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Kosuke Kawaguchi, Masashi Morita
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1-3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes...
2016: BioMed Research International
Peter J Kelly, Gregory W Albers, Anastasios Chatzikonstantinou, Gian Marco De Marchis, Julia Ferrari, Paul George, Mira Katan, Michael Knoflach, Jong S Kim, Linxin Li, Eun-Jae Lee, Jean-Marc Olivot, Francisco Purroy, Nicolas Raposo, Peter M Rothwell, Vijay K Sharma, Bo Song, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Cathal Walsh, Yuming Xu, Aine Merwick
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at highest risk of early stroke after transient ischaemic attack has been improved with imaging based scores. We aimed to compare the validity and prognostic utility of imaging-based stroke risk scores in patients after transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of published and unpublished individual-patient data from 16 cohort studies of transient ischaemic attack done in Asia, Europe, and the USA, with early brain and vascular imaging and follow up...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Peter Appelros, Maria Háls Berglund, Jakob O Ström
BACKGROUND: In the absence of active management, the stroke risk after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be high. Almost 10 years ago, the results of the EXPRESS and SOS-TIA studies called for a more rapid management of TIA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the other stroke risks in the longer term, after the implementation of a more active approach to TIA. We also wanted to assess the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in this context. METHODS: Riksstroke is the national stroke registry in Sweden...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Shawna Cutting, Elizabeth Regan, Vivien H Lee, Shyam Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following transient ischemic attack (TIA), there is increased risk for ischemic stroke. The American Heart Association recommends admission of patients with ABCD2 scores ≥3 for observation, rapid performance of diagnostic tests, and potential acute intervention. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between ABCD2 scores, in-hospital ischemic events, and in-hospital treatments after TIA admission. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive patients admitted between 2006 and 2011 following a TIA, defined as transient focal neurological symptoms attributed to a specific vascular distribution and lasting <24 h...
October 8, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Salim Elyas, Angela C Shore, Hayley Kingwell, Samantha Keenan, Leigh Boxall, Jane Stewart, Martin A James, William David Strain
OBJECTIVE: Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and minor strokes are important risk factors for recurrent strokes. Current stroke risk prediction scores such as ABCD2, although widely used, lack optimal sensitivity and specificity. Elevated urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mortality. We explored the role of microalbuminuria (using albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) in predicting recurrence risk in patients with TIA and minor stroke. METHODS: Urinary ACR was measured on a spot sample in 150 patients attending a daily stroke clinic with TIA or minor stroke...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Mostafa Almasi, Nader Hodjati Firoozabadi, Faeze Ghasemi, Mojtaba Chardoli
Background. The ABCD2 score is now identified as a useful clinical prediction rule to determine the risk for stroke in the days following brain ischemic attacks. Aim. The present study aimed to introduce a new scoring system named "ABCD2F" and compare its value with the previous ABCD2 system to predict recurrent ischemic stroke within 90 days of the initial cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Methods. 138 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of ischemic CVA or TIAs who referred to emergency ward of Rasoul-e-Akram general hospital in Tehran from September 2012 to December 2013 were eligible...
2016: Neurology Research International
Scott Munro, Sally Rodbard, Khalid Ali, Claire Horsfield, Wendy Knibb, Janet Holah, Ottilia Speirs, Tom Quinn
BACKGROUND: Suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is a common presentation to emergency medical services (EMS) in the United Kingdom (UK). Several EMS systems have adopted the ABCD2 score to aid pre-hospital risk stratification and decision-making on patient disposition, such as direct referral to an Emergency Department or specialist TIA clinic. However, the ABCD2 score, developed for hospital use, has not been validated for use in the pre-hospital context of EMS care. METHODS: We conducted a pilot study to assess eligibility criteria, recruitment rates, protocol compliance, consent and follow-up procedures to inform the development of a definitive study to validate the ABCD2 tool in pre-hospital evaluation of patients with suspected TIA...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Graeme J Hankey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Michael Knoflach, Wilfried Lang, Leonhard Seyfang, Elisabeth Fertl, Stefan Oberndorfer, Gerhard Daniel, Thomas Seifert-Held, Michael Brainin, Stefan Krebs, Benjamin Matosevic, Thomas Töll, Stefan Kiechl, Johann Willeit, Julia Ferrari
OBJECTIVE: It is not clear whether risk scores for early stroke recurrence after TIA that have been mainly established in outpatient and emergency department settings are valid on the background of highly specialized stroke unit care. METHODS: ABCD2 and ABCD3-I scores have been prospectively documented in a cohort of patients admitted to Austrian stroke units within 24 hours of symptom onset with TIA or minor stroke (NIH Stroke Scale score <4). RESULTS: A total of 5,237 TIA and minor stroke patients met inclusion criteria, with 3-month follow-up data available on 2,457...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Mojtaba Chardoli, Nader H Firoozabadi, Mohsen Nouri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Cerebrovascular attack (CVA) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are major causes of emergency department visits around the globe. A significant number of these patients may experience repeat attacks if left untreated. Several risk stratifying scoring systems have been developed in recent years to point out the high risk patients. ABCD2 is based on age, blood pressure, clinical status, diabetes mellitus, and duration of symptoms and is used commonly for this purpose. In this study, we were to enhance its sensitivity and specificity with the addition of another criterion namely atrial fibrillation and making ABCD2-F...
June 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Raymond W Grams, Chelsea S Kidwell, Amish H Doshi, Kendra Drake, Jennifer Becker, Bruce M Coull, Kambiz Nael
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 60% of patients with a clinical transient ischemic attack (TIA) do not have DWI evidence of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the added diagnostic value of perfusion MRI in the evaluation of patients with TIA who have normal DWI findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were clinical presentation of TIA at admission with a discharge diagnosis of TIA confirmed by a stroke neurologist, MRI including both DWI and perfusion-weighted imaging within 48 hours of symptom onset, and no DWI lesion...
July 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Dipankar Dutta, Sarah-Jane Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) services routinely use ABCD2 scores ascertained by referring clinicians to triage patients. Most ABCD2 validation studies have used ABCD2 scores calculated by stroke-specialist investigators and not referring clinicians. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of referring clinicians' ABCD2 scores in predicting strokes. METHODS: A retrospective study of a TIA clinic cohort from Gloucester, UK, followed up for 4 years from 2010 to 2012...
August 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Thomas Nury, Amira Zarrouk, Kévin Ragot, Meryam Debbabi, Jean-Marc Riedinger, Anne Vejux, Thibault Moreau, Patrick Aubourg, Gérard Lizard
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder induced by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene, which causes the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in tissue and plasma. Oxidative stress may be a hallmark of X-ALD. In the plasma of X-ALD patients with different forms of the disease, characterized by high levels of C24:0 and C26:0, we observed the presence of oxidative stress revealed by decreased levels of GSH, α-tocopherol, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We showed that oxidative stress caused the oxidation of cholesterol and linoleic acid, leading to the formation of cholesterol oxide derivatives oxidized at C7 (7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC), and 7α-hydroxycholesrol (7α-OHC)) and of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9-HODE, 13-HODE), respectively...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ian Weidling, Russell H Swerdlow
This Editorial highlights a study by Singh and coworkers in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors present additional evidence that AMPKα1 is reduced in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). They make a case for increasing AMPKα1 activity for therapeutic purposes in this disease, and indicate how this goal may be achieved. Read the highlighted article 'Metformin-induced mitochondrial function and ABCD2 up regulation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy involves AMP activated protein kinase' on page 86...
July 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jonas B Lima Filho, Igor de Lima Teixeira, Gustavo Jose Luvizutto, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rodrigo Bazan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2016: Neurology
Dipankar Dutta
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) can be difficult and 50-60% of patients seen in TIA clinics turn out to be mimics. Many of these mimics have high ABCD2 scores and fill urgent TIA clinic slots inappropriately. A TIA diagnostic tool may help non-specialists make the diagnosis with greater accuracy and improve TIA clinic triage. The only available diagnostic score (Dawson et al) is limited in scope and not widely used. The Diagnosis of TIA (DOT) Score is a new and internally validated web and mobile app based diagnostic tool which encompasses both brain and retinal TIA...
2016: BMC Neurology
Jaspreet Singh, Brittany Olle, Hamid Suhail, Michelle M Felicella, Shailendra Giri
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a progressive neurometabolic disease caused by mutations/deletions in the Abcd1 gene. Similar mutations/deletions in the Abcd1 gene often result in diagonally opposing phenotypes of mild adrenomyeloneuropathy and severe neuroinflammatory cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), which suggests involvement of downstream modifier genes. We recently documented the first evidence of loss of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) in ALD patient-derived cells. Here, we report the novel loss of AMPKα1 in postmortem brain white matter of patients with ALD phenotype...
July 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Hiroki Taguchi, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Kuniaki Bandoh, Hideki Koyasu, Yuukou Watanabe, Kohei Yamashita, Kenji Shimazaki, Hiroshi Shima, Masaaki Miyakawa, Yoshikazu Niwa
BACKGROUND: Japan has the highest number of magnetic resonance imaging units in the world, and citizens can freely choose medical care at any hospital or clinic. We aimed to investigate the triage of patients with suspected transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke in this unique Japanese healthcare system. METHODS: In this cohort study, patients with suspected TIA or minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score <4) within 7 days after onset were prospectively enrolled and followed for 1 year...
April 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
P Soucek, V Hlavac, K Elsnerova, R Vaclavikova, R Kozevnikovova, K Raus
The aim of the present study was to introduce methods for exome sequencing of two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCC8 and ABCD2 recently suggested to play a putative role in breast cancer progression and prognosis of patients. We performed next generation sequencing targeted at analysis of all exons in ABCC8 and ABCD2 genes and surrounding noncoding sequences in blood DNA samples from 24 patients with breast cancer. The revealed alterations were characterized by in silico tools. We then compared the most frequent functionally relevant polymorphism rs757110 in ABCC8 with clinical data of patients...
2015: Physiological Research
Rita Demidenko, Deividas Razanauskas, Kristina Daniunaite, Juozas Rimantas Lazutka, Feliksas Jankevicius, Sonata Jarmalaite
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins responsible for the efflux of a wide variety of substrates, including steroid metabolites, through the cellular membranes. For better characterization of the role of ABC transporters in prostate cancer (PCa) development, the profile of ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed in PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT). METHODS: TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) human ABC transporter plates were used for the gene expression profiling in 10 PCa and 6 NPT specimens...
2015: BMC Cancer
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