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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911410/experimental-infection-with-listeria-monocytogenes-as-a-model-for-studying-host-interferon-%C3%AE-responses
#1
Jeeyoon Jennifer Ahn, Thirumahal Selvanantham, Monan Angela Zhang, Thierry Mallevaey, Shannon E Dunn
L. monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium that is a cause of food borne disease in humans. Experimental infection of mice with this pathogen has been highly informative on the role of innate and adaptive immune cells and specific cytokines in host immunity against intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-γ by innate cells during sublethal infection with L. monocytogenes is important for activating macrophages and early control of the pathogen(1-3). In addition, IFN-γ production by adaptive memory lymphocytes is important for priming the activation of innate cells upon reinfection(4)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903677/combined-inhibition-of-both-p110%C3%AE-and-p110%C3%AE-isoforms-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-is-required-for-sustained-therapeutic-effect-in-pten-deficient-er-breast-cancer
#2
Sarah R Hosford, Lloye M Dillon, Stephanie J Bouley, Rachele Rosati, Wei Yang, Vivian S Chen, Eugene Demidenko, Rocco P Morra, Todd W Miller
PURPOSE: Determine the roles of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms p110α and p110β in PTEN-deficient, estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer, and the therapeutic potential of isoform-selective inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Anti-estrogen-sensitive and -resistant PTEN-deficient, ER+ human breast cancer cell lines, and mice bearing anti-estrogen-resistant xenografts were treated with the anti-estrogen fulvestrant, the p110α inhibitor BYL719, the p110β inhibitor GSK2636771, or combinations...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897119/glaucoma-hot-topics-in-pharmacology
#3
Shiama I Balendra, Parth Arvind Shah, Mishank Jain, Andrzej Grzybowski, Francesca M Cordeiro
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma comprises a group of neurodegenerative diseases resulting in retinal ganglion cell death within the optic nerve head. It is projected to affect almost 80 million people worldwide by 2020. The condition's asymptomatic nature translates to over half of glaucoma sufferers being unaware of their condition. By the time of diagnosis, irreversible blindness is likely to have occurred. Prime areas of glaucoma research therefore include identification and optimization of risk factors for the disease, accurate and early diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic methods...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891339/bacteriological-profile-of-isolates-from-urine-samples-in-patients-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-or-prostatitis-showing-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#4
Prem Prakash Mishra, Ved Prakash, Kashmir Singh, H Mog, Sumit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. AIM: To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878230/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-plesiomonas-shigelloides-by-cross%C3%A2-priming-amplification-of-the-huga-gene
#5
Shuang Meng, Yi Wang, Yan Wang, Changyun Ye
Plesiomonas shigelloides (P. shigelloides) is implicated as an aetiological agent of human gastroenteritis in humans, for which reliable laboratory detection of P. shigelloides is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of P. shigelloides using cross‑priming amplification (CPA) has been developed, with hugA as the target. The hugA gene is required for haem iron utilisation and is critical for the survival and growth of P. shigelloides. The assay output was visualised as a colour change with no need to open the reaction tubes, and no false‑positive results were detected for the 33 non‑ P...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875297/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-mediated-phosphorylation-of-uracil-n-glycosylase-2-ung2-facilitates-repair-of-floxuridine-induced-dna-lesions-and-promotes-cell-survival
#6
Carly A Baehr, Catherine J Huntoon, Song-My Hoang, Calvin R Jerde, Larry M Karnitz
Uracil N-glycosylase 2 (UNG2), the nuclear isoform of UNG, catalyzes the removal of uracil or 5-fluorouracil lesions that accumulate in DNA following treatment with the anti-cancer agents 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (floxuridine), a 5-fluorouracil metabolite. By repairing these DNA lesions before they can cause cell death, UNG2 promotes cancer cell survival and is therefore critically involved in tumor resistance to these agents. However, the mechanisms by which UNG2 is regulated remain unclear...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872671/effects-of-religious-priming-concepts-on-prosocial-behavior-towards-ingroup-and-outgroup
#7
Jame Bryan L Batara, Pamela S Franco, Mequia Angelo M Quiachon, Dianelle Rose M Sembrero
Several studies show that there is a connection between religion and prosociality (e.g., Saroglou, 2013). To investigate whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, a growing number of scholars employed priming religious concepts and measure its influence on prosocial behavior (e.g., Pichon, Boccato, & Saroglou, 2007). In the recent development of religious priming, Ritter and Preston (2013) argued that different primes (agent prime, spiritual/abstract prime, and institutional prime) may also have varying influence on prosocial behavior specifically helping an ingroup or an outgroup target...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863199/mesothelin-immunotherapy-for-cancer-ready-for-prime-time
#8
Raffit Hassan, Anish Thomas, Christine Alewine, Dung T Le, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Ira Pastan
Mesothelin is a tumor antigen that is highly expressed in many human cancers, including malignant mesothelioma and pancreatic, ovarian, and lung adenocarcinomas. It is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy because its normal expression is limited to mesothelial cells, which are dispensable. Several antibody-based therapeutic agents as well as vaccine and T-cell therapies directed at mesothelin are undergoing clinical evaluation. These include antimesothelin immunotoxins (SS1P, RG7787/LMB-100), chimeric antimesothelin antibody (amatuximab), mesothelin-directed antibody drug conjugates (anetumab ravtansine, DMOT4039A, BMS-986148), live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin (CRS-207, JNJ-64041757), and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856491/excavating-the-surface-associated-and-secretory-proteome-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-identifying-vaccines-and-diagnostic-markers-relevant-immunodominant-epitopes
#9
Aarti Rana, Shweta Thakur, Nupur Bhardwaj, Devender Kumar, Yusuf Akhter
For centuries Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs)...
November 16, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854511/a-negative-feedback-loop-between-autophagy-and-immune-responses-in-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#10
Yuelong Ma, Li Zhang, Jie Lu, Tiejun Shui, Jia Chen, Jun Yang, Joanna Yuan, Yeqiang Liu, Degang Yang
The obligate intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of leprosy and primarily infects macrophages, leading to irreversible nerve damage and deformities. So far, the underlying reasons allowing M. leprae to persist and propagate in macrophages, despite the presence of cellular immunity, are still a mystery. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy, a cellular process that degrades cytosolic materials and intracellular pathogens, in M. leprae infection. We found that live M. leprae infection of macrophages resulted in significantly elevated autophagy level...
November 17, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853431/developing-dynamic-field-theory-architectures-for-embodied-cognitive-systems-with-cedar
#11
Oliver Lomp, Mathis Richter, Stephan K U Zibner, Gregor Schöner
Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843208/immunotherapy-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Susan F Slovin
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. METHODS: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. RESULTS: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830736/viral-vector-vaccines-expressing-nucleoprotein-and-phosphoprotein-genes-of-avian-bornaviruses-ameliorate-homologous-challenge-infections-in-cockatiels-and-common-canaries
#13
Marita Olbert, Angela Römer-Oberdörfer, Christiane Herden, Sara Malberg, Solveig Runge, Peter Staeheli, Dennis Rubbenstroth
Avian bornaviruses are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an often fatal disease of parrots and related species (order Psittaciformes) which is widely distributed in captive psittacine populations and may affect endangered species. Here, we established a vaccination strategy employing two different well described viral vectors, namely recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that were engineered to express the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes of two avian bornaviruses, parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) and canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825162/computational-modeling-of-muscle-regeneration-and-adaptation-to-advance-muscle-tissue-regeneration-strategies
#14
Kyle S Martin, Kelley M Virgilio, Shayn M Peirce, Silvia S Blemker
Skeletal muscle has an exceptional ability to regenerate and adapt following injury. Tissue engineering approaches (e.g. cell therapy, scaffolds, and pharmaceutics) aimed at enhancing or promoting muscle regeneration from severe injuries are a promising and active field of research. Computational models are beginning to advance the field by providing insight into regeneration mechanisms and therapies. In this paper, we summarize the contributions computational models have made to understanding muscle remodeling and the functional implications thereof...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818661/the-role-of-purine-metabolites-as-damps-in-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
REVIEW
Petya Apostolova, Robert Zeiser
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes high mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. An early event in the classical pathogenesis of acute GvHD is tissue damage caused by the conditioning treatment or infection that consecutively leads to translocation of bacterial products [pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)] into blood or lymphoid tissue, as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mostly intracellular components that act as pro-inflammatory agents, once they are released into the extracellular space...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812336/piperine-suppresses-pyroptosis-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-release-upon-atp-triggering-and-bacterial-infection
#16
Yi-Dan Liang, Wen-Jing Bai, Chen-Guang Li, Li-Hui Xu, Hong-Xia Wei, Hao Pan, Xian-Hui He, Dong-Yun Ouyang
Piperine is a phytochemical present in black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn) and other related herbs, possessing a wide array of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we demonstrated that piperine has therapeutic effects on bacterial sepsis in mice, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influences of piperine on pyroptosis in murine macrophages. The results showed that piperine dose-dependently inhibited ATP-induced pyroptosis, thereby suppressing interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) release in LPS-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774A...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806983/the-protective-effect-of-apolipoprotein-in-models-of-trophoblast-invasion-and-preeclampsia
#17
Francesca Charlton, Gabriele Bobek, Tim Stait-Gardner, William S Price, Katrina Maree Mirabito Colafella, Bei Xu, Angela Makris, Kerry-Anne Rye, Annemarie Hennessy
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Abnormal placentation associated with poor placental invasion of the uterine vasculature by trophoblast cells, leading to poor placental perfusion, oxidative stress and inflammation, is implicated in its pathogenesis. A dyslipidemia characterised by low plasma levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and elevated triglycerides has been described in preeclampsia. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a constituent of HDL is an anti-inflammatory agent. This study investigated whether apoA-I protects against hypertension and adverse placental changes in a pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) induced model of preeclampsia...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805475/undermining-belief-in-false-memories-leads-to-less-efficient-problem-solving-behaviour
#18
Jianqin Wang, Henry Otgaar, Mark L Howe, Tom Smeets, Harald Merckelbach, Zacharia Nahouli
Memories of events for which the belief in the occurrence of those events is undermined, but recollection is retained, are called nonbelieved memories (NBMs). The present experiments examined the effects of NBMs on subsequent problem-solving behaviour. In Experiment 1, we challenged participants' beliefs in their memories and examined whether NBMs affected subsequent solution rates on insight-based problems. True and false memories were elicited using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Then participants' belief in true and false memories was challenged by telling them the item had not been presented...
November 2, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803705/profiling-of-altered-metabolomic-states-in-nicotiana-tabacum-cells-induced-by-priming-agents
#19
Msizi I Mhlongo, Paul A Steenkamp, Lizelle A Piater, Ntakadzeni E Madala, Ian A Dubery
Metabolomics has developed into a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant metabolism. Plant innate immune defenses can be activated and enhanced so that, subsequent to being pre-sensitized, plants are able to launch a stronger and faster defense response upon exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, a phenomenon known as priming. Here, three contrasting chemical activators, namely acibenzolar-S-methyl, azelaic acid and riboflavin, were used to induce a primed state in Nicotiana tabacum cells. Identified biomarkers were then compared to responses induced by three phytohormones-abscisic acid, methyljasmonate, and salicylic acid...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783978/recent-discovery-of-non-nucleobase-thymidine-phosphorylase-inhibitors-targeting-cancer
#20
Hriday Bera, Sridevi Chigurupati
Thymidine phosphorylase (TP, EC 2.4.2.4), an enzyme involved in pyrimidine salvage pathway, is identical to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) and gliostatin. It is extremely upregulated in a variety of solid tumours. The TP amplification is associated with concomitant overexpression of many angiogenic factors such as matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), interleukins (ILs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) etc., resulting in promotion of angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. In addition, overshooting TP level protects tumour cells from apoptosis and helps cell survival...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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