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Vaccine AND side effects

Jose A Garcia-Salcedo, Juan D Unciti-Broceta, Javier Valverde-Pozo, Miguel Soriano
Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Devinder M Thappa, Minu J Chiramel
Cutaneous and genital warts are common dermatological conditions caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Although it is a benign condition, it causes disfigurement, has a tendency to koebnerize, and can be transmitted to others. This makes adequate and timely treatment important. There are several conventional treatments available with variable response. Topical and systemic immunotherapy has now found a significant place in the treatment of warts because of its nondestructive action, ease of use, and promising results...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Nargis Khan, Susanta Pahari, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Mohammad Aqdas, Javed N Agrewala
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all infectious diseases. Failure of Bacillus Calmette Guerin as a vaccine and serious side-effects and toxicity due to long-term TB drug regime are the major hurdles associated with TB control. The problem is further compounded by the emergence of drug-resistance strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Consequently, it demands a serious attempt to explore safer and superior treatment approaches. Recently, an improved understanding of host-pathogen interaction has opened up new avenues for immunotherapy for treating TB...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Débora Torrealba, Joaquin Seras-Franzoso, Uwe Mamat, Kathleen Wilke, Antonio Villaverde, Nerea Roher, Elena Garcia-Fruitós
The control of infectious diseases is a major current challenge in intensive aquaculture. Most commercial vaccines are based on live attenuated or inactivated pathogens that are usually combined with adjuvants, oil emulsions being as the most widely used for vaccination in aquaculture. Although effective, the use of these oil emulsions is plagued with important side effects. Thus, the development of alternative safer and cost-effective immunostimulants and adjuvants is highly desirable. Here we have explored the capacity of inclusion bodies produced in bacteria to immunostimulate and protect fish against bacterial infections...
2016: PloS One
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
(no author information available yet)
Influenza causes 3,000-6,000 deaths each year in the UK, mainly in people aged 65 or older. Modern influenza vaccines are safe and effective with between 60 per cent and 90 per cent success rate. Systemic side effects are no more common than placebo, and local side effects are mild and short lived. Despite this, some older people are reluctant to take up the vaccine and the reasons for this are not straightforward.
February 1, 2008: Nursing Older People
(no author information available yet)
Aims To identify side effects among girls having the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, their impact on vaccine completion and the reasons for non-vaccination with the aim of improving future uptake.
July 3, 2012: Nursing Children and Young People
Anne Ingeborg Myhr
DNA vaccines have great potential as preventive or therapeutic vaccines against viral, bacterial, or parasitic diseases as well as cancer, and may also be used as gene therapy products. Although many human and veterinary DNA vaccines have been investigated in laboratory trials, only four of these have been approved for commercial use. In this paper an overview of the regulatory requirements for the development of DNA vaccines is given. The regulatory process in EU and USA is described. A discussion concerning the relevance of national regulations on gene technology is included...
October 5, 2016: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Bing Wang, Lynne Giles, Hossein Haji Ali Afzali, Michelle Clarke, Julie Ratcliffe, Gang Chen, Helen Marshall
INTRODUCTION: There is limited knowledge of adolescent views and attitudes towards immunisation. Our study investigated adolescent attitudes to immunisation and compared differences in vaccination attitudes between adolescents and adults. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, national online survey. Recruitment was stratified by state and gender to ensure findings were nationally representative. Regression analyses were performed to assess and compare adolescent and adult views on vaccine benefits, community protection, risks, side effects, sources of information, and decision-making preference...
September 27, 2016: Vaccine
Mohanad Aldarouish, Cailian Wang
Among several types of tumor, lung cancer is considered one of the most fatal and still the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Although chemotherapeutic agents can improve survival and quality of life compared with symptomatic treatment, cancers usually still progress after chemotherapy and are often aggravated by serious side effects. In the last few years there has been a growing interest in immunotherapy for lung cancer based on promising preliminary results in achieving meaningful and durable treatments responses with minimal manageable toxicity...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Vahid Amini, Hossein Kazemian, Jalil Kardan Yamchi, Seifu Gizaw Feyisa, Saeed Aslani, Aref Shavalipour, Hamidreza Houri, Mohammadneshvan Hoorijani, Mehrdad Halaji, Hamid Heidari
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes gastroenteritis in humans and paratyphoid disease in some animals. Given the emergence of antibiotic resistance, vaccines are more effective than chemotherapy in disease control. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) conjugated with S. Typhimurium -derived OPS (O side chain isolation) in mice to determine its potential as a vaccine candidate against salmonellosis...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Petra Zieglmayer, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, René Schmutz, Patrick Lemell, René Zieglmayer, Milena Weber, Renata Kiss, Katharina Blatt, Peter Valent, Frank Stolz, Hans Huber, Angela Neubauer, Anette Knoll, Friedrich Horak, Rainer Henning, Rudolf Valenta
BACKGROUND: We have developed a recombinant B cell epitope-based vaccine (BM32) for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) of grass pollen allergy. The vaccine contains recombinant fusion proteins consisting of allergen-derived peptides and the hepatitis B surface protein domain preS as immunological carrier. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled AIT study to determine safety, clinical efficacy and immunological mechanism of three subcutaneous injections of three BM32 doses adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide versus aluminum hydroxide (placebo) applied monthly to grass pollen allergic patients (n=70)...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Olga Leplina, Nataliya Starostina, Olga Zheltova, Alexandr Ostanin, Ekaterina Shevela, Elena Chernykh
Recurrent herpes simplex labialis caused predominantly with herpes simplexvirus 1(HSV-1) is a major problem, for which various treatments have minimal impact. Given the important role of the immune system in controlling virus infection, an activation of virus-specific immune responses, in particular,using dendritic cell (DCs) vaccines, seems to be a promising approach for the treatment of patients with frequent recurrences of herpes labialis. The current paper presents the results of a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of DC vaccines in 14 patients with recurrent HSV-1 infections...
July 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jared Klarquist, Kristen Tobin, Peyman Farhangi Oskuei, Steven W Henning, Manuel F Fernandez, Emilia R Dellacecca, Flor C Navarro, Jonathan M Eby, Shilpak Chatterjee, Shikhar Mehrotra, Joseph I Clark, I Caroline Le Poole
T regulatory cells (Treg) avert autoimmunity but their increased levels in melanoma confer a poor prognosis. To explore the basis for Treg accumulation in melanoma, we evaluated chemokine expression in patients. A 5-fold increase was documented in the Treg chemoattractants CCL22 and CCL1 in melanoma-affected skin versus unaffected skin, as accompanied by infiltrating FoxP3+ T cells. In parallel, there was a ~2-fold enhancement in expression of CCR4 in circulating Treg but not T effector cells. We hypothesized that redirecting Treg away from tumors might suppress autoimmune side-effects caused by immune checkpoint therapeutics now used widely in the clinic...
September 12, 2016: Cancer Research
Galina V Seledtsova, Irina P Ivanova, Alexey A Shishkov, Victor I Seledtsov
The overall objective of disease management in autoimmune diseases is to suppress chronic inflammation and prevent organ damage. Therapies often revolve around five drug classes: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), anti-malarials, steroids, immunosuppressants, and bio-therapies. However, none of these is a 'cure' and each displays a potential for adverse events. In particular, while all of them suppress harmful autoimmune responses, they also impact on useful protective immune responses. T-Cell receptor (TCR) immunogenicity provides a rationale for T-cell vaccinations to induce anti-idiotypic immune responses with the purpose of down-regulating functionality of idiotype-bearing self-reactive T-cells...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Yeong Yeh Lee
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide...
August 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mariana Costa Duarte, Daniela Pagliara Lage, Vívian Tamietti Martins, Miguel Angel Chávez-Fumagalli, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Manuel Soto, Carlos Alberto Pereira Tavares, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz Coelho
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important tropical diseases worldwide. Although chemotherapy has been widely used to treat this disease, problems related to the development of parasite resistance and side effects associated with the compounds used have been noted. Hence, alternative approaches for VL control are desirable. Some methods, such as vector control and culling of infected dogs, are insufficiently effective, with the latter not ethically recommended. The development of vaccines to prevent VL is a feasible and desirable measure for disease control; for example, some vaccines designed to protect dogs against VL have recently been brought to market...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Melahat Bagirova, Adil M Allahverdiyev, Emrah Sefik Abamor, Ikram Ullah, Gizem Cosar, Mehmet Aydogdu, Hilal Senturk, Bengu Ergenoglu
Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world and is distributed over 98 countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk for leishmaniasis. There are three different generation of vaccines that have been developed to provide immunity and protection against leishmaniasis. However, their use have been limited due to undesired side effects. These vaccines have also failed to provide effective and reliable protection, and as such, currently there is no safe and effective vaccine for leishmaniasis...
September 3, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Emilie Karafillakis, Irina Dinca, Franklin Apfel, Sabrina Cecconi, Andrea Wűrz, Judit Takacs, Jonathan Suk, Lucia Pastore Celentano, Piotr Kramarz, Heidi J Larson
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often referred to as the most trusted source of vaccine-related information for their patients. However, the evidence suggests that a number of HCWs are vaccine-hesitant. This study consists of 65 semi-structured interviews with vaccine providers in Croatia, France, Greece, and Romania to investigate concerns HCWs might have about vaccination. The results revealed that vaccine hesitancy is present in all four countries among vaccine providers. The most important concern across all countries was the fear of vaccine side effects...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Maria Daglia, Morteza Izadi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Luca Rastrelli, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Chagas disease is one of the major health problems in Central and South America, which is caused by the parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi. It is commonly transmitted by members of blood-sucking subfamily Triatominae. Chagas disease is associated with cardiac and gastrointestinal manifestations. Up to now, there are no effective vaccines for the treatment of Chagas disease and benznidazole and nifurtimox are as the only effective anti-Chagas drugs that cause different adverse and side effects. Therefore, much attention has been paid to natural products as novel therapeutic strategies for Chagas disease and its manifestations...
August 24, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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