biochemical-and-molecular-manifestations-to-improve-drought-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-through-seed-priming
#1
Mahesh K Samota, Minnu Sasi, Monika Awana, Om P Yadav, S V Amitha Mithra, Aruna Tyagi, Suresh Kumar, Archana Singh
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major grain cereals of the Indian subcontinent which face water-deficit stress for their cultivation. Seed-priming has been reported to be a useful approach to complement stress responses in plants. In the present study, seed-priming with hormonal or chemical elicitor [viz. methyl jasmonate (MJ), salicylic acid (SA), paclobutrazol (PB)] showed significant increase in total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and expression of Rice Drought-responsive (RD1 and RD2) genes (of AP2/ERF family) in contrasting rice genotypes (Nagina-22, drought-tolerant and Pusa Sugandh-5, drought-sensitive) under drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627740/biofabrication-of-soft-tissue-templates-for-engineering-the-bone-ligament-interface
#2
Ella Harris, Yurong Liu, Grainne Cuniffe, David Morrissey, Simon Carroll, Kevin Mulhall, Daniel J Kelly
Regenerating damaged tissue interfaces remains a significant clinical challenge, requiring recapitulation of the structure, composition and function of the native enthesis. In the ligament-to-bone interface this region transitions from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified cartilage and then to bone. This gradation in tissue types facilitates the transfer of load between soft and hard structures while minimizing stress concentrations at the interface. Previous attempts to engineer the ligament-bone interface have utilized various scaffold materials with an array of various cell types and/or biological cues...
June 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611801/melatonin-improves-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-in-pea-leaves-stressed-by-paraquat-via-chlorophyll-breakdown-regulation-and-its-accelerated-de-novo-synthesis
#3
Katarzyna Szafrańska, Russel J Reiter, Małgorzata M Posmyk
The positive effect of melatonin on the function of the photosynthetic apparatus is known, but little is known about the specific mechanisms of melatonin's action in plants. The influence of melatonin on chlorophyll metabolism of 24-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings during paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress was investigated in this study. Seeds were hydro-primed with water (H), 50 and 200 μM melatonin/water solutions (H-MEL50, H-MEL200), while non-primed seeds were used as controls (C). Increases in chlorophyllase activity (key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation) and 5-aminolevulinic acid contents (the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway) were observed in H-MEL50 and H-MEL200 leaf disks...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578205/salicylic-acid-seed-priming-instigates-defense-mechanism-by-inducing-pr-proteins-in-solanum-melongena-l-upon-infection-with-verticillium-dahliae-kleb
#4
H M Mahesh, M Murali, M Anup Chandra Pal, Prasad Melvin, M S Sharada
Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone connected with various cellular functions including the fight against invading pathogens. Priming of seeds pre-sowing is a very simple method to the farmers' to produce better growth, yield and manage the pathogens. The present study was aimed to determine the growth and disease resistance ability in brinjal seeds primed with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mM) of SA under greenhouse conditions. Priming of seeds with SA significantly increased seed germination and seedling vigor with a maximum of 84% and 859...
May 24, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559545/positive-regulatory-role-of-sound-vibration-treatment-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-against-botrytis-cinerea-infection
#5
Bosung Choi, Ritesh Ghosh, Mayank Anand Gururani, Gnanendra Shanmugam, Junhyun Jeon, Jonggeun Kim, Soo-Chul Park, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Kyung-Hwan Han, Dong-Won Bae, Hanhong Bae
Sound vibration (SV), a mechanical stimulus, can trigger various molecular and physiological changes in plants like gene expression, hormonal modulation, induced antioxidant activity and calcium spiking. It also alters the seed germination and growth of plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of SV on the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea infection. The microarray analysis was performed on infected Arabidopsis plants pre-exposed to SV of 1000 Hertz with 100 decibels. Broadly, the transcriptomic analysis revealed up-regulation of several defense and SA-responsive and/or signaling genes...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515076/vertically-transmitted-symbionts-as-mechanisms-of-transgenerational-effects
#6
Pedro E Gundel, Jennifer A Rudgers, Kenneth D Whitney
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A transgenerational effect occurs when a biotic or abiotic environmental factor acts on a parental individual and thereby affects the phenotype of progeny. Due to the importance of transgenerational effects for understanding plant ecology and evolution, their underlying mechanisms are of general interest. Here, we introduce the concept that inherited symbiotic microorganisms could act as mechanisms of transgenerational effects in plants. METHODS: We define the criteria required to demonstrate that transgenerational effects are microbially mediated and review evidence from the well-studied, vertically transmitted plant-fungal symbiosis (grass-Epichloë spp...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513101/industrialization-of-a-perfusion-bioreactor-prime-example-of-a-non-straightforward-process
#7
G Talò, C Turrisi, C Arrigoni, C Recordati, I Gerges, M Tamplenizza, A Cappelluti, S A Riboldi, M Moretti
Bioreactors are essential enabling technologies for the translation of Advanced Therapies Medicinal Products (ATMPs) from the research field towards a successful clinical application. In order to speed up the translation and the spreading of novel Tissue Engineering (TE) products into the clinical routine, TE bioreactors should evolve from laboratory prototypes towards industrialized products. In this work, we thus challenged the industrialization process of a novel technological platform, based on an established research prototype of perfusion bioreactor, following a GMP-driven approach...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489600/oleate-induced-ptx3-promotes-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-through-the-up-regulation-of-vimentin
#8
Shih-Hung Chan, Jhih-Peng Tsai, Chih-Jie Shen, Yu-Han Liao, Ben-Kuen Chen
The association between metabolic diseases and the risk of developing cancer is emerging. However, the impact of long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) on dyslipidemia-associated tumor metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we found that oleate induced PTX3 expression and secretion through the activation of Akt/NF-κB pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The activation of NF-κB was essential for the oleate-induced stabilization of PTX3 mRNA. In addition, both the depletion of PTX3 and the inhibition of NF-κB significantly inhibited oleate-induced tumor cell migration and invasion...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489193/soluble-amino-acid-profile-mineral-nutrient-and-carbohydrate-content-of-maize-kernels-harvested-from-plants-submitted-to-ascorbic-acid-seed-priming
#9
Berenice K Alcântara, Vanessa Rizzi, Salete A Gaziola, Ricardo A Azevedo
Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated...
May 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476713/efficacy-of-differently-applied-tyrosine-and-tryptophan-for-modulation-of-phenolic-metabolism-in-trachyspermum-ammi-l-sprague-seedlings
#10
Saqib Mahmood, Tariq Mahmood, Iqbal Hussian, Sadia Javed, Beenish Afzal, Freeha Ghaffar, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Akram, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah
Phenolics are pharmaceutically important molecules. Tyrosine and tryptophan are precursors of phenolic metabolism. It was aimed to investigate the potential of exogenously introduced precursors on the phenolic contents in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague seedlings. The seeds of two local varieties (Chakwal and Desi) were grown in completely randomized design in a growth chamber at 19 ± 2°C with two amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) applied (priming and supplementation in rooting medium) at two treatment levels (0, and 1%)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464110/variations-in-the-chemical-composition-and-standardized-ileal-digestibility-of-amino-acids-in-eight-genotypes-of-triticale-fed-to-growing-pigs
#11
E J P Strang, M Eklund, P Rosenfelder, J K Htoo, R Mosenthin
The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 currently available genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs. The genotypes included Grenado, Cando, Agostino, Massimo, Tarzan, HYT Prime, SW Talentro, and Cultivo. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 31 ± 2 kg were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 7 d each and 8 assay diets. The N-free method was used to determine basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461719/exogenous-application-of-rutin-and-gallic-acid-regulate-antioxidants-and-alleviate-reactive-oxygen-generation-in-oryza-sativa-l
#12
Akanksha Singh, Rupali Gupta, Rakesh Pandey
The effect of rutin and gallic acid on growth, phytochemical and defense gene activation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. The seeds of rice were primed with different concentrations of rutin and gallic acid (10-60 µg mL(-1)) to explicate the effect on germination on water agar plates. Further, to study the effect of most effective concentrations of gallic acid (60 µg mL(-1)) and rutin (50 µg mL(-1)), greenhouse pot experiment was set up to determine the changes in growth, antioxidant and defense parameters...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456525/homologous-and-heterologous-antigenic-matched-vaccines-containing-different-h5-hemagglutinins-provide-variable-protection-of-chickens-from-the-2014-u-s-h5n8-and-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses
#13
Darrell R Kapczynski, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
From December 2014 to June 2015, a novel H5 Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused the largest animal health emergency in US history resulting in mortality or culling of greater than 48 million poultry. The outbreak renewed interest in developing intervention strategies, including vaccines, for these newly emergent HPAI viruses. In these studies, several existing H5 vaccines or vaccine seed strains with varying genetic relatedness (85-100%) to the 2...
April 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431230/structural-basis-for-guide-rna-processing-and-seed-dependent-dna-targeting-by-crispr-cas12a
#14
Daan C Swarts, John van der Oost, Martin Jinek
The CRISPR-associated protein Cas12a (Cpf1), which has been repurposed for genome editing, possesses two distinct nuclease activities: endoribonuclease activity for processing its own guide RNAs and RNA-guided DNase activity for target DNA cleavage. To elucidate the molecular basis of both activities, we determined crystal structures of Francisella novicida Cas12a bound to guide RNA and in complex with an R-loop formed by a non-cleavable guide RNA precursor and a full-length target DNA. Corroborated by biochemical experiments, these structures reveal the mechanisms of guide RNA processing and pre-ordering of the seed sequence in the guide RNA that primes Cas12a for target DNA binding...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428805/edible-dormice-glis-glis-avoid-areas-with-a-high-density-of-their-preferred-food-plant-the-european-beech
#15
Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber, Thomas Ruf
BACKGROUND: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very short time period prior to hibernation...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391467/osmopriming-with-cacl2-improves-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-production-under-water-limited-environments
#16
Shahid Farooq, Mubshar Hussain, Khawar Jabran, Waseem Hassan, Muhammad S Rizwan, Tauqeer A Yasir
This 2-year field study investigates the potential of seed priming to mitigate losses caused by drought stress at different phenophases of wheat. Wheat seeds were soaked either in distilled water or in aerated solution of CaCl2 (ψs -1.25 MPa) for 18 h to accomplish hydropriming and osmopriming, respectively. The soil moisture was maintained at 90-100% field capacity (well-watered) or 45-50% field capacity at vegetative (vegetative drought) and reproductive (terminal drought) phases. Allometric traits leaf area index, leaf area duration, and crop growth rate were initially more affected by vegetative drought; however, terminal drought was more severe at later stages...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385670/spatial-profiling-of-maytansine-during-the-germination-process-of-maytenus-senegalensis-seeds
#17
Dennis Eckelmann, Souvik Kusari, Michael Spiteller
The ecological role of maytansine, an important antineoplastic and antimicrobial compound with high cytotoxicity, particularly as a chemical defense compound has remained elusive since its discovery in the 1970s in Maytenus and Putterlickia plants. In the present study, we have used MALDI-imaging-HRMS to visualize the occurrence as well as spatial and temporal distribution of maytansine in a Maytenus senegalensis plant, seeds obtained from the mother plant during seeding stage, through the germination of the seeds, and finally up to the establishment of seedlings (or daughter plants)...
June 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374224/effects-of-insect-herbivory-on-bilberry-production-and-removal-of-berries-by-frugivores
#18
Tuuli-Marjaana Koski, Marika Kalpio, Toni Laaksonen, Päivi M Sirkiä, Heikki P Kallio, Baoru Yang, Kaisa M Linderborg, Tero Klemola
The evolutionary purpose of a fleshy fruit is to attract seed dispersers and get the seeds dispersed by frugivorous animals. For this reason, fruits should be highly rewarding to these mutualists. However, insect herbivory can alter plant reproductive success e.g. by decreasing fruit yield or affecting the attractiveness of the fruits to mutualistic seed dispersers. Under natural conditions, we tested the effects of experimental larval-defoliation on berry ripening and consumption of a non-cultivated dwarf shrub, the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369913/seed-priming-with-kno3-mediates-biochemical-processes-to-inhibit-lead-toxicity-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#19
Fahim Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Asim Akram, Muhammad Y Ashraf, Khawaja S Ahmad, Bilal Zulfiqar, Hasan Sardar, Rana N Shabbir, Sadia Majeed, Muhammad A Shehzad, Irfan Anwar
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of lead (Pb) in agricultural soils has become a major factor for reduced crop yields and poses serious threats to humans consuming agricultural products. The present study investigated the effects of KNO3 seed priming (0 and 0.5% KNO3 ) on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to Pb toxicity (0, 1300 and 2550 mg kg(-1) Pb). RESULTS: Pb exposure markedly reduced the growth of maize seedlings and resulted in higher Pb accumulation in roots than shoots...
April 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352300/toward-facilitating-microalgae-cope-with-effluent-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-kitchen-waste-the-art-of-agricultural-phytohormones
#20
Haiyan Pei, Liqun Jiang, Qingjie Hou, Ze Yu
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have used wastewater as substitutes to cultivate microalgae, most of them obtained weaker algal viability than standard media. Some studies demonstrated a promotion of phytohormones on algal growth in standard media. For exploiting a strategy to improve algal biomass accumulation in effluent from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste (ADE-KW), the agricultural phytohormones gibberellin, indole-3-acetic acid, and brassinolide (GIB) were applied to Chlorella SDEC-11 and Scenedesmus SDEC-13 at different stages of algal growth...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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