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Vaccine AND side effects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728074/no-pain-no-gain-adjuvant-effects-of-alum-and-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-in-pertussis-and-hpv-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Thomas C Mitchell, Carolyn R Casella
Development of non-infectious subunit vaccines is hampered by a slow pipeline of new adjuvants to replace or enhance alum in part because expectations of safety are high. Transient vaccine side effects are not clinical priorities because they cause no lasting harm and vaccine development has appropriately been focused on avoidance of serious adverse events. As a result, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which side effects caused by a vaccine's reactogencicity are predictive of successful immunization outcomes...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727722/an-attenuated-shigella-mutant-lacking-the-rna-binding-protein-hfq-provides-cross-protection-against-shigella-strains-of-broad-serotype
#2
Jiro Mitobe, Ritam Sinha, Soma Mitra, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Noriko Saito, Ken Shimuta, Nobuo Koizumi, Hemanta Koley
Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723970/barriers-and-facilitators-of-hiv-vaccine-and-prevention-study-participation-among-young-black-msm-and-transwomen-in-new-york-city
#3
Sharise Richardson, Pich Seekaew, Beryl Koblin, Tasha Vazquez, Vijay Nandi, Hong-Van Tieu
BACKGROUND: Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and Transwomen (TW) shoulder disproportionate burden of HIV. However, they are unrepresented in HIV vaccine trials. We investigated the perceptions of that factors associated with HIV vaccine trials participation among Black MSM and TW in New York. METHODS: Self-administered online questionnaires were administered to 18-29 years of NYC residents who identified as Black MSM and TW, assessing demographics, awareness and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, barriers and facilitators associated with willingness, and sexual behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721859/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-inactivated-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-on-methotrexate-treatment-a-matched-case-control-study
#4
Despoina N Maritsi, Susan E Coffin, Ioanna Argyri, George Vartzelis, Nick Spyridis, Maria N Tsolia
OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and side effects of immunisation against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in JIA patients on methotrexate treatment, who have not been previously exposed to HAV. METHODS: Case-control study performed in JIA patients and healthy controls matched on age and gender. The subjects received two doses of inactivated anti-HAV vaccine (720 mIU/ml) intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Seroconversion, seroprotection rates and anti-HAV-IgG titres were measured at 1, 7 and 18 months...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718586/-adverse-events-of-biologic-therapies
#5
Gregory Fleury, Cem Gabay
Biological therapies have revolutionized the management and the outcome of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The prescription and the number of patients under biotherapies have greatly increased. Unfortunately, these treatments are occasionally accompanied by side effects usually reversible upon treatment discontinuation. Some are preventable or can be reduced, including through the screening and prevention (tuberculosis screening, vaccination…). It is important to be aware of these different side effects to adapt the prescription of biologics according to the patient's profile (history of infection, malignancy, heart failure…)...
March 8, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713023/an-extended-mathematical-model-of-tumor-growth-and-its-interaction-with-the-immune-system-to-be-used-for-developing-an-optimized-immunotherapy-treatment-protocol
#6
Milad Qomlaqi, Fariba Bahrami, Maryam Ajami, Jamshid Hajati
BACKGROUND: chemotherapy is usually known as the main modality for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of chronic cancers could not be treated with chemotherapy alone. Immunotherapy is a new modality for cancer treatment that is effective for early stages of cancer and it has fewer side effects compared to chemotherapy, specifically for those types of cancer that are resistant to it. METHOD: This work presents an extended mathematical model to depict interactions between cancerous and adaptive immune system in mouse...
July 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710608/vaccine-platform-recombinant-measles-virus
#7
REVIEW
Michael D Mühlebach
The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus...
July 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705615/transcutaneous-immunotherapy-of-pollinosis-using-solid-in-oil-nanodispersions-loaded-with-t-cell-epitope-peptides
#8
Qingliang Kong, Momoko Kitaoka, Rie Wakabayashi, Noriho Kamiya, Masahiro Goto
Pollinosis, a typical seasonal allergy, is a serious public health problem. Limited numbers of patients receive curative immunotherapy instead of symptomatic therapy; however, there are still some concerns about the inconvenience and side effects of subcutaneous injections and sublingual administration caused by immunotherapy. Here, we propose a simple and safe transcutaneous immunotherapy using solid-in-oil (S/O) nanodispersions loaded with vaccine T cell epitope peptides derived from pollen allergen. S/O nanodispersions are oil-based dispersions of antigens coated with hydrophobic surfactants...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705213/the-therapeutic-landscape-of-hiv-1-via-genome-editing
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako
Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Gene therapy, an expanding treatment strategy, using RNA interference (RNAi) and programmable nucleases such as meganuclease, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas9) are transforming the therapeutic landscape of HIV-1...
July 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704520/a-self-affirmation-exercise-does-not-improve-intentions-to-vaccinate-among-parents-with-negative-vaccine-attitudes-and-may-decrease-intentions-to-vaccinate
#10
Rachael D Reavis, Jacob B Ebbs, Adaobi K Onunkwo, L Mariah Sage
Two studies investigated the effectiveness of a self-affirmation exercise on vaccine safety beliefs and intent to vaccinate future children. In Study 1, a sample of 585 parents with at least one child under the age of 18 in the home participated through Amazon's MTurk. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Participants read either correcting information refuting a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism or a control passage about bird feeding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696530/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-single-dose-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-oncology-patients
#11
Te-Yu Hung, Rishi S Kotecha, Christopher C Blyth, Sarah K Steed, Ruth B Thornton, Anne L Ryan, Catherine H Cole, Peter C Richmond
BACKGROUND: Children receiving immunosuppressive treatment for cancer are at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) can prevent pneumococcal disease in healthy children; however, there is an absence of literature regarding the benefit of PCV13 in immunocompromised children with cancer. METHODS: A prospective, open-label cohort study recruited children between ages 1 and 18 years who were receiving active immunosuppressive therapy (AIT) or were within 12 months after completing immunosuppressive therapy (CIT)...
July 11, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695426/influenza-vaccination-beliefs-and-practices-in-elderly-primary-care-patients
#12
Sharon Rikin, Vanessa Scott, Steven Shea, Philip LaRussa, Melissa S Stockwell
The majority of influenza related deaths and hospitalizations occur among individuals ≥65 years, yet the national influenza vaccination rate for this group is 63% and is lower in the Hispanic population. Previous studies have described negative predictors of vaccination; however, there is a knowledge gap of how influenza vaccine-specific beliefs affect vaccination rates. We examined the relationship between influenza vaccine health beliefs and vaccination behaviors in a cross sectional sample of 200 primarily Hispanic patients aged ≥65 years in an academic general internal medicine clinic...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684909/nanoparticle-allergen-complexes-for-allergen-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Gabriella Di Felice, Paolo Colombo
Allergen-specific immunotherapy was introduced in clinical settings more than 100 years ago. It remains the only curative approach to treating allergic disorders that ameliorates symptoms, reduces medication costs, and blocks the onset of new sensitizations. Despite this clinical evidence and knowledge of some immunological mechanisms, there remain some open questions regarding the safety and efficacy of this treatment. This suggests the need for novel therapeutic approaches that attempt to reduce the dose and frequency of treatment administration, improving patient compliance, and reducing costs...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675699/immunization-with-a-synthetic-human-muc1-glycopeptide-vaccine-against-tumor-associated-muc1-breaks-tolerance-in-human-muc1-transgenic-mice
#14
Horst Kunz, Natascha Stergiou, Markus Glaffig, Helmut Jonuleit, Edgar Schmitt
Breaking the tolerance is crucial for an effective tumor immunotherapy. We showed that vaccines containing tumor-associated human MUC1 glycopeptides induce strong humoral anti-tumor responses in mice. The question remained whether such vaccines work in humans, in systems where huMUC1 is a self-antigen. To clarify the question, mice transgenic in expressing huMUC1, mimicking the self-tolerant environment, and wild-type mice were vaccinated with a synthetic vaccine. This vaccine comprised STn and Tn antigens bound to a MUC1 tandem repeat peptide coupled to Tetanus Toxoid...
July 4, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673007/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-therapy-for-modulating-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Baodan Yu, Junli Wang, Chen He, Wei Wang, Jianli Tang, Runhui Zheng, Chengzhi Zhou, Huanhuan Zhang, Zhiping Fu, Qiasheng Li, Jun Xu
Previous studies have reported that regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are physiologically engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, have a critical role in the regulation of the antitumor immune response. Targeting Tregs has the potential to augment cancer vaccine approaches. The current study therefore aimed to evaluate the role of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell infusion in modulating Tregs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 15 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated by an infusion of CIK cells derived from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671059/role-of-polyamines-in-parasite-cell-architecture-and-function
#16
Marcos A Vannier-Santos, Ana M Suarez-Fontes
In the absence of accessible, effective vaccines, the fight against parasitic disease relies mostly on chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the considerable side effects, high costs and growing number of refractory cases comprise substantial drawbacks. Thus, the search for new antiparasitic compounds remains a high priority. The polyamine biosynthesis, conversion and transport pathways offer different targets for selective chemotherapy. Polyamine analogues and other antagonists may provide tools in the search for new lead compounds...
July 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670890/a-cross-sectional-study-on-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-related-to-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-for-cervical-cancer-prevention-between-medical-and-non-medical-students-in-hong-kong
#17
Pui Woo Angela Yam, Pak Lun Lam, Tsz Kin Chan, Kei Wai Chau, Mei Lam Hsu, Yat Man Lim, Chun Hin Lo, Lincoln Siu, Hiu Fung Tang, Ann Marie Jing Man Tong, Wai Lok Yeung
Background: One of the most important aetiologies of cervical cancer is Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. While vaccination is an effective way in preventing high risk HPV infection, HPV vaccine uptake rate in Hong Kong has been low. Considering the proven effectiveness of HPV vaccination and the low vaccination uptake rate in Hong Kong, this study was conducted to compare the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention between medical and non-medical students in the University of Hong Kong...
June 25, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637337/matrix-completion-with-side-information-and-its-applications-in-predicting-the-antigenicity-of-influenza-viruses
#18
Li Huang, Xianhong Li, Pengfei Guo, Yuhua Yao, Bo Liao, Weiwei Zhang, Fayou Wang, Jiasheng Yang, Yulong Zhao, Hailiang Sun, Pingan He, Jialiang Yang
Motivation: Low-rank matrix completion has been demonstrated to be powerful in predicting antigenic distances among influenza viruses and vaccines from partially revealed hemagglutination inhibition (HI) table. Meanwhile, influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein sequences are also effective in inferring antigenic distances. Thus, it is natural to integrate HA protein sequence information into low-rank matrix completion model to help infer influenza antigenicity, which is critical to influenza vaccine development...
June 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636633/playing-with-fire-what-is-influencing-horse-owners-decisions-to-not-vaccinate-their-horses-against-deadly-hendra-virus-infection
#19
Kailiea Arianna Goyen, John David Wright, Alexandra Cunneen, Joerg Henning
Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634011/immunomodulatory-properties-of-concholepas-concholepas-hemocyanin-against-francisellosis-in-a-zebrafish-model
#20
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, María Inés Becker, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The development of vaccines for aquaculture has been an important milestone in providing a continuous and sustainable production. Most of the vaccines currently on the market for aquaculture include oil as adjuvant. Nevertheless, several studies reported an occurrence of side effects after their use in farmed fish. As a result, there is a need for new and improved adjuvants that can stimulate the immune system while causing as few side-effects as possible. Hemocyanins are versatile macromolecules with strong immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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