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Trends mri

Kristoffer H Madsen, Laerke G Krohne, Xin-Lu Cai, Yi Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While these methods bear great potential for early diagnosis and better understanding of disease processes, there are wide ranges of processing choices and pitfalls that may severely hamper interpretation and generalization performance unless carefully considered...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jun Yang, Chengde Liao, Yifan Liu, Guangjun Yang, Tengfei Ke, Yingying Ding, Qinqing Li
The beginning and the end of the vascular normalization window are not clear in response to anti-angiogenic therapies. We used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI (IVIM-MRI) to noninvasively evaluate the vascular normalization window. MRI was performed five times: before treatment and on the second, fourth, sixth and eighth days of treatment. Quantitative perfusion parameters were calculated at each time point, including the volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans), reverse transfer constant (Kep), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D* ) and perfusion fraction (f)...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
S A Amukotuwa, M P Marks, G Zaharchuk, F Calamante, R Bammer, N Fischbein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas carry a risk of substantial neurologic complications but can be difficult to detect on structural MR imaging and TOF-MRA. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and added value of 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling MR imaging for the detection of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 39 patients with a dural arteriovenous fistula and 117 controls who had undergone both DSA and MR imaging with pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Alexandre Lewalle, Sander Land, Eric Carruth, Lawrence R Frank, Pablo Lamata, Jeffrey H Omens, Andrew D McCulloch, Steven A Niederer, Nicolas P Smith
The cardiac system compensates for variations in physiological and pathophysiological conditions through a dynamic remodeling at the organ, tissue, and intracellular levels in order to maintain function. However, on longer time scales following the onset of ventricular pressure overload, such remodeling may begin to inhibit physiological function and ultimately lead to heart failure. This progression from compensatory to decompensatory behavior is poorly understood, in particular owing to the absence of a unified perspective of the concomitantly remodeling subsystems...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gali Shapira-Zaltsberg, David Grynspan, Deepti Reddy, Elka Miller
Previous studies in singleton pregnancies reported conflicting trends in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with gestational age (GA) and stable relative ADC (rADC; ADC placenta divided by ADC globe) throughout pregnancy. The purpose of our study was to compare the ADC and rADC of placentas of twin and singleton pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal MRI of 11 twin and 23 singleton pregnancies were retrospectively analyzed. Each group was further divided by GA (≤24 and >24 weeks)...
March 8, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Ammarut Chuajak, Sukalaya Lerdlum
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for neuroradiologic evaluation of patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). OBJECTIVES: To compare pituitary height and morphology at MRI between patients with IGHD and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in pediatric patients, 3 years-15 years old, who had had brain MRI with non-contrast-enhanced midsagittal T1-weighted images. These images were measured for pituitary height and morphology of the pituitary gland including shape, stalk and posterior pituitary bright spot was evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jeewaka E Mohotti, Nicole S Carter, Victor Jia Wei Zhang, Leon T Lai, Christopher Xenos, Hamed Asadi, Ronil V Chandra
Intracranial aneurysms in the neonate, presenting in the first 4 weeks of life, are exceedingly rare. They appear to have characteristics, including presentation and location, that vary from those found in adults. The authors present a case of a 28-day-old neonate with a ruptured distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. Initial noninvasive imaging with transfontanelle ultrasound and CT confirmed intraparenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed a 14-mm ruptured fusiform MCA aneurysm that was not identified on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Stephan F Taylor, S Shaun Ho, Tessa Abagis, Mike Angstadt, Daniel F Maixner, Robert C Welsh, Luis Hernandez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and this study evaluated sgACC connectivity before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. METHODS: Thirty-two MDD patients entered a sham-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial of rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlFPC). Subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after 20 sessions of high frequency rTMS...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xiangnan Ren, Wu Fan, Zixing Shao, Kaiyun Chen, Xuefeng Yu, Qionglin Liang
The early and accurate diagnosis of steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) is appealing considering its irreversible progression and serious consequence for the patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic change of SANFH for its early detection. Two stages were designed in this study, namely discovery and verification. Except the biochemical index anomaly and the accidental death, 30 adult healthy adult Japanese white rabbits were used for screening out the potential metabolites in discovery experiment and 13 rabbits were used in verification experiment...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Myung-Ku Kim, Chul-Won Ha, Yong In, Sung-Do Cho, Eui-Sung Choi, Jeong-Ku Ha, Ju-Hong Lee, Jae-Doo Yoo, Seong-Il Bin, Choong-Hyeok Choi, Hee-Soo Kyung, Myung-Chul Lee
OBJECTIVE: To test the clinical efficacy of TissueGene-C (TG-C), a cell and gene therapeutic for osteoarthritis consisting of non-transformed and transduced chondrocytes (3:1), retrovirally transduced to overexpress TGF-β1. DESIGN: We randomly assigned 163 with knee osteoarthritis to receive intra-articular TG-C or placebo in Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 patients for clinical trial. Primary efficacy measures included criteria for subjective assessment by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and pain severity by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for 52 weeks...
February 27, 2018: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Jessie Y Chen, Mark S Hockenberry, Larry I Lipshultz
INTRODUCTION: Penile deformity is the most obvious manifestation of Peyronie's disease (PD) and key to determining the optimal method of treatment. Other aspects of PD to consider include plaque size, location, and density; amount of calcification; erection quality; disease progression; and penile anatomy. Few standards exist for the objective assessment of these parameters. AIM: To describe current options and new trends in the objective evaluation of PD with a focus on penile curvature and imaging modalities...
February 21, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Bertrand Mathon, Pierre Lévy, Anne Bertrand, Karima Mokhtari, Séverine Samson, Valérie Thuriès, Virginie Lambrecq, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Sophie Dupont, Claude Adam, Michel Baulac, Stéphane Clémenceau, Charles Duyckaerts, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Surgery results in seizure freedom for most pharmacoresistant patients, but the epileptic and cognitive prognosis remains variable. The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) histopathological classification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has fostered research to understand MTLE-HS heterogeneity. We investigated the associations between histopathological features (ILAE types, hypertrophic CA4 neurons, granule cell layer alterations, CD34 immunopositive cells) and clinical features (presurgical history, postsurgical outcome) in a monocentric series of 247 MTLE-HS patients treated by surgery...
February 24, 2018: Brain Pathology
E Van Obberghen, S Mchinda, A le Troter, V H Prevost, P Viout, M Guye, G Varma, D C Alsop, J-P Ranjeva, J Pelletier, O Girard, G Duhamel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer is a new endogenous MR imaging contrast mechanism that has demonstrated high specificity for myelin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhomogeneous magnetization transfer is sensitive to pathology in a population of patients with relapsing-remitting MS in a way that both differs from and complements conventional magnetization transfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective MR imaging research study, whose protocol included anatomic imaging, standard magnetization transfer, and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer imaging...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Wadi Mawad, Luc L Mertens
Cardiac imaging is central to today's pediatric cardiology practice not only to diagnose structural congenital defects and delineate cardiac and extracardiac anatomy but also for determining the hemodynamic impact of the structural defects and acquired pediatric diseases. Not so long ago, clinicians had to heavily rely on angiography as the main cardiac imaging modality to visualize the heart. Particularly, the development of echocardiography in the 1970s and 1980s together with the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) resulted in a non-invasive diagnostic revolution with diagnostic catheterization becoming obsolete apart for very specific indications...
February 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Kathrin Reetz, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Imis Dogan, Shahram Mirzazade, Sandro Romanzetti, Jörg B Schulz, Edilia M Cruz-Rivas, Jose A Alvarez-Cuesta, Raul Aguilera Rodríguez, Yanetza Gonzalez Zaldivar, Georg Auburger, Luis Velázquez-Pérez
Objective: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting the cerebellum and brainstem. In this Cuban-German research collaboration, we aimed to characterize atrophy patterns and associations with clinical measures in preclinical and manifest SCA2. Methods: In this study, 16 nonmanifest SCA2 mutation carriers, 26 manifest patients with SCA2, and 18 healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging, as well as genetic and clinical characterization including assessment of ataxia (Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia) and saccade velocity in Cuba were enrolled...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Jesse Russell-Williams, Wafa Jaroudi, Tania Perich, Siobhan Hoscheidt, Mohamad El Haj, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, cognition and stress in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. Accordingly, we explore how the use of meditation as a behavioural intervention can reduce stress and enhance cognition, which in turn ameliorates some dementia symptoms. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with any studies using meditation as an intervention for dementia or dementia-related memory conditions meeting inclusion criteria...
February 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Saeed Alborzi, Alireza Rasekhi, Zahra Shomali, Gooya Madadi, Mahshid Alborzi, Mahboobeh Kazemi, Azam Hosseini Nohandani
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transvaginal sonography (TVS), and transrectal sonography (TRS) in diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).This diagnostic accuracy study was conducted during a 2-year period including a total number of 317 patients with signs and symptoms of endometriosis. All the patients were evaluated by pelvic MRI, TVS, and TRS in the same center. The criterion standard was considered to be the laparoscopy and histopathologic examination...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jinsoo Uh, Matthew J Krasin, Chia-Ho Hua
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of using on-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect proton range changes during treatment courses. METHODS: MRI-based virtual computed tomography (vCT) was generated to calculate water-equivalent path length (WEPL) at the distal surface of a clinical target volume. T2-weighted MR images with and without fat suppression were processed by thresholding and fuzzy c-mean clustering to assign a bulk HU (Hounsfield Unit) to each segment of fat, water, and air...
February 21, 2018: Medical Physics
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