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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315949/transcriptome-based-analyses-of-phosphite-mediated-suppression-of-rust-pathogens-puccinia-emaculata-and-phakopsora-pachyrhizi-and-functional-characterization-of-selected-fungal-target-genes
#1
Upinder S Gill, Liang Sun, Sachin Rustgi, Yuhong Tang, Diter von Wettstein, Kirankumar S Mysore
Phosphite (Phi) is commercially used to manage diseases mainly caused by Oomycetes, primarily due to its low-cost compared to other fungicides, and persistent control of oomycetous pathogens. We explored the use of Phi in controlling fungal pathogens Puccinia emaculata and Phakopsora pachyrhizi the causal agents of the switchgrass rust and the Asian soybean rust, respectively. Phi primes host defenses and efficiently inhibits growth of P. emaculata, P. pachyrhizi, and several other fungal pathogens tested. To understand the Phi-mediated effects, a detailed molecular analysis was undertaken in both the host and the pathogen...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310427/towards-the-application-of-human-defensins-as-antivirals
#2
REVIEW
Mee Sook Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sehee Park, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that participate in the innate immunity of hosts. Humans constitutively and/or inducibly express α- and β-defensins, which are known for their antiviral and antibacterial activities. This review describes the application of human defensins. We discuss the extant experimental results, limited though they are, to consider the potential applicability of human defensins as antiviral agents. Given their antiviral effects, we propose that basic research be conducted on human defensins that focuses on RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and dengue virus (DENV), which are considered serious human pathogens but have posed huge challenges for vaccine development for different reasons...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298347/predicting-effective-pro-apoptotic-anti-leukaemic-drug-combinations-using-co-operative-dynamic-bh3-profiling
#3
Martin Grundy, Claire Seedhouse, Thomas Jones, Liban Elmi, Michael Hall, Adam Graham, Nigel Russell, Monica Pallis
The BH3-only apoptosis agonists BAD and NOXA target BCL-2 and MCL-1 respectively and co-operate to induce apoptosis. On this basis, therapeutic drugs targeting BCL-2 and MCL-1 might have enhanced activity if used in combination. We identified anti-leukaemic drugs sensitising to BCL-2 antagonism and drugs sensitising to MCL-1 antagonism using the technique of dynamic BH3 profiling, whereby cells were primed with drugs to discover whether this would elicit mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation in response to BCL-2-targeting BAD-BH3 peptide or MCL-1-targeting MS1-BH3 peptide...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297707/first-line-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-targeted-therapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-priming-the-tumor-microenvironment-for-immunotherapy
#4
Nizar Tannir, Hans Hammers, Asim Amin
Despite improved outcomes with systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted agents in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the majority of patients will eventually develop treatment resistance and disease progression. With the emergence of checkpoint inhibitors as potential treatment approaches, studies suggest that ideally combining or sequencing them with VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may provide more effective treatments that reduce or delay disease progression...
January 3, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290170/cost-effectiveness-of-drugs-to-treat-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma-in-the-united-states
#5
Josh J Carlson, Gregory F Guzauskas, Richard H Chapman, Patricia G Synnott, Shanshan Liu, Elizabeth T Russo, Steven D Pearson, Elizabeth D Brouwer, Daniel A Ollendorf
BACKGROUND: New 3-drug regimens have been developed and approved to treat multiple myeloma (MM). The absence of direct comparative data and the high cost of treatment support the need to assess the relative clinical and economic outcomes across all approved regimens. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatments for relapsed and/or refractory MM from a U.S. health system perspective. METHODS: We developed a partition survival model with 3 health states (progression-free, progression, and death) to evaluate the following regimens: carfilzomib (CFZ), elotuzumab (ELO), ixazomib (IX), daratumumab (DAR), and panobinostat (PAN) in combination with lenalidomide (LEN) or bortezomib (BOR) plus dexamethasone (DEX) in the second and/or third line of therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288074/development-of-cross-priming-amplification-coupled-with-vertical-flow-visualization-for-rapid-detection-of-infectious-spleen-and-kidney-necrosis-virus-isknv-in-mandarin-fish-siniperca-chuatsi
#6
Wenzhi Liu, Yong Zhou, Yuding Fan, Nan Jiang, Kenneth Cain, Lingbing Zeng
Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) has been recognized as the causative agent of the most serious disease in cultured mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi, in China. Disease outbreaks have resulted in substantial losses to the aquaculture industry. Currently, reliable laboratory detection and identification methods are available for this virus. However, rapid detection methods applicable for on-site diagnosis of this infectious agent are unavailable. To address this need, a nearly instrument-free, cost-effective and simple detection method was developed and optimized and incorporates cross priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization for rapid identification of ISKNV (ISKNV-CPA-VF)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280411/the-potential-of-the-cmb305-vaccine-regimen-to-target-ny-eso-1-and-improve-outcomes-for-synovial-sarcoma-and-myxoid-round-cell-liposarcoma-patients
#7
Seth M Pollack
Synovial Sarcoma (SS) and Myxoid Round Cell Liposarcoma (MRCL) are devastating sarcoma subtypes with few treatment options and poor outcomes in the advanced setting. However, both these diseases may be ideal for novel immunotherapies targeting the cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the novel NY-ESO-1 targeted vaccine regimen, CMB305. This regimen uses a unique integration-deficient, dendritic-cell targeting lentiviral vector from the ZVex® platform, LV305, in order to prime NY-ESO-1 specific T cells...
December 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277443/priming-plant-resistance-by-activation-of-redox-sensitive-genes
#8
Carmen González-Bosch
Priming by natural compounds is an interesting alternative for sustainable agriculture, which also contributes to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with stress tolerance. Although hosts and stress types eventually determine the mode of action of plant-priming agents, it highlights that many of them act on redox signalling. These include vitamins thiamine, riboflavin and quercetin; organic acids like pipecolic, azelaic and hexanoic; volatile organic compounds such as methyl jasmonate; cell wall components like chitosans and oligogalacturonides; H2O2, etc...
December 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273568/hantavirus-gc-induces-long-term-immune-protection-via-lamp-targeting-dna-vaccine-strategy
#9
Dong-Bo Jiang, Jin-Peng Zhang, Lin-Feng Cheng, Guan-Wen Zhang, Yun Li, Zi-Chao Li, Zhen-Hua Lu, Zi-Xin Zhang, Yu-Chen Lu, Lian-He Zheng, Fang-Lin Zhang, Kun Yang
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted...
December 19, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260582/sipuleucel-t-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-novel-insights-and-future-directions
#10
Catherine E Handy, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Sipuleucel-T, an autologous cellular immunotherapy manufactured from antigen-presenting cells primed to recognize prostatic acid phosphatase, was the first immunotherapy product approved by the US FDA. It was approved for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after it was shown to provide a survival advantage. Additional studies have examined its use in other clinical settings and in combination with other approved and investigational immunotherapy agents...
December 20, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251386/a-zeolite-family-nonjointly-built-from-the-1-3-stellated-cubic-building-unit
#11
Donghui Jo, Gi Tae Park, Jiho Shin, Suk Bong Hong
From a technological point of view, the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites is of prime importance owing to their high potential as industrial catalysts and catalyst supports. We report the synthesis of two such materials made up of the 1,3-stellated cubic unit (hexahedral ([4254]) bre unit) as a secondary building unit, with the aid of existing imidazolium-based structure-directing agents under 'excess' fluoride conditions. One of them, denoted PST-21, is the first aluminosilicate zeolite consisting of 9-ring apertures solely, with exceptional activity towards skeletal isomerization steering of 1-butene to isobutene, which bridges the gap between small and medium pore structures...
December 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238488/effect-of-hydrofluoric-acid-surface-treatments-on-micro-shear-bond-strength-of-cad-cam-ceramics
#12
Faraneh Mokhtarpour, Homayoon Alaghehmand, Soraya Khafri
Introduction: Dental ceramics are appreciated as highly esthetic restorative materials that can simulate the appearance of natural dentition better than other materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration and etching time on micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) to IPS e.max CAD and Vita Mark II of a dual cured resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Methods: This study was an experimental in vitro study, performed in the dental material research center of Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237813/specificity-of-oral-immune-priming-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#13
Momir Futo, Marie P Sell, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz
Immune specificity is the degree to which a host's immune system discriminates among various pathogens or antigenic variants. Vertebrate immune memory is highly specific due to antibody responses. On the other hand, some invertebrates show immune priming, i.e. improved survival after secondary exposure to a previously encountered pathogen. Until now, specificity of priming has only been demonstrated via the septic infection route or when live pathogens were used for priming. Therefore, we tested for specificity in the oral priming route in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum For priming, we used pathogen-free supernatants derived from three different strains of the entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis, which express different Cry toxin variants known for their toxicity against this beetle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237492/pentosan-polysulfate-binds-to-stro-1-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-is-internalized-and-modifies-gene-expression-a-novel-approach-of-pre-programing-stem-cells-for-therapeutic-application-requiring-their-chondrogenesis
#14
Jiehua Wu, Susan Shimmon, Sharon Paton, Christopher Daly, Tony Goldschlager, Stan Gronthos, Andrew C W Zannettino, Peter Ghosh
BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is known to induce proliferation and chondrogenesis of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism(s) of action of PPS in mediating these effects remains unresolved. In the present report we address this issue by investigating the binding and uptake of PPS by MPCs and monitoring gene expression and proteoglycan biosynthesis before and after the cells had been exposed to limited concentrations of PPS and then re-established in culture in the absence of the drug (MPC priming)...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211130/dentin-sealing-and-bond-strength-evaluation-of-hema-free-and-multi-mode-adhesives-to-biomodified-dentin
#15
Renata Bacelar-Sá, Marcelo Giannini, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Ana Karina Bedran-Russo
This study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodification on the bond strength (BS) and sealing ability (SA) of HEMA-free and multi-mode adhesives after 24 h and 6 months of water storage. Four adhesives were tested: two multi-mode (Scotchbond Universal - SU, and Prime & Bond Elect - PB) and two HEMA-free (All-Bond 3 - AB, and G-Aenial - GA). Human third molars were selected and dentin was treated with two cross-linking agents (5% glutaraldehyde and 6.5% proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract - PACs) for 10 min or kept untreated (control group) (n=6)...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208761/priming-of-innate-antimycobacterial-immunity-by-heat-killed-listeria-monocytogenes-induces-sterilizing-response-in-the-adult-zebrafish-tuberculosis-model
#16
Hanna Luukinen, Milka Marjut Hammarén, Leena-Maija Vanha-Aho, Aleksandra Svorjova, Laura Kantanen, Sampsa Järvinen, Bruno Vincent Luukinen, Eric Dufour, Mika Rämet, Vesa Pekka Hytönen, Mataleena Parikka
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most problematic infectious agents due to its highly developed mechanisms to evade host immune responses combined with the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance. Host-directed therapies aiming at optimal modulation of immune responses to improve bacterial eradication or to limit excessive inflammation are a new strategy for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we have established a zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum natural host-pathogen model system to study induced protective immune responses in mycobacterial infection...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207323/overcoming-obstacles-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-recent-advancements-in-nanoparticle-delivery-for-cancer-theranostics
#17
REVIEW
Marta Overchuk, Gang Zheng
Despite rapid advancements in the field of nanotechnology, there is mounting frustration in the scientific community regarding the translational impact of nanomedicine. Modest therapeutic performance of FDA-approved nanomedicines combined with multiple disappointing clinical trials (such as phase III HEAT trial) have raised questions about the future of nanomedicine. Encouraging breakthroughs, however, have been made in the last few years towards the development of new classes of nanoparticles that can respond to tumor microenvironmental conditions and successfully deliver therapeutic agents to cancer cells...
October 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206046/hydrophobic-ion-pairing-of-peptide-antibiotics-for-processing-into-controlled-release-nanocarrier-formulations
#18
Hoang D Lu, Paradorn Rummaneethorn, Kurt D Ristroph, Robert K Prud'homme
Nanoprecipitation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to form nanocarriers (NCs) is an attractive method of producing formulations with improved stability and biological efficacies. However, nanoprecipitation techniques have not been demonstrated for highly soluble peptide therapeutics. We here present a model and technique to encapsulate highly water-soluble biologic APIs by manipulating API salt forms. APIs are ion paired with hydrophobic counterions to produce new API salts that exhibit altered solubilities suitable for nanoprecipitation processing...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202181/targeted-nanocomplex-carrying-sirna-against-malat1-sensitizes-glioblastoma-to-temozolomide
#19
Sang-Soo Kim, Joe B Harford, Manish Moghe, Antonina Rait, Kathleen F Pirollo, Esther H Chang
Intrinsic therapeutic resistance especially in cancer stem cells (CSCs) together with extensive tumor cell infiltration and restricted permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by drugs may all contribute to the treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) plays a role in tumor cell infiltration and therapeutic resistance of GBM. Using our tumor-targeted nanocomplex, we have modulated the expression of MALAT1 and investigated its impact on GBM cells...
November 30, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187153/similar-but-different-structurally-related-azelaic-acid-and-hexanoic-acid-trigger-differential-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-responses-in-tobacco-cells
#20
Arnaud T Djami-Tchatchou, Efficient N Ncube, Paul A Steenkamp, Ian A Dubery
BACKGROUND: Plants respond to various stress stimuli by activating an enhanced broad-spectrum defensive ability. The development of novel resistance inducers represents an attractive, alternative crop protection strategy. In this regard, hexanoic acid (Hxa, a chemical elicitor) and azelaic acid (Aza, a natural signaling compound) have been proposed as inducers of plant defense, by means of a priming mechanism. Here, we investigated both the mode of action and the complementarity of Aza and Hxa as priming agents in Nicotiana tabacum cells in support of enhanced defense...
November 29, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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