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Priming agents

Bing-Ying Xie, Ai-Wen Wu
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease; current research relies on cancer cell lines and animal cancer models, which may not precisely imitate inner human tumors and guide clinical medicine. The purpose of our study was to explore and further improve the process of producing three-dimensional (3D) organoid model and impel the development of personalized therapy. METHODS: We subcutaneously injected surgically resected CRC tissues from a patient into BALB/c-nu mice to build patient-derived xenografts (PDXs)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Danya Ben-Hail, Racheli Begas-Shvartz, Moran Shalev, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine, Arie Gruzman, Simona Reina, Vito De Pinto, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Apoptosis is thought to play a critical role in several pathological processes, such as neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases) and various cardiovascular diseases. Despite the fact that apoptotic mechanisms are well defined, there is still no substantial therapeutic strategy to stop or even slow this process. Thus, there is an unmet need for therapeutic agents that are able to block or slow apoptosis in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The outer mitochondrial membrane protein voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) is a convergence point for a variety of cell survival and death signals, including apoptosis...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Leyou Zhang, Qing Wu, Yi Mu, Jingxia Zhang
As a new summarized record of an individual's medical data and information, Personal Health Record (PHR) can be accessible online. The owner can control fully his/her PHR files to be shared with different users such as doctors, clinic agents, and friends. However, in an open network environment like in the Cloud, these sensitive privacy information may be gotten by those unauthorized parties and users. In this paper, we consider how to achieve PHR data confidentiality and provide fine-grained access control of PHR files in the public Cloud based on Attribute Based Encryption(ABE)...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Amritaj Patra, Qianqian Zhang, F Peter Guengerich, Martin Egli
O6-Methyl-2(prime)-deoxyguanosine (O6-MeG) is a ubiquitous DNA lesion, formed not only by xenobiotic carcinogens but also by the endogenous methylating agent S-adenosylmethionine. It can introduce mutations during DNA replication, with different DNA polymerases displaying different ratios of correct or incorrect incoporation opposite this nucleoside. Of the "translesion" Y-family human DNA polymerases (hpols), hpol η is most efficient in incorporating equal numbers of correct and incorrect C and T bases. However, the mechanistic basis for this specific yet indescriminate activity is not known...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ayesha Khalid, Stefano Persano, Haifa Shen, Yuliang Zhao, Elvin Blanco, Mauro Ferrari, Joy Wolfram
The ultimate goal in the field of drug delivery is to exclusively direct therapeutic agents to pathological tissues in order to increase therapeutic efficacy and eliminate side effects. This goal is challenging due to multiple transport obstacles in the body. Strategies that improve drug transport exploit differences in the characteristics of normal and pathological tissues. Within the field of oncology, these concepts have laid the groundwork for a new discipline termed transport oncophysics. Areas covered: Efforts to improve drug biodistribution have mainly focused on nanocarriers that enable preferential accumulation of drugs in diseased tissues...
October 11, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Peter A Campochiaro, Lloyd Paul Aiello, Philip J Rosenfeld
The association of retinal hypoxia with retinal neovascularization has been recognized for decades, causing Michaelson to postulate in 1948 that a factor secreted by hypoxic retina was involved. The isolation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), characterization of its angiogenic activity, and demonstration that its expression was increased in hypoxic tissue made it a prime candidate. Intraocular levels of VEGF are elevated in patients with retinal or iris neovascularization, and VEGF-specific antagonists markedly suppress retinal neovascularization in mice and primates with ischemic retinopathy...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Mariana Urrutia, Sebastián Fernández, Marisol González, Rodrigo Vilches, Pablo Rojas, Manuel Vásquez, Mónica Kurte, Ana María Vega-Letter, Flavio Carrión, Fernando Figueroa, Patricio Rojas, Carlos Irarrázabal, Rodrigo A Fuentealba
The neurotransmitter GABA has been recently identified as a potent immunosuppressive agent that targets both innate and adaptive immune systems and prevents disease progression of several autoimmunity models. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing progenitor cells that differentiate into various cell types under specific conditions, including neurons. In addition, MSC possess strong immunosuppressive capabilities. Upon cytokine priming, undifferentiated MSC suppress T-cell proliferation via cell-to-cell contact mechanisms and the secretion of soluble factors like nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and IDO...
2016: PloS One
Iliyas Khan, Avinash Gothwal, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Prashant Kesharwani, Lokesh Gupta, Arun K Iyer, Umesh Gupta
Nanotechnological advancement has become a key standard for the diagnosis and treatment of several complex disorders such as cancer by utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention effect and tumor-specific targeting. Synthesis and designing the formulation of active agents in terms of their efficient delivery is of prime importance for healthcare. The use of nanocarriers has resolved the undesirable characteristics of anticancer drugs such as low solubility and poor permeability in cells. Several types of nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed with the use of various polymers along or devoid of surface engineering for targeting tumor cells...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Gustaf Gredebäck, Moritz M Daum
In this article, we review recent evidence of infants' early competence in perceiving and interpreting the actions of others. We present a theoretical model that decomposes the timeline of action perception into a series of distinct processes that occur in a particular order. Once an agent is detected, covert attention can be allocated to the future state of the agent (priming), which may lead to overt gaze shifts that predict goals (prediction). Once these goals are achieved, the consequence of the agents' actions and the manner in which the actions were performed can be evaluated (evaluation)...
June 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Wuttipong Mahakham, Piyada Theerakulpisut, Santi Maensiri, Santi Phumying, Ajit K Sarmah
Application of nanotechnology in agriculture is moving towards to improve the cultivation and growth of crop plants. The present study is the first attempt to propose a simple, yet cost-effective and ecofriendly synthesis of phytochemicals-capped GNPs using rhizome extract of galanga plant at room temperature. The synthesized GNPs were characterized by various characterization techniques. To promote the green nanotechnology applications in agriculture, GNPs solution at environmentally realistic dose (5 to 15ppm) as nanopriming agent was used to activate the germination and early seedling growth of maize aged seeds...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maik Henkel, Niels Röckendorf, Andreas Frey
Sulfhydryl functions of thiol-containing amino acids are prime attachment sites for conjugation of labels, ligands or drugs to proteinaceous compounds. Usually the thiol is offered a xenobiotic electrophilic moiety from the molecule to be attached such as a maleimido function. As sulfhydryls tend to oxidize into disulfides they must be reduced before conjugation. A popular thiol reduction reagent in biosciences is the substituted phosphine tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). Yet, phosphines are nucleophilic, too, and thus potentially compete with thiols for the electron-poor alkene moiety of maleimide resulting in complex product mixtures...
September 15, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Sandra Casimiro, Arlindo R Ferreira, André Mansinho, Irina Alho, Luis Costa
Bone metastases ultimately result from a complex interaction between cancer cells and bone microenvironment. However, prior to the colonization of the bone, cancer cells must succeed through a series of steps that will allow them to detach from the primary tumor, enter into circulation, recognize and adhere to specific endothelium, and overcome dormancy. We now know that as important as the metastatic cascade, tumor cells prime the secondary organ microenvironment prior to their arrival, reflecting the existence of specific metastasis-initiating cells in the primary tumor and circulating osteotropic factors...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aurore Chatron-Colliet, Charlotte Brusa, Isabelle Bertin-Jung, Sandrine Gulberti, Nick Ramalanjaona, Sylvie Fournel-Gigleux, Stéphane Brézillon, Murielle Muzard, Richard Plantier-Royon, Caroline Rémond, Yanusz Wegrowski
Different mono-xylosides and their corresponding xylobiosides obtained by a chemo-enzymatic approach featuring various substituents attached to a triazole ring were probed as priming agents for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis in the xylosyltransferase-deficient pgsA-745 Chinese hamster ovary cell line. Xylosides containing a hydrophobic aglycone moiety were the most efficient priming agents. Mono-xylosides induced higher GAG biosynthesis in comparison to their corresponding xylobiosides. The influence of the degree of polymerization of the carbohydrate part on the priming activity was investigated through different experiments...
September 12, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
S Gupta, A Paliwal, S Patel, M Bhati, Fyi Asiri, A H Shah
Aim: Comparative analysis of the coronal microleakage of a self-etching priming dentin adhesive with the use of antioxidant (Sodium Ascorbate (SA) and herbal quercetin) after Sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) and hydrogen-peroxide (H 2O2) irrigation. Materials and Methods: Seventy single root canals were enlarged and seven different treatment protocols were applied throughout the root canal treatment. The groups 1, 2 and 3 were irrigated with NaOCl. Group 1 was used as the negative control with only NaOCl irrigation whereas in group 2, Sodium ascorbate was applied as an additional irrigation agent following NaOCl...
October 15, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Diana Guzman-Villanueva, Volkmar Weissig
Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, have been known for many years for their central role in the energy metabolism; however, extensive progress has been made and to date substantial evidence demonstrates that mitochondria play a critical role not only in the cell bioenergetics but also in the entire cell metabolome. Mitochondria are also involved in the intracellular redox poise, the regulation of calcium homeostasis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are crucial for the control of a variety of signaling pathways...
September 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sabrina Peter, Haojie Yu, Roland Ivanyi-Nagy, Peter Dröge
HMGA2 is an important chromatin factor that interacts with DNA via three AT-hook domains, thereby regulating chromatin architecture and transcription during embryonic and fetal development. The protein is absent from differentiated somatic cells, but aberrantly re-expressed in most aggressive human neoplasias where it is causally linked to cell transformation and metastasis. DNA-binding also enables HMGA2 to protect cancer cells from DNA-damaging agents. HMGA2 therefore is considered to be a prime drug target for many aggressive malignancies...
September 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Qingmei Jia, Richard Bowen, Bai-Yu Lee, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Marcus A Horwitz
A safer and more effective vaccine than the unlicensed Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) is needed to protect against the biowarfare agent F. tularensis. Previously, we developed an LVS ΔcapB mutant that is significantly safer than LVS and provides potent protective immunity against F. tularensis respiratory challenge when administered intranasally but limited protection when administered intradermally unless as part of a prime-boost vaccination strategy. To improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of LVS ΔcapB, we developed recombinant LVS ΔcapB (rLVS ΔcapB) strains overexpressing various F...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Yogesh Hooda, Christine Chieh-Lin Lai, Andrew Judd, Carolyn M Buckwalter, Hyejin Esther Shin, Scott D Gray-Owen, Trevor F Moraes
Lipoproteins decorate the surface of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, playing essential roles in immune evasion and nutrient acquisition. In Neisseria spp., the causative agents of gonorrhoea and meningococcal meningitis, surface lipoproteins (SLPs) are required for virulence and have been extensively studied as prime candidates for vaccine development. However, the machinery and mechanism that allow for the surface display of SLPs are not known. Here, we describe a transposon (Tn5)-based search for the proteins required to deliver SLPs to the surface of Neisseria meningitidis, revealing a family of proteins that we have named the surface lipoprotein assembly modulator (Slam)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Qiu Xia, Fang-Fang Zhang, Fei Geng, Chen-Lu Liu, Yu-Qian Wang, Ping Xu, Zhen-Zhen Lu, Yu Xie, Hui Wu, Yan Chen, Yong Zhang, Wei Kong, Xiang-Hui Yu, Hai-Hong Zhang
Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are the main type of cells in the tumor microenvironment. CAFs exert immunosuppressive activity, which can weaken the effects of cancer immunotherapy and mainly account for poor outcomes with therapeutic vaccines. To better target and destroy CAFs, a FAPα vaccine using a modified vaccinia ankara (MVA) vector was constructed and used with a DNA vaccine reported in our previous work for heterologous prime-boost immunizations in mice...
August 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Kei Kubochi, Futoshi Komine, Ryosuke Fushiki, Shogo Yagawa, Serina Mori, Hideo Matsumura
PURPOSE: To evaluate the shear bond strengths of two gingiva-colored materials (an indirect composite material and a denture base acrylic resin) to zirconia ceramics and determine the effects of surface treatment with various priming agents. METHODS: A gingiva-colored indirect composite material (CER) or denture base acrylic resin (PAL) was bonded to zirconia disks with unpriming (UP) or one of seven priming agents (n=11 each), namely, Alloy Primer (ALP), Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB+Act), Metal Link (MEL), Meta Fast Bonding Liner (MFB), MR...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
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