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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128480/rapid-detection-of-haemophilus-parasuis-using-cross-priming-amplification-and-vertical-flow-visualization
#1
Hongchao Gou, Juan Li, Rujian Cai, Shuai Song, Miao Li, Dongxia Yang, Zhiyong Jiang, Yan Li, Pinpin Chu, Chunling Li
Haemophilus parasuis infection is of considerable economic importance in the swine industry due to high morbidity and mortality in naive swine populations. Accurate detection and identification of the causative agent are difficult, yet necessary, for disease control. In this study, a simple and rapid method of cross-priming amplification (CPA) with a vertical flow (VF) visualization strip was established to detect H. parasuis. The reaction can specifically identify 15 serovar reference strains and 57 clinically isolated strains of H...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123948/no-patient-left-behind-the-promise-of-immune-priming-with-epigenetic-agents
#2
REVIEW
Corey A Carter, Bryan T Oronsky, Joseph Roswarski, Arnold L Oronsky, Neil Oronsky, Jan Scicinski, Harry Lybeck, Michelle M Kim, Michelle Lybeck, Tony R Reid
Checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 or CTLA-4, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers. Despite the enthusiasm for the clinical successes of checkpoint inhibitors, and immunotherapy, in general, only a minority of patients with specific tumor types actually benefit from treatment. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic alterations as a mechanism of clinical resistance to immunotherapy. This review presents evidence for that association, summarizes the epi-based mechanisms by which tumors evade immunogenic cell death, discusses epigenetic modulation as a component of an integrated strategy to boost anticancer T cell effector function in relation to a tumor immunosuppression cycle and, finally, makes the case that the success of this no-patient-left-behind strategy critically depends on the toxicity profile of the epigenetic agent(s)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119093/surface-modification-for-bonding-between-amalgam-and-orthodontic-brackets
#3
Wittawat Wongsamut, Sirichom Satrawaha, Kornchanok Wayakanon
OBJECTIVE: Testing of methods to enhance the shear bond strength (SBS) between orthodontic metal brackets and amalgam by sandblasting and different primers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred samples of amalgam restorations (KerrAlloy(®)) were prepared in self-cured acrylic blocks, polished, and divided into two groups: nonsandblasted and sandblasted. Each group was divided into five subgroups with different primers used in surface treatment methods, with a control group of bonded brackets on human mandibular incisors...
October 2017: Journal of Orthodontic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109340/effect-of-three-metal-priming-agents-on-the-bond-strength-of-adhesive-resin-cement-to-ag-zn-sn-in-alloy-and-component-metals
#4
Natsuko Imamura, Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Shimizu, Yutaka Takahashi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three metal priming agents on the bond strength of adhesive resin cement to Silver-Zinc-Tin-Indium (Ag-Zn-Sn-In) alloy and pure Ag, Zn, Sn, and In. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina and then primed with one of three metal priming agents: V-Primer, Estenia Opaque Primer, or Alloy Primer. The metal disks were bonded with adhesive resin cement (Super-Bond Bulk-mix technique). Shear bond strengths (n=10/group) were determined before and after 50,000 thermocycles for Ag-Zn-Sn-In alloy as well as after 5,000 thermocycles for pure Ag, Zn, Sn and In...
November 3, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081775/lfa-1-mediates-cytotoxicity-and-tissue-migration-of-specific-cd8-t-cells-after-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#5
Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro Cariste, Fernando Dos Santos Virgílio, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Caroline Brandão Monteiro, Alexandre M Vieira Machado, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Pedro Luiz Menin Ruiz, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Marcela de Freitas Lopes, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues, José Ronnie Carvalho de Vasconcelos
Integrins mediate the lymphocyte migration into an infected tissue, and these cells are essential for controlling the multiplication of many intracellular parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Here, we explore LFA-1 and VLA-4 roles in the migration of specific CD8(+) T cells generated by heterologous prime-boost immunization during experimental infection with T. cruzi. To this end, vaccinated mice were treated with monoclonal anti-LFA-1 and/or anti-VLA-4 to block these molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080552/the-role-of-alternative-splicing-in-cancer-drug-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Zahava Siegfried, Rotem Karni
One of the major challenges in cancer treatment today is that many patients develop resistance to the therapeutic agents, resulting in treatment failure. Alternative splicing can significantly alter the coding region of drug targets. Here, we highlight several reports that provide key examples of alternative splicing events that occur in various cancers and play a role in resistance to cancer therapy. These examples present prime targets for future study and development of splicing modulation therapy. Modulation of alternative splicing has recently been approved as treatment for several diseases, although not yet for cancer...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070065/salmonella-typhimurium-the-major-causative-agent-of-foodborne-illness-inactivated-by-a-phage-lysis-system-provides-effective-protection-against-lethal-challenge-by-induction-of-robust-cell-mediated-immune-responses-and-activation-of-dendritic-cells
#7
Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Salmonella Typhimurium infection via foodborne transmission remains a major public health threat even in developed countries. Vaccines have been developed to reduce the disease burden at the pre-harvest stage, but the cell-mediated immune response against intracellular invasion of the pathogen is not sufficiently elicited by conventional killed Salmonella vaccines, which are safer than live vaccines. In this study, we developed a genetically inactivated vaccine candidate by introducing lysis plasmid pJHL454 harboring the λ phage holin-endolysin system into S...
October 25, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068495/infections-in-ms-an-innate-immunity-perspective
#8
REVIEW
A Hänninen
Multiple sclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory-autoimmune disease, which shows remarkable heterogeneity in its clinical presentation, disease progression and in tissue lesions in the CNS. Focal lesions in white matter consist of immune effector cells, antibodies, and complement deposits in varying combinations, suggesting that immune mechanisms related to CNS pathology are multiple. Although adaptive immunity to myelin antigens is essential in MS pathogenesis, innate immune mechanisms are likely involved in its initiation and perpetuation...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062065/a-chloroquine-induced-macrophage-preconditioning-strategy-for-improved-nanodelivery
#9
Joy Wolfram, Sara Nizzero, Haoran Liu, Feng Li, Guodong Zhang, Zheng Li, Haifa Shen, Elvin Blanco, Mauro Ferrari
Site-specific localization is critical for improving the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising tools for localized drug delivery. However, over 90% of systemically injected nanocarriers typically accumulate in the liver and spleen due to resident macrophages that form the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this study, the clinically approved antimalarial agent chloroquine was shown to reduce nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by suppressing endocytosis. Pretreatment of mice with a clinically relevant dose of chloroquine substantially decreased the accumulation of liposomes and silicon particles in the mononuclear phagocyte system and improved tumoritropic and organotropic delivery...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061383/release-of-soluble-and-vesicular-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-from-rat-astrocytes-and-microglia-induced-by-pro-inflammatory-stimulation-with-extracellular-atp-via-p2x7-receptors
#10
Luis Emiliano Peña-Altamira, Elisabetta Polazzi, Patricia Giuliani, Alina Beraudi, Francesca Massenzio, Ilaria Mengoni, Alessandro Poli, Mariachiara Zuccarini, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Marco Virgili, Barbara Monti, Francesco Caciagli
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a crucial enzyme in purine metabolism which converts ribonucleosides into purine bases, has mainly been found inside glial cells. Since we recently demonstrated that PNP is released from rat C6 glioma cells, we then wondered whether this occurs in normal brain cells. Using rat primary cultures of microglia, astrocytes and cerebellar granule neurons, we found that in basal condition all these cells constitutively released a metabolically active PNP with Km values very similar to those measured in C6 glioma cells...
October 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057047/stabilizing-a-tubulysin-antibody-drug-conjugate-to-enable-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-tumors
#11
Leanna R Staben, Shang-Fan Yu, Jinhua Chen, Gang Yan, Zijin Xu, Geoffrey Del Rosario, Jeffrey T Lau, Luna Liu, Jun Guo, Bing Zheng, Josefa Dela Cruz-Chuh, Byoung-Chul Lee, Rachana Ohri, Wenwen Cai, Hongxiang Zhou, Katherine R Kozak, Keyang Xu, Gail D Lewis Phillips, Jiawei Lu, John Wai, Andrew G Polson, Thomas H Pillow
The tubulysins are promising anticancer cytotoxic agents due to the clinical validation of their mechanism of action (microtubule inhibition) and their particular activity against multidrug-resistant tumor cells. Yet their high potency and subsequent systemic toxicity make them prime candidates for targeted therapy, particularly in the form of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Here we report a strategy to prepare stable and bioreversible conjugates of tubulysins to antibodies without loss of activity. A peptide trigger along with a quaternary ammonium salt linker connection to the tertiary amine of tubulysin provided ADCs that were potent in vitro...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052780/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#12
REVIEW
Joseph M Obeid, Paul R Kunk, Victor M Zaydfudim, Timothy N Bullock, Craig L Slingluff, Osama E Rahma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Current treatment options for patients with intermediate and advanced HCC are limited, and there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches. HCC is an attractive target for immunomodulation therapy, since it arises in an inflammatory milieu due to hepatitis B and C infections and cirrhosis. However, a major barrier to the development and success of immunotherapy in patients with HCC is the liver's inherent immunosuppressive function...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049966/performance-comparison-of-secondary-and-tertiary-treatment-systems-for-treating-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. AR proliferation mediated by treated/untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. Efficient sewage treatment is among our key defenses against the dissemination of infectious diseases. The present study aims to estimate the efficiency of aerobic [activated sludge process (ASP) and modified trickling filter (MTF)] and anaerobic reactors (anaerobic flow-through reactor) along with the three disinfection techniques (UV, ozone and chlorination) in reducing ARB and ARGs present in the domestic sewage...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042483/olfactory-experience-primes-the-heat-shock-transcription-factor-hsf-1-to-enhance-the-expression-of-molecular-chaperones-in-c-elegans
#14
Felicia K Ooi, Veena Prahlad
Learning, a process by which animals modify their behavior as a result of experience, enables organisms to synthesize information from their surroundings to acquire resources and avoid danger. We showed that a previous encounter with only the odor of pathogenic bacteria prepared Caenorhabditis elegans to survive exposure to the pathogen by increasing the heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1)-dependent expression of genes encoding molecular chaperones. Experience-mediated enhancement of chaperone gene expression required serotonin, which primed HSF-1 to enhance the expression of molecular chaperone genes by promoting its localization to RNA polymerase II-enriched nuclear loci, even before transcription occurred...
October 17, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039919/the-molecular-tweezer-clr01-stabilizes-a-disordered-protein-protein-interface
#15
David Bier, Sumit Mittal, Kenny Bravo-Rodriguez, Andrea Sowislok, Xavier Guillory, Jeroen Briels, Christian Heid, Maria Bartel, Burkhard Wettig, Luc Brunsveld, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Thomas Schrader, Christian Ottmann
Protein regions that are involved in protein-protein interactions (PPIs) very often display a high degree of intrinsic disorder, which is reduced during the recognition process. A prime example is binding of the rigid 14-3-3 adapter proteins to their numerous partner proteins, whose recognition motifs undergo an extensive disorder-to-order transition. In this context, it is highly desirable to control this entropy-costly process using tailored stabilizing agents. This study reveals how the molecular tweezer CLR01 tunes the 14-3-3/Cdc25CpS216 protein-protein interaction...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039099/assessing-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-nanoparticles
#16
Bhawna Sharma, Christopher B McLeland, Timothy M Potter, Stephan T Stern, Pavan P Adiseshaiah
NLRP3 inflammasome activation is one of the initial steps in an inflammatory cascade against pathogen/danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/DAMPs), such as those arising from environmental toxins or nanoparticles, and is essential for innate immune response. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cells can lead to the release of IL-1β cytokine via caspase-1, which is required for inflammatory-induced programmed cell death (pyroptosis). Nanoparticles are commonly used as vaccine adjuvants and drug delivery vehicles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028607/ph-induced-interfacial-properties-of-chaplin-e-from-streptomyces-coelicolor
#17
Mina Dokouhaki, Andrew Hung, Emma L Prime, Greg G Qiao, Li Day, Sally L Gras
Chaplin E, or Chp E, is a surface active peptide secreted by Streptomyces coelicolor that adopts different structures depending on solution pH but the effect of these structures on the interfacial properties of Chp E is not known. In experiments paired with simulations, Chp E was found to display pH-dependent interfacial assembly and surface activity. At pH 3.0, Chp E formed an ordered non-amyloidal interfacial film with high surface activity; while at pH 10.0, Chp E self-assembled into a heterogeneous film containing randomly arranged fibrils at the interface that was less surface active compared to the film formed at pH 3...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022865/toscana-virus-cap-snatching-and-initiation-of-transcription
#18
Abdennour Amroun, Stéphane Priet, Gilles Querat
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus within the family Phenuiviridae in the order Bunyavirales. It seems to be an important agent of human meningoencephalitis in the warm season in the Mediterranean area. Because the polymerase of Bunyavirales lacks a capping activity, it cleaves short-capped RNA leaders derived from the host cell, and uses them to initiate viral mRNA synthesis. To determine the size and nucleotide composition of the host-derived RNA leaders, and to elucidate the first steps of TOSV transcription initiation, we performed a high-throughput sequencing of the 5' end of TOSV mRNAs in infected cells at different times post-infection...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019752/invited-commentary-prime-time-for-contrast-enhanced-voiding-urosonography-after-approval-of-a-us-contrast-agent-for-children
#19
COMMENT
Kassa Darge, Susan J Back
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018409/innate-viral-receptor-signaling-determines-type-1-diabetes-onset
#20
REVIEW
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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