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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523009/transgenerational-defense-priming-for-crop-protection-against-plant-pathogens-a-hypothesis
#1
Gabriela Ramírez-Carrasco, Keren Martínez-Aguilar, Raúl Alvarez-Venegas
Throughout evolution, plants have developed diverse mechanisms of defense that "prime" their innate immune system for more robust and active induction of defense responses against different types of stress. Nowadays there are numerous reports concerning the molecular bases of priming, as well as the generational priming mechanisms. Information concerning transgenerational priming, however, remains deficient. Some reports have indicated, nonetheless, that the priming status of a plant can be inherited to its offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512410/rrx-001-priming-of-pd-1-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-vagina-a-rare-gynecological-tumor
#2
Christina Brzezniak, Bryan Oronsky, Jane Trepel, Thomas A Summers, Pedro Cabrales, Min-Jung Lee, Regina Day, Saheli Jha, Scott Caroen, Karen Zeman, Lindsey Ferry, Cindy Harmer, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Harry E Lybeck, James F Brown, Tony R Reid, Corey A Carter
Small cell carcinoma of the vagina is rare, so rare in fact that the total number reported in English-language journals is less than 30. Due to this extremely low incidence, no specific treatment guidelines have been established, and most of what is clinically known is derived from a handful of single case reports. However, as befitting its highly aggressive histologic features, which are reminiscent of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), first-line treatment is modeled after SCLC. Herein is reported the case of a 51-year-old African-American patient with metastatic biopsy-proven small cell carcinoma of the vagina that progressed through multiple therapies: first-line cisplatin and etoposide (making it platinum-resistant) and radiotherapy, followed by the tumor macrophage-stimulating agent RRx-001 in a clinical trial called QUADRUPLE THREAT, which per protocol preceded a mandated rechallenge with cisplatin and etoposide...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511092/epigenetics-and-immunotherapy-the-current-state-of-play
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer Dunn, Sudha Rao
Cancer cells employ a number of mechanisms to escape immunosurveillance and facilitate tumour progression. The recent explosion of interest in immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blockade, is a result of discoveries about the fundamental ligand-receptor interactions that occur between immune and cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment. Distinct ligands expressed by cancer cells engage with cell surface receptors on immune cells, triggering inhibitory pathways (such as PD-1/PD-L1) that render immune cells immunologically tolerant...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504304/exploiting-scavenger-receptors-in-cancer-immunotherapy-lessons-from-cd5-and-sr-b1
#4
REVIEW
Marcos Vasquez, Inês Simões, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Fernando Aranda, Francisco Lozano, Pedro Berraondo
Scavenger receptors (SRs) are structurally heterogeneous cell surface receptors characterized by their capacity to remove extraneous or modified self-macromolecules from circulation, thus avoiding the accumulation of noxious agents in the extracellular space. This scavenging activity makes SRs important molecules for host defense and homeostasis. In turn, SRs keep the activation of the steady state immune response in check, and participate as co-receptors in the priming of the effector immune responses when the macromolecules are associated with a threat that might compromise host homeostasis...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500787/corticosterone-primes-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-gulf-war-illness-relevant-organophosphates-independently-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition
#5
Alicia R Locker, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Among the symptoms of GWI are those associated with sickness behavior, observations suggestive of underlying neuroinflammation. We have shown that exposure of mice to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), and to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), as a nerve agent mimic, results in marked neuroinflammation, findings consistent with a stress/neuroimmune basis of GWI. Here, we examined the contribution of irreversible and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to neuroinflammation in our mouse model of GWI...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495640/sources-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-and-methods-to-optimize-yields-for-clinical-cell-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Sandhya R Panch, James Szymanski, Bipin N Savani, David F Stroncek
Bone marrow (BM) aspirates, mobilized peripheral blood (PB) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) have developed as graft sources of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) for stem cell transplantation and other cellular therapeutics. Individualized techniques are necessary to enhance graft HSPC yields and cell quality from each graft source. BM aspirates yield adequate CD34+cells but can result in relative delays in engraftment. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) primed bone marrow HSPC may facilitate faster engraftment while minimizing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in certain patient subsets...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494405/radical-treatment-of-oligometastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-ready-for-prime-time
#7
Matteo Brighenti, Fausto Petrelli, Sandro Barni, Barbara Conti, Enrico Sarti, Margherita Ratti, Stefano Panni, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Melissa Bersanelli
Oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), defined as a disease with low metastatic burden and limited organ involvement, is conceived as an intermediate condition between a truly localised disease and a widely metastatic tumour. Traditionally, local ablative therapies (LATs), such as surgery and radiotherapy, have been limited to symptoms' palliation in advanced NSCLC. Several retrospective studies suggest that using local ablative therapy for oligometastatic disease could offer good local control of the disease and improvement in terms of progression-free survival...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489395/identification-of-potent-and-selective-cyp1a1-inhibitors-via-combined-ligand-and-structure-based-virtual-screening-and-their-in-vitro-validation-in-sacchrosomes-and-live-human-cells
#8
Prashant Joshi, Glen J P McCann, Vinay Sonawane, Ram A Vishwakarma, Bhabatosh Chaudhuri, Sandip B Bharate
Target structure-guided virtual screening (VS) is a versatile, powerful and inexpensive alternative to experimental high-throughput screening (HTS). In order to discover potent CYP1A1 enzyme inhibitors for cancer chemoprevention, a commercially library of 50,000 small molecules was utilized for VS guided by both ligand and structure-based strategies. For experimental validation, 300 ligands were proposed based on combined analysis of fitness scores from ligand based e-pharmacophore screening and docking score, prime MMGB/SA binding affinity and interaction pattern analysis from structure-based VS...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477386/persistent-activation-of-%C3%AE-7-nachrs-associated-with-stable-induction-of-different-desensitized-states
#9
Roger L Papke, Clare Stokes, M Imad Damaj, Ganesh A Thakur, Khan Manther, Millet Treinin, Deniz Bagdas, Abhijit R Kulkarni, Nicole A Horenstein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: GAT107 is a positive allosteric modulator and agonist (ago-PAM) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that can cause a prolonged period of primed potentiation of acetylcholine responses after drug washout. NS6740 is a silent agonist of α7 that has little or no efficacy for activating the ion channel but induces stable desensitization states, some of which can be converted into channel-active states by PAMs. Although GAT107 and NS6740 appear to stably induce different non-conducting states, interestingly, both agents have been shown to be effective treatment for inflammation and inflammatory pain models...
May 6, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474093/the-modulation-of-the-motor-resonance-triggered-by-reach-to-grasp-movements-no-role-of-human-physical-similarity-as-conveyed-by-age
#10
Barbara F M Marino, Paola Ricciardelli
The activation of the mirror-neuron circuit during the observation of motor acts is thought to be the basis of human capacity to read the intentions behind the behavior of others. Growing empirical evidence shows a different activation of the mirror-neuron resonance mechanism depending on how much the observer and the observed agent share their motor repertoires. Here, the possible modulatory effect of physical similarity between the observer and the agent was investigated in three studies. We used a visuo-motor priming task in which participants were asked to categorize manipulable and non-manipulable objects into natural or man-made kinds after having watched precision and power reach-to-grasp movements...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468776/vulnerability-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-apoptosis-induced-by-the-combination-of-bet-bromodomain-proteins-and-bcl2-inhibitors
#11
Lloyd T Lam, Xiaoyu Lin, Emily J Faivre, Ziping Yang, Xiaoli Huang, Denise M Wilcox, Richard J Bellin, Sha Jin, Stephen K Tahir, Michael Mitten, Terry Magoc, Anahita Bhathena, Warren M Kati, Daniel H Albert, Yu Shen, Tamar Uziel
10% to 15% of all lung cancers are small cell lung cancer (SCLC). SCLC usually grows and metastasizes before it is diagnosed and relapses rapidly upon treatment. Unfortunately, no new targeted agent has been approved in the past 30 years for patients with SCLC. The BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) proteins bind acetylated histones and recruit protein complexes to promote transcription initiation and elongation. BET proteins have been shown to regulate expression of key genes in oncogenesis such as MYC, CCND2, and BCL2L1 Here, we demonstrate that ~50% of SCLC cell lines are exquisitely sensitive to growth inhibition by the BET inhibitor, ABBV-075...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467432/lactobacillus-plantarum-producing-a-chlamydia-trachomatis-antigen-induces-a-specific-iga-response-after-mucosal-booster-immunization
#12
Katarzyna Kuczkowska, Ine Myrbråten, Lise Øverland, Vincent G H Eijsink, Frank Follmann, Geir Mathiesen, Jes Dietrich
Mucosal immunity is important for the protection against a wide variety of pathogens. Traditional vaccines administered via parenteral routes induce strong systemic immunity, but they often fail to generate mucosal IgA. In contrast, bacteria-based vaccines comprise an appealing strategy for antigen delivery to mucosal sites. Vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can develop into upper genital tract infections that can lead to infertility. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine against Chlamydia is a high priority...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445481/hypomethylating-agents-synergize-with-irinotecan-to-improve-response-to-chemotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Anup Sharma, Rajita Vatapalli, Eihab Abdelfatah, K Wyatt McMahon, Zachary Kerner, Angela A Guzzetta, Jasvinder Singh, Cynthia Zahnow, Stephen B Baylin, Sashidhar Yerram, Yue Hu, Nilofer Azad, Nita Ahuja
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In the metastatic setting, the majority of patients respond to initial therapies but eventually develop resistance and progress. In this study, we test the hypothesis that priming with epigenetic therapy sensitizes CRC cell lines, which were previously resistant to subsequent chemotherapeutic agents. When multiple CRC cell lines are first exposed to 500 nM of the DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-cytidine (AZA) in-vitro, and the cells then established as in-vivo xenografts in untreated NOD-SCID mice; there is an enhanced response to cytotoxic chemotherapy with agents commonly used in CRC treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443244/the-mitochondrial-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-1-ca-2-transport-apoptosis-and-their-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Soumasree De, Alon Meir
In the outer mitochondrial membrane, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functions in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by mediating the transport of Ca(2+) in and out of mitochondria. VDAC1 is highly Ca(2+)-permeable and modulates Ca(2+) access to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Intramitochondrial Ca(2+) controls energy metabolism by enhancing the rate of NADH production via modulating critical enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation. Mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] is regarded as an important determinant of cell sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli and was proposed to act as a "priming signal," sensitizing the organelle and promoting the release of pro-apoptotic proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438089/feline-biliary-tree-and-gallbladder-disease
#15
Corma Ma Otte, Louis C Penning, Jan Rothuizen
Practical relevance Diseases of the biliary tree and gallbladder are more common in cats than diseases of the liver parenchyma. The parenchyma is usually affected secondarily to systemic illnesses, while the biliary system is the prime target for infectious agents (eg, bacteria and flukes) and non-infectious conditions (eg, neoplasia and cysts). Clinical approaches Cats with biliary disease are evaluated because of common feline clinical signs such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Icterus may or may not be obvious...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435459/aptamer-internalization-via-endocytosis-inducing-s-phase-arrest-and-priming-maver-1-lymphoma-cells-for-cytarabine-chemotherapy
#16
Huan Li, Shuanghui Yang, Ge Yu, Liangfang Shen, Jia Fan, Ling Xu, Hedong Zhang, Nianxi Zhao, Zihua Zeng, Tony Hu, Jianguo Wen, Youli Zu
The goal of precision therapy is to efficiently treat cancer without side effects. Aptamers are a class of small ligands composed of single-stranded oligonucleotides that bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity. In this study, we identified an ssDNA aptamer specifically targeting Maver-1 lymphoma cells with high binding affinity (Kd = 70±8 pmol/L). Interestingly, cellular cycle studies revealed that exposure of Maver-1 cells to synthetic aptamers triggered S-phase arrest of 40% of the cells (vs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435358/effect-of-cleaning-agent-primer-application-and-their-combination-on-the-bond-strength-of-a-resin-cement-to-two-yttrium-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal-zirconia-ceramics
#17
William Matthew Negreiros, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Marcelo Giannini
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a cleaning agent and priming on the bond strength (BS) of a resin cement (RC) to zirconia ceramics after 24 h and 1 year of water-storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six Katana and 56 ZirCAD zirconia ceramic plates were prepared and each zirconia brand was divided into four groups (n = 14): (1) untreated; (2) treated with Ivoclean cleaning agent; (3) treated with Monobond Plus coupling agent; (4) treated with Ivoclean + Monobond Plus...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429646/rule-violations-sensitise-towards-negative-and-authority-related-stimuli
#18
Robert Wirth, Anna Foerster, Hannah Rendel, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Rule violations have usually been studied from a third-person perspective, identifying situational factors that render violations more or less likely. A first-person perspective of the agent that actively violates the rules, on the other hand, is only just beginning to emerge. Here we show that committing a rule violation sensitises towards subsequent negative stimuli as well as subsequent authority-related stimuli. In a Prime-Probe design, we used an instructed rule-violation task as the Prime and a word categorisation task as the Probe...
April 21, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419665/lettuce-produced-hepatitis-c-virus-e1e2-heterodimer-triggers-immune-responses-in-mice-and-antibody-production-after-oral-vaccination
#19
Jihong Liu Clarke, Lisa Paruch, Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Iuliana Caras, Catalin Tucureanu, Adrian Onu, Sonya Ciulean, Crina Stavaru, Andre Eerde, Yanliang Wang, Hege Steen, Sissel Haugslien, Catalina Petrareanu, Catalin Lazar, Ioan Popescu, Ralph Bock, Jean Dubuisson, Norica Branza-Nichita
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500,000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licenced vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of an HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca sativa) using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology...
April 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417195/rrx-001-protects-against-cisplatin-induced-toxicities
#20
Bryan Oronsky, Tony R Reid, Christopher Larson, Corey A Carter, Christina E Brzezniak, Arnold Oronsky, Pedro Cabrales
PURPOSE: RRx-001, a minimally toxic tumor-associated macrophage and neutrophil-repolarizing agent, is under investigation in Phase II clinical trials as a sensitizer/resensitizer to cisplatin and carboplatin. On the basis of anecdotal clinical observations of improved platinum tolerability following a priming period with RRx-001 as well as preclinical studies that have previously demonstrated radioprotection of intestinal stem cells and cardioprotection from doxorubicin, the in vivo cytoprotective potential of RRx-001 pretreatment against cisplatin-induced bone marrow suppression and renal toxicity was investigated...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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