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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815933/an-%C3%AE-iib-%C3%AE-3-antagonist-prevents-thrombosis-without-causing-fc%C3%AE-riia-mediated-thrombocytopenia
#1
Yu-Ju Kuo, Ying-Ru Chen, Chun-Chieh Hsu, Hui-Chin Peng, Tur-Fu Huang
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia, a common side effect of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-mimetic antiplatelet drugs, is associated with drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that recognize conformation-altered integrin αIIb β3 . OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between αIIb β3 binding epitopes and induction of DDAb binding to conformation-altered αIIb β3 , we examined whether two purified disintegrins TMV-2 and TMV-7 with distinct binding motifs that have different effects on induction of αIIb β3 conformational change and platelet aggregation in the presence of AP2, an IgG1 inhibitory monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against αIIb β3 ...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814364/effect-of-cured-versus-uncured-adhesive-inclusion-on-the-microtensile-bond-strength-of-sealants
#2
Austin McMurphy, Xiaoming Xu, Suzanne Fournier, Zafer C Cehreli, Kramer Sherman, Courtney Tremmel, Qingzhao Yu, Janice Townsend
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of light curing of bonding agents on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of sealants on extracted teeth. METHODS: Flat enamel surfaces were created on 54 extracted, sound human molars by sequential grinding. Three different sealants- Clinpro (3M ESPE), Ultraseal XT Hydro (Ultradent), and Fluorshield VLC (Dentsply)- were placed after acid etching without a bonding agent (control) or with three different bonding agents - Adper Single Bond Plus (3M ESPE), Peak Universal Bond (Ultradent), and Prime&Bond Elect (Dentsply)- each in both light-cured and uncured form...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811757/cyclic-dipeptides-from-bacillus-vallismortis-bs07-require-key-components-of-plant-immunity-to-induce-disease-resistance-in-arabidopsis-against-pseudomonas-infection
#3
Seong Woo Noh, Rira Seo, Jung-Kwon Park, Md Maniruzzaman Manir, Kyungseok Park, Mee Kyung Sang, Surk-Sik Moon, Ho Won Jung
Cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) are one of the simplest compounds produced by living organisms. Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) also produce CDPs that can induce disease resistance. Bacillus vallismortis strain BS07 producing various CDPs has been evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent against multiple plant pathogens in chili pepper. However, plant signal pathway triggered by CDPs has not been fully elucidated yet. Here we introduce four CDPs, cyclo(Gly-L-Pro) previously identified from Aspergillus sp...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811584/nanopriming-technology-for-enhancing-germination-and-starch-metabolism-of-aged-rice-seeds-using-phytosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles
#4
Wuttipong Mahakham, Ajit K Sarmah, Santi Maensiri, Piyada Theerakulpisut
Application of nanomaterials for agriculture is relatively new as compared to their use in biomedical and industrial sectors. In order to promote sustainable nanoagriculture, biocompatible silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized through green route using kaffir lime leaf extract for use as nanopriming agent for enhancing seed germination of rice aged seeds. Results of various characterization techniques showed the successful formation of AgNPs which were capped with phytochemicals present in the plant extract...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802409/exploring-the-potential-of-t7-bacteriophage-protein-gp2-as-a-novel-inhibitor-of-mycobacterial-rna-polymerase
#5
J du Plessis, R Cloete, L Burchell, P Sarkar, R M Warren, A Christoffels, S Wigneshweraraj, S L Sampson
Over the past six decades, there has been a decline in novel therapies to treat tuberculosis, while the causative agent of this disease has become increasingly resistant to current treatment regimens. Bacteriophages (phages) are able to kill bacterial cells and understanding this process could lead to novel insights for the treatment of mycobacterial infections. Phages inhibit bacterial gene transcription through phage-encoded proteins which bind to RNA polymerase (RNAP), thereby preventing bacterial transcription...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801825/intractable-constipation-in-the-elderly
#6
REVIEW
Noemi Baffy, Amy E Foxx-Orenstein, Lucinda A Harris, Susan Sterler
Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder disproportionately affecting the elderly. Immobility, polypharmacy, and physiologic changes contribute to its increased prevalence in this population. Unidentified and undertreated constipation leads to a significant negative impact on quality of life and an increase in healthcare spending. Careful physical examination and exploration of the clinical history can unmask primary and secondary forms of constipation, guiding diagnostic and therapeutic considerations...
August 11, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794899/an-extended-model-for-culture-dependent-heterogenous-gene-expression-and-proliferation-dynamics-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Simon Godwin, Daniel Ward, Elisa Pedone, Martin Homer, Alexander G Fletcher, Lucia Marucci
During development, pluripotency is a transient state describing a cell's ability to give rise to all three germ layers and germline. Recent studies have shown that, in vitro, pluripotency is highly dynamic: exogenous stimuli provided to cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells, isolated from pre-implantation blastocysts, significantly affect the spectrum of pluripotency. 2i/LIF, a recently defined serum-free medium, forces mouse embryonic stem cells into a ground-state of pluripotency, while serum/LIF cultures promote the co-existence of ground-like and primed-like mouse embryonic stem cell subpopulations...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791656/egfr-as-a-target-for-glioblastoma-treatment-an-unfulfilled-promise
#8
Manfred Westphal, Cecile L Maire, Katrin Lamszus
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is a prime target for cancer therapy across a broad variety of tumor types. As it is a tyrosine kinase, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting signal transduction, as well as monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR, have been investigated as anti-tumor agents. However, despite the long-known enigmatic EGFR gene amplification and protein overexpression in glioblastoma, the most aggressive intrinsic human brain tumor, the potential of EGFR as a target for this tumor type has been unfulfilled...
August 8, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781750/natural-killer-cells-in-herpesvirus-infections
#9
REVIEW
Christian Münz, Obinna Chijioke
Natural killer (NK) cells are potent innate cytotoxic lymphocytes for the destruction of infected and transformed cells. Although they were originally considered to be ready-made assassins after their hematopoietic development, it has recently become clear that their activity is regulated by mechanisms such as repertoire composition, licensing, priming, and adaptive memory-like differentiation. Some of these mechanisms are influenced by infectious disease agents, including herpesviruses. In this review, we will compare expansion, stimulation, and effector functions of NK cell populations after infections with β- and γ 1-herpesviruses because, though closely related, these pathogens seem to drive completely opposite NK cell responses...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771451/pitfalls-in-developing-new-compounds-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#10
Steven D Nathan, Fernando J Martinez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development and availability of nintedanib and pirfenidone has heralded a new era in the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Both agents demonstrate that the disease can be successfully modulated with therapeutic interventions, but neither are a cure and IPF remains a deadly disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been many lessons about the natural history of IPF and clinical trial design, not only from the clinical development programs for nintedanib and pirfenidone, but also the numerous negative trials that predated these...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763347/ex-vivo-induction-of-multiple-myeloma-specific-immune-responses-by-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-following-stimulation-by-whole-tumor-antigen-of-autologous-myeloma-cells
#11
Spyridoula Vasileiou, Ioannis Baltadakis, Sosanna Delimpasi, Maria-Helena Karatza, Konstantinos Liapis, Maria Garofalaki, Eirini Tziotziou, Zoe Poulopoulou, Dimitri Karakasis, Nicholas Harhalakis
The introduction of novel agents has significantly expanded treatment options for multiple myeloma (MM), albeit long-term disease control cannot be achieved in the majority of patients. Vaccination with MM antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) represents an alternative strategy that is currently being explored. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic potential of ex vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), following stimulation with the whole-antigen array of autologous myeloma cells (AMC). MoDCs were loaded with antigens of myeloma cells by 2 different methods: phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies from γ-irradiated AMC, or transfection with AMC total RNA by square-wave electroporation...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761251/the-effect-of-a-dentin-desensitizer-on-the-shear-bond-strength-of-composite-to-dentin-using-three-different-bonding-agents-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Eeshan Arub Mushtaq, Vijay Mathai, Rajesh Sasidharan Nair, JeyaBalaji Mano Christaine Angelo
OBJECTIVE: The effect of dentin desensitizer Systemp on the shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin using three different bonding agents, i.e., Prime & Bond NT, Xeno V(+), and Futurabond DC were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty recently extracted human premolars were divided into six groups of ten teeth each. The superficial dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid. In Groups I, II, and III, Prime & Bond NT, Xeno V(+), and Futurabond DC, respectively, were applied to dentin and composite placed...
January 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746780/kava-241-reduced-periodontal-destruction-in-a-collagen-antibody-primed-porphyromonas-gingivalis-model-of-periodontitis
#13
Abdulsalam Alshammari, Jayesh Patel, Jacob Al-Hashemi, Bin Cai, James Panek, Olivier Huck, Salomon Amar
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kava-241, an optimized Piper methysticum Kava compound, on periodontal destruction in a collagen antibody primed oral gavage model of periodontitis. METHODS: Experimental periodontitis was induced by oral gavage of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) + type-II collagen antibody (AB) in mice during 15 days. Mice were treated with Kava-241 concomitantly or prior to P.gingivalis gavage and compared to untreated mice...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741502/immune-priming-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-by-radiation
#14
REVIEW
Wen Jiang, Charles K Chan, Irving L Weissman, Betty Y S Kim, Stephen M Hahn
Ionizing irradiation can induce a multitude of alterations within the tumor microenvironment. Unlike targeted therapies, radiation delivered to the tumor bed can prompt phenotypic changes in both normal stromal and cancer cells, leading to molecular and physiological alterations within the tumor microenvironment. These environmental modulations directly influence the degree of immunogenicity of the tumor microenvironment and may ultimately affect tumor responsiveness to cancer immunotherapies. Here we review the preclinical evidence for tumor microenvironment-mediated immune suppression and how radiation can modulate immune properties within a tumor...
November 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739115/a-recombinant-protein-of-salmonella-typhi-induces-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-including-memory-responses
#15
Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Santasabuj Das
Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. The currently licensed vaccines are moderately efficacious with limited applicability, and no recommended vaccines exist for younger children...
July 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729399/decitabine-priming-enhances-mucin-1-inhibition-mediated-disruption-of-redox-homeostasis-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#16
Salvia Jain, Abigail Washington, Rebecca Karp Leaf, Parul Bhargava, Rachael A Clark, Thomas S Kupper, Dina Stroopinsky, Athalia Pyzer, Leandra Cole, Myrna Nahas, Arie Apel, Jacalyn Rosenblatt, Jon Arnason, Donald Kufe, David Avigan
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous neoplasm and patients with relapsed/refractory disease exhibit resistance to standard therapies. We have previously demonstrated that the MUC1-C oncoprotein plays a critical role in protection from oxidative stress in CTCL cells. Targeting of MUC1-C with a pharmacologic inhibitor, GO-203, was associated with apoptosis in CTCL. However, disease responses were incomplete underscoring the need for combinatorial strategies that could exploit the vulnerability of CTCL cells to oxidative signals...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726424/self-encapsulating-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-plga-microspheres-for-intranasal-vaccine-delivery
#17
Brittany A Bailey, Kashappa-Goud H Desai, Lukasz J Ochyl, Susan M Ciotti, James J Moon, Steven P Schwendeman
Herein we describe a formulation of self-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for vaccine delivery. Self-healing encapsulation is a novel encapsulation method developed by our group that enables the aqueous loading of large molecules into pre-made PLGA microspheres. Calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) adjuvant gel was incorporated into the microspheres as a protein-trapping agent for improved encapsulation of antigen. Microspheres were found to have a median size of 7.05 ± 0.31 µm, with a w/w loading of 0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724558/molecular-diagnostics-update-for-the-emerging-if-not-already-widespread-sexually-transmitted-infection-agent-mycoplasma-genitalium-just-about-ready-for-prime-time
#18
Erik Munson
Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection in both females and males, carrying the potential for post-infection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays is available commercially. This mini-review describes the format and performance indices of a number of M...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722316/the-mincle-ligand-trehalose-dibehenate-differentially-modulates-m1-like-and-m2-like-macrophage-phenotype-and-function-via-syk-signaling
#19
Kristel Kodar, Jacquie L Harper, Melanie J McConnell, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages play a significant role in the progression of diseases, such as cancer, making them a target for immune-modulating agents. Trehalose dibehenate (TDB) is known to activate M1-like macrophages via Mincle, however, the effect of TDB on M2-like macrophages, which are found in the tumor microenvironment, has not been studied. METHODS: qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, cytokine ELISA, and Western Blotting were used to study the effect of TDB on GM-CSF and M-CSF/IL-4 derived bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from C57BL/6 and Mincle(-/-) mice...
July 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#20
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
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