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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087924/clinical-testing-of-tuberculosis-vaccine-candidates
#1
Mark Hatherill, Dereck Tait, Helen McShane
It is almost 100 years since the development of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). While BCG does confer consistent protection against disseminated disease, there is an urgent need for a more effective vaccine against pulmonary disease. There are several indications for such an improved vaccine, including prevention of infection, prevention of disease, and a therapeutic vaccine to prevent recurrent disease. The two main approaches to TB vaccine development are developing an improved whole mycobacterial priming agent to replace BCG and/or developing a subunit booster vaccine to be administered after a BCG or BCG replacement priming vaccination...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081136/task-irrelevant-external-cues-can-influence-language-selection-in-voluntary-object-naming-evidence-from-hindi-english-bilinguals
#2
Divya Bhatia, Seema Gorur Prasad, Kaushik Sake, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077440/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-enhances-efficacy-of-a-francisella-tularensis-lvs-catanionic-nanoparticle-subunit-vaccine-against-f-tularensis-schu-s4-challenge-by-augmenting-both-humoral-and-cellular-immunity
#3
Katharina Richard, Barbara J Mann, Aiping Qin, Eileen M Barry, Robert K Ernst, Stefanie N Vogel
Francisella tularensis, a bacterial biothreat agent, has no approved vaccine in the USA. Previously, we showed that incorporating lysates from partially attenuated F. tularensis LVS or fully virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strains into catanionic surfactant vesicle (V) nanoparticles (LVS-V and Schu S4-V, respectively) protected fully against F. tularensis LVS intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge in mice. However, we achieved only partial protection against F. tularensis Schu S4 intranasal (i.n.) challenge, even when employing heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#4
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors required for production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during S. mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071749/tomato-progeny-inherit-resistance-to-the-nematode-meloidogyne-javanica-linked-to-plant-growth-induced-by-the-biocontrol-fungus-trichoderma-atroviride
#5
Hugo Agripino de Medeiros, Jerônimo Vieira de Araújo Filho, Leandro Grassi de Freitas, Pablo Castillo, María Belén Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique Monte
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%)...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070702/effects-of-tributylborane-activated-adhesive-and-two-silane-agents-on-bonding-computer-aided-design-and-manufacturing-cad-cam-resin-composite
#6
Ayano Shinohara, Yohsuke Taira, Takashi Sawase
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an experimental adhesive agent [methyl methacrylate-tributylborane liquid (MT)] and two adhesive agents containing silane on the bonding between a resin composite block of a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and a light-curing resin composite veneering material. The surfaces of CAD/CAM resin composite specimens were ground with silicon-carbide paper, treated with phosphoric acid, and then primed with either one of the two silane agents [Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SC) and GC Ceramic Primer II (GC)], no adhesive control (Cont), or one of three combinations (MT/SC, MT/GC, and MT/Cont)...
January 9, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068961/contradictory-individualized-self-blaming-a-cross-sectional-study-of-associations-between-expectations-to-managers-coworkers-one-self-and-risk-factors-for-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-construction-workers
#7
Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen Ajslev, Roger Persson, Lars Louis Andersen
BACKGROUND: Within work sociology, several studies have addressed construction workers' practices of masculinity, class, economy, safety risks and production. However, few studies have investigated room for agency in relation to bodily pain or musculoskeletal disorders and even fewer have made a quantitative approach. Accordingly, by means of a questionnaire, we examined the association between construction workers' room for agency and physical exertion, bodily and mental fatigue, and lower back pain...
January 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056386/h2o2-seed-priming-improves-tolerance-to-salinity-drought-and-their-combined-effect-more-than-mannitol-in-cakile-maritima-when-compared-to-eutrema-salsugineum
#8
Hasna Ellouzi, Souhir Sghayar, Chedly Abdelly
The effect of H2O2 and mannitol seed priming was investigated on plant growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of Cakile maritima and Eutrema salsugineum, when exposed to drought and salt stress, either separately applied or combined. Under unprimed conditions, drought severely restricted growth (40% as compared to the control) and redox balance of C. maritima seedlings, whereas E. salsugineum showed these drastic effects under individual salinity (33% as compared to the control)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053544/nab-paclitaxel-as-a-potential-partner-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-solid-tumors
#9
REVIEW
Hatem H Soliman
Tumors recognized by the host immune system are associated with better survival. However, the immune system is often suppressed in patients with established tumor burden. Stimulating the immune system to detect and kill tumor cells has been a challenge in cancer therapy for some time. Recently, novel cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccine therapies, have emerged as promising therapeutic approaches for many solid tumors. However, for some tumors, immunotherapy alone has not provided significant benefits, and some may even be fully resistant to immunotherapy...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039455/a-phase-i-trial-of-azacitidine-and-nanoparticle-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-solid-tumors
#10
Adam L Cohen, Abhijit Ray, Matthew Van Brocklin, David M Burnett, R Chris Bowen, Donna L Dyess, Thomas W Butler, Theresa Dumlao, Hung T Khong
BACKGROUND: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), an albumin-binding protein, is downregulated by hypermethylation in many cancers. Hypomethylating agents such as azacitidine can upregulate SPARC in tumors, which may enhance the accumulation of albumin-bound drugs at tumor site. The objectives of this phase I trial was to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose and to assess any clinical activity of the combination of azacytidine and weekly nanoparticle-albumin-bound (nab®) paclitaxel...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024641/poly-amido-amine-and-nano-calcium-phosphate-bonding-agent-to-remineralize-tooth-dentin-in-cyclic-artificial-saliva-lactic-acid
#11
Kunneng Liang, Michael D Weir, Mark A Reynolds, Xuedong Zhou, Jiyao Li, Hockin H K Xu
The objectives of this study were to develop a novel method to remineralize dentin lesions, and investigate the remineralization effects of poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer plus a bonding agent with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Dentin lesions were produced via phosphoric acid. Four groups were tested: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin with PAMAM, (3) dentin with NACP bonding agent, and (4) dentin with PAMAM plus NACP bonding agent...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018706/application-of-platelet-rich-plasma-with-stem-cells-in-bone-and-periodontal-tissue-engineering
#12
REVIEW
Gabriela Fernandes, Shuying Yang
Presently, there is a high paucity of bone grafts in the United States and worldwide. Regenerating bone is of prime concern due to the current demand of bone grafts and the increasing number of diseases causing bone loss. Autogenous bone is the present gold standard of bone regeneration. However, disadvantages like donor site morbidity and its decreased availability limit its use. Even allografts and synthetic grafting materials have their own limitations. As certain specific stem cells can be directed to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage in the presence of growth factors (GFs), it makes stem cells the ideal agents for bone regeneration...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017426/viral-vector-vaccines-protect-cockatiels-from-inflammatory-lesions-after-heterologous-parrot-bornavirus-2-challenge-infection
#13
Solveig Runge, Marita Olbert, Christiane Herden, Sara Malberg, Angela Römer-Oberdörfer, Peter Staeheli, Dennis Rubbenstroth
Avian bornaviruses are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a chronic neurologic and often fatal disorder of psittacines including endangered species. To date no causative therapy or immunoprophylaxis is available. Our previous work has shown that viral vector vaccines can delay the course of homologous bornavirus challenge infections but failed to protect against PDD when persistent infection was not prevented. The goal of this study was to refine our avian bornavirus vaccination and infection model to better represent natural bornavirus infections in order to achieve full protection against a heterologous challenge infection...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003224/c-reactive-protein-isoforms-differentially-affect-outer-blood-retinal-barrier-integrity-and-function
#14
Blanca Molins, Anna Pascual Méndez, Victor Llorenç, Javier Zarranz-Ventura, Marina Mesquida, Alfredo Adan, Jordi Martorell
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier (oBRB) and is the prime target of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). C-reactive protein (CRP), a serum biomarker for chronic inflammation and AMD, presents two different isoforms, monomeric (mCRP) and pentameric (pCRP) that may have a different effect on inflammation and barrier function in the RPE. The results reported in this study suggest that mCRP but not pCRP impairs RPE functionality by increasing paracellular permeability and disrupting the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin in RPE cells...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999090/biologically-active-recombinant-carp-lh-as-a-spawning-inducing-agent-for-carp
#15
Joseph Aizen, Lian Hollander-Cohen, Michal Shpilman, Berta Levavi-Sivan
Currently spawning induction in carp species uses carp pituitary extract (CPE) and a combination of synthetic agonist of GnRH -combined with a dopamine antagonist. The main goal of this study was the production of recombinant gonadotropins (GtHs) on a large scale to serve as an alternative to currently used agents. We produced carp (c) recombinant (r) LH as a single-chain in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. LHα-subunit was joined with LHβ-subunit with a flexible linker of three Glycine-Serine repeats and six Histidines to form a mature protein, the β-subunit formed the N-terminal part and the α-subunit the C-terminal part...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995988/the-neural-representation-of-competence-traits-an-fmri-study
#16
Ning Ma, Simin Wang, Quansen Yang, Tingyong Feng, Frank Van Overwalle
Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that a trait code is mainly represented in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, those studies only investigated the neural code of warmth traits. According to the 'Big Two' model of impression formation, competence traits are the other major dimension when we judge others. The current study explored the neural representation of competence traits by using an fMRI repetition suppression paradigm, which is a rapid reduction of neuronal responses upon repeated presentation of the same implied trait...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994166/intratumoral-delivery-of-immunotherapy-act-locally-think-globally
#17
REVIEW
M Angela Aznar, Nicola Tinari, Antonio J Rullán, Alfonso R Sánchez-Paulete, María E Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ignacio Melero
Immune mechanisms have evolved to cope with local entry of microbes acting in a confined fashion but eventually inducing systemic immune memory. Indeed, in situ delivery of a number of agents into tumors can mimic in the malignant tissue the phenomena that control intracellular infection leading to the killing of infected cells. Vascular endothelium activation and lymphocyte attraction, together with dendritic cell-mediated cross-priming, are the key elements. Intratumoral therapy with pathogen-associated molecular patterns or recombinant viruses is being tested in the clinic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988837/talimogene-laherparepvec-t-vec-and-other-oncolytic-viruses-for-the-treatment-of-melanoma
#18
Praveen K Bommareddy, Anand Patel, Saamia Hossain, Howard L Kaufman
Many mammalian viruses have properties that can be commandeered for the treatment of cancer. These characteristics include preferential infection and replication in tumor cells, the initiation of tumor cell lysis, and the induction of innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, viruses can be genetically engineered to reduce pathogenicity and increase immunogenicity resulting in minimally toxic therapeutic agents. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC; Imlygic™), is a genetically modified herpes simplex virus, type 1, and is the first oncolytic virus therapy to be approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma by the US FDA...
December 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959490/chemical-biology-of-n-5-substituted-formamidopyrimidine-dna-adducts
#19
Suresh S Pujari, Natalia Tretyakova
DNA nucleobases are the prime targets for chemical modifications by endogenous and exogenous electrophiles. Alkylation of the N7 position of guanine and adenine in DNA triggers base-catalyzed imidazole ring opening and the formation of N(5)-substituted formamidopyrimidine (N(5)-R-FAPy) lesions. Me-FAPy-dG adducts induced by exposure to methylating agents and AFB-FAPy-dG lesions formed by aflatoxin B1 have been shown to persist in cells and to contribute to toxicity and mutagenicity. In contrast, the biological outcomes of other N(5)-substituted FAPy lesions have not been fully elucidated...
December 13, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935783/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-anesthesia-pharmacology
#20
Brett Morgan, Edwin N Aroke, Jennifer Dungan
The field of pharmacogenomics seeks to identify the impact of genetic variants on drug dosing, response, metabolism, and safety outcomes. The narrow therapeutic indices for anesthesia drugs, variability of patient responses to anesthesia, and the risks associated with surgery make anesthetics and the perioperative period prime targets for pharmacogenetic research. Anesthesia providers strive to optimize anesthesia delivery and patient outcomes and to specifically reduce anesthesia-related risks and negative outcomes...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
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