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Priming agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445481/hypomethylating-agents-synergize-with-irinotecan-to-improve-response-to-chemotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
Anup Sharma, Rajita Vatapalli, Eihab Abdelfatah, K Wyatt McMahon, Zachary Kerner, Angela A Guzzetta, Jasvinder Singh, Cynthia Zahnow, Stephen B Baylin, Sashidhar Yerram, Yue Hu, Nilofer Azad, Nita Ahuja
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In the metastatic setting, the majority of patients respond to initial therapies but eventually develop resistance and progress. In this study, we test the hypothesis that priming with epigenetic therapy sensitizes CRC cell lines, which were previously resistant to subsequent chemotherapeutic agents. When multiple CRC cell lines are first exposed to 500 nM of the DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-cytidine (AZA) in-vitro, and the cells then established as in-vivo xenografts in untreated NOD-SCID mice; there is an enhanced response to cytotoxic chemotherapy with agents commonly used in CRC treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443244/the-mitochondrial-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-1-ca-2-transport-apoptosis-and-their-regulation
#2
REVIEW
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Soumasree De, Alon Meir
In the outer mitochondrial membrane, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functions in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by mediating the transport of Ca(2+) in and out of mitochondria. VDAC1 is highly Ca(2+)-permeable and modulates Ca(2+) access to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Intramitochondrial Ca(2+) controls energy metabolism by enhancing the rate of NADH production via modulating critical enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation. Mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] is regarded as an important determinant of cell sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli and was proposed to act as a "priming signal," sensitizing the organelle and promoting the release of pro-apoptotic proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438089/feline-biliary-tree-and-gallbladder-disease
#3
Corma Ma Otte, Louis C Penning, Jan Rothuizen
Practical relevance Diseases of the biliary tree and gallbladder are more common in cats than diseases of the liver parenchyma. The parenchyma is usually affected secondarily to systemic illnesses, while the biliary system is the prime target for infectious agents (eg, bacteria and flukes) and non-infectious conditions (eg, neoplasia and cysts). Clinical approaches Cats with biliary disease are evaluated because of common feline clinical signs such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Icterus may or may not be obvious...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435459/aptamer-internalization-via-endocytosis-inducing-s-phase-arrest-and-priming-maver-1-lymphoma-cells-for-cytarabine-chemotherapy
#4
Huan Li, Shuanghui Yang, Ge Yu, Liangfang Shen, Jia Fan, Ling Xu, Hedong Zhang, Nianxi Zhao, Zihua Zeng, Tony Hu, Jianguo Wen, Youli Zu
The goal of precision therapy is to efficiently treat cancer without side effects. Aptamers are a class of small ligands composed of single-stranded oligonucleotides that bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity. In this study, we identified an ssDNA aptamer specifically targeting Maver-1 lymphoma cells with high binding affinity (Kd = 70±8 pmol/L). Interestingly, cellular cycle studies revealed that exposure of Maver-1 cells to synthetic aptamers triggered S-phase arrest of 40% of the cells (vs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435358/effect-of-cleaning-agent-primer-application-and-their-combination-on-the-bond-strength-of-a-resin-cement-to-two-yttrium-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal-zirconia-ceramics
#5
William Matthew Negreiros, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Marcelo Giannini
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a cleaning agent and priming on the bond strength (BS) of a resin cement (RC) to zirconia ceramics after 24 h and 1 year of water-storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six Katana and 56 ZirCAD zirconia ceramic plates were prepared and each zirconia brand was divided into four groups (n = 14): (1) untreated; (2) treated with Ivoclean cleaning agent; (3) treated with Monobond Plus coupling agent; (4) treated with Ivoclean + Monobond Plus...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429646/rule-violations-sensitise-towards-negative-and-authority-related-stimuli
#6
Robert Wirth, Anna Foerster, Hannah Rendel, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Rule violations have usually been studied from a third-person perspective, identifying situational factors that render violations more or less likely. A first-person perspective of the agent that actively violates the rules, on the other hand, is only just beginning to emerge. Here we show that committing a rule violation sensitises towards subsequent negative stimuli as well as subsequent authority-related stimuli. In a Prime-Probe design, we used an instructed rule-violation task as the Prime and a word categorisation task as the Probe...
April 21, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419665/lettuce-produced-hepatitis-c-virus-e1e2-heterodimer-triggers-immune-responses-in-mice-and-antibody-production-after-oral-vaccination
#7
Jihong Liu Clarke, Lisa Paruch, Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Iuliana Caras, Catalin Tucureanu, Adrian Onu, Sonya Ciulean, Crina Stavaru, Andre Eerde, Yanliang Wang, Hege Steen, Sissel Haugslien, Catalina Petrareanu, Catalin Lazar, Ioan Popescu, Ralph Bock, Jean Dubuisson, Norica Branza-Nichita
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500,000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licenced vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of an HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca sativa) using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology...
April 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417195/rrx-001-protects-against-cisplatin-induced-toxicities
#8
Bryan Oronsky, Tony R Reid, Christopher Larson, Corey A Carter, Christina E Brzezniak, Arnold Oronsky, Pedro Cabrales
PURPOSE: RRx-001, a minimally toxic tumor-associated macrophage and neutrophil-repolarizing agent, is under investigation in Phase II clinical trials as a sensitizer/resensitizer to cisplatin and carboplatin. On the basis of anecdotal clinical observations of improved platinum tolerability following a priming period with RRx-001 as well as preclinical studies that have previously demonstrated radioprotection of intestinal stem cells and cardioprotection from doxorubicin, the in vivo cytoprotective potential of RRx-001 pretreatment against cisplatin-induced bone marrow suppression and renal toxicity was investigated...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414573/phosphatidylserine-translocation-after-radiosurgery-in-an-animal-model-of-arteriovenous-malformation
#9
Newsha Raoufi Rad, Lucinda S McRobb, Zhenjun Zhao, Vivienne S Lee, Nirav J Patel, Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Michael Grace, Joshua J McHattan, Jude V Amal Raj, Hong Duong, Saleh R Kashba, Marcus A Stoodley
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is asymmetrically distributed across the plasma membrane, located predominantly on the inner leaflet in healthy cells. Translocation of PS to the outer leaflet makes it available as a target for biological therapies. We examined PS translocation after radiosurgery in an animal model of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM). An arteriovenous fistula was created by end-to-side anastomosis of the left external jugular vein to the common carotid artery in 6-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats...
April 17, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407110/prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-primary-tumour-side-in-patients-with-ras-wild-type-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-chemotherapy-and-egfr-directed-antibodies-in-six-randomised-trials
#10
D Arnold, B Lueza, J-Y Douillard, M Peeters, H-J Lenz, A Venook, V Heinemann, E Van Cutsem, J-P Pignon, J Tabernero, A Cervantes, F Ciardiello
Background: There is increasing evidence that metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a genetically heterogeneous disease and that tumours arising from different sides of the colon (left versus right) have different clinical outcomes. Furthermore, previous analyses comparing the activity of different classes of targeted agents in patients with KRAS wild-type (wt) or RAS wt mCRC suggest that primary tumour location (side), might be both prognostic and predictive for clinical outcome. Methods: This retrospective analysis investigated the prognostic and predictive influence of the localisation of the primary tumour in patients with unresectable RAS wt mCRC included in six randomised trials (CRYSTAL, FIRE-3, CALGB 80405, PRIME, PEAK and 20050181), comparing chemotherapy plus EGFR antibody therapy (experimental arm) with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and bevacizumab (control arms)...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399679/an-overview-of-quinoline-as-a-privileged-scaffold-in-cancer-drug-discovery
#11
Robert Musiol
The concept of privileged structures is well known and is often used in the process of drug design and development. Although its assumptions are not clear, its overall usefulness remains high. Various substructures have been identified as privileged and quinoline is a prime example of such a structure. Areas covered: Quinoline drugs that are currently approved or under clinical investigation were reviewed based on a literature search. Their modes of action and outcomes during clinical research are discussed...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394162/exposure-to-white-religious-iconography-influences-black-individuals-intragroup-and-intergroup-attitudes
#12
Simon Howard, Samuel R Sommers
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found that exposure to White religious iconography via priming techniques can increase White individuals' anti-Black attitudes. To date, however, no research has examined the influence of exposure to White religious iconography on Black individuals' intragroup and intergroup attitudes. We hypothesized that exposure to White religious iconography would influence Black individuals' intragroup attitudes negatively. METHOD: Black participants (N = 120) were either subliminally exposed to religious images (i...
April 10, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390873/chikungunya-virus-nsp4-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-core-domain-displays-detergent-sensitive-primer-extension-and-terminal-adenylyltransferase-activities
#13
Ming Wei Chen, Yaw Bia Tan, Jie Zheng, Yongqian Zhao, Bee Ting Lim, Tobias Cornvik, Julien Lescar, Lisa Fong Poh Ng, Dahai Luo
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an important arboviral infectious agent in tropical and subtropical regions, often causing persistent and debilitating disease. The viral enzyme non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), catalyzes the formation of negative-sense, genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Here we report a truncated nsP4 construct that is soluble, stable and purified recombinantly from Escherichia coli. Sequence analyses and homology modelling indicate that all necessary RdRP elements are included...
April 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382938/thiourea-priming-enhances-salt-tolerance-through-co-ordinated-regulation-of-micrornas-and-hormones-in-brassica-juncea
#14
Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Gaurav Sablok, Michael Hackenberg, Uday Deshpande, Penna Suprasanna
Activation of stress tolerance mechanisms demands transcriptional reprogramming. Salt stress, a major threat to plant growth, enhances ROS production and affects transcription through modulation of miRNAs and hormones. The present study delineates salt stress ameliorating action of thiourea (TU, a ROS scavenger) in Brassica juncea and provides mechanistic link between redox, microRNA and hormones. The ameliorative potential of TU towards NaCl stress was related with its ability to decrease ROS accumulation in roots and increase Na(+) accumulation in shoots...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378936/the-tumor-suppressor-tropomyosin-tpm2-1-regulates-sensitivity-to-apoptosis-beyond-anoikis-characterized-by-changes-in-the-levels-of-intrinsic-apoptosis-proteins
#15
Melissa Desouza-Armstrong, Peter W Gunning, Justine R Stehn
The actin cytoskeleton is a polymer system that acts both as a sensor and mediator of apoptosis. Tropomyosins (Tpm) are a family of actin binding proteins that form co-polymers with actin and diversify actin filament function. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of the tropomyosin isoform Tpm2.1 sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by cell detachment (anoikis) via an unknown mechanism. It is not yet known whether Tpm2.1 or other tropomyosin isoforms regulate sensitivity to apoptosis beyond anoikis...
April 5, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376627/severe-acute-hepatitis-and-cold-agglutinin-related-hemolytic-anemia-secondary-to-prime-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#16
Guillermo Ontanilla Clavijo, Julia Praena Segovia, Álvaro Giráldez Gallego, María Elisa Cordero Matía, José Manuel Sousa Martín
Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the Herpesviridae family, is responsible for the infectious mononucleosis clinical syndrome, which mainly includes the pharyngitis, fever, and lymphadenopathy triad after incubation for 30-50 days. The liver is involved in 80-90% of patients in a self-limiting transient manner, with jaundice being much more uncommon (5%). From a hematological standpoint it may manifest aplastic anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. We report a case of infectious mononucleosis that included severe acute hepatitis and was associated with severe hemolytic anemia secondary to cold agglutinins...
April 3, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369741/janus-kinase-inhibitors-prevent-migration-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-neutrophils-towards-interleukin-8-but-do-not-inhibit-priming-of-the-respiratory-burst-or-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#17
T S Mitchell, R J Moots, H L Wright
Neutrophils play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and cytokines. Orally active Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (JAKi), e.g. baricitinib and tofacitinib, have high clinical efficacy in RA but are linked with neutropenia and increased infections. Our aim was to determine the effect of JAK inhibition with baricitinib and tofacitinib on healthy control and RA neutrophil lifespan and function. RA (n = 7) and healthy control (n = 7) neutrophils were treated with baricitinib or tofacitinib for 30 min, prior to incubation in the absence or presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interferon (IFN)-γ...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369686/on-demand-tuned-hazard-free-elastomeric-composites-a-green-approach
#18
Partheban Manoharan, Narayan Chandra Das, Kinsuk Naskar
Rising ecological concerns and depletion of the potentially harmful environmental impacts caused by rubber products, are of prime importance in the industry. Therefore, implementation of sustainable greener materials is required to minimize the detrimental influences. In this research, we investigated the beneficial influence of naturally derived bio-resin towards the effects of association with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in highly dispersible silica (HDS) reinforced Natural rubber (NR)/Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR) based composites...
March 31, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359286/the-double-edged-sword-of-re-expression-of-genes-by-hypomethylating-agents-from-viral-mimicry-to-exploitation-as-priming-agents-for-targeted-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#19
REVIEW
Florian Wolff, Michael Leisch, Richard Greil, Angela Risch, Lisa Pleyer
Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) have been widely used over the last decade, approved for use in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The proposed central mechanism of action of HMAs, is the reversal of aberrant methylation in tumor cells, thus reactivating CpG-island promoters and leading to (re)expression of tumor suppressor genes. Recent investigations into the mode of action of azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC) have revealed new molecular mechanisms that impinge on tumor immunity via induction of an interferon response, through activation of endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) that are normally epigenetically silenced...
March 31, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351186/immunotherapy-of-elderly-acute-myeloid-leukemia-light-at-the-end-of-a-long-tunnel
#20
William M Rafelson, John L Reagan, Loren D Fast, Seah H Lim
Although it is possible to induce remission in the majority of the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), many patients still die due to disease relapse. Immunotherapy is an attractive option. It is more specific. The memory T cells induced by immunotherapy may also provide the long-term tumor immunosurveillance to prevent disease relapse. Although immunotherapy of AML started in the early 1970s, its clinical impact has been disappointing. Recent advances in tumor immunology and immunotherapeutic agents have rekindled interest...
March 28, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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