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Liver, clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052780/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#1
REVIEW
Joseph M Obeid, Paul R Kunk, Victor M Zaydfudim, Timothy N Bullock, Craig L Slingluff, Osama E Rahma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Current treatment options for patients with intermediate and advanced HCC are limited, and there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches. HCC is an attractive target for immunomodulation therapy, since it arises in an inflammatory milieu due to hepatitis B and C infections and cirrhosis. However, a major barrier to the development and success of immunotherapy in patients with HCC is the liver's inherent immunosuppressive function...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052493/impaired-liver-cytochrome-p450-2c11-activity-after-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-with-aspirin-and-clopidogrel-in-rats
#2
Chenyu Qian, Xi Luo, Mengbi Yang, Jing Jin, Zhong Zuo
1. Aspirin (ASA) and clopidogrel (CLP) are used in combination as dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for acute coronary syndrome based on their complementary mechanisms for platelet aggregation inhibition. However, the pharmacokinetics of such drug combination usage has not been thoroughly investigated. 2. In the current study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the plasma concentrations of ASA and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) with CLP and its metabolites, clopidogrel carboxylic acid (CLPM) and clopidogrel active metabolite derivative (CAMD)...
October 20, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052443/investigation-and-analysis-of-galerina-sulciceps-poisoning-in-a-canteen
#3
Hong Xiang, Yajuan Zhou, Changlin Zhou, Shiguang Lei, Hong Yu, Yafang Wang, Shu Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Guizhou Province in China has an abundant resource of wild mushrooms, including numerous poisonous species which contain various toxins. The mortality rate from wild mushroom poisoning has been high in this area in recent years. Galerina sulciceps is a dangerously toxic mushroom which can be fatal if ingested. METHODS: we report on an epidemiological investigation of G. sulciceps poisoning which occurred in Duyun City of Guizhou Province. The characteristics of this species, its toxicity, observed clinical features, laboratory data, treatment modality, and prognosis were investigated in order to provide a reference point for the prevention and treatment of this kind of mushroom poisoning...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052404/-clinical-efficacy-and-mechanism-of-total-glucosides-from-white-paeony-for-radioactive-liver-damage
#4
Shi-le Gao, Zong-Tao Hu, Liu-Yi Dong, Zhen-le Fei, Jin-Ke Ma, Ji-Yun Liu
To discuss the effects of total glucosides from white paeony on preventing and treating radioactive liver damage, and explore its possible mechanisms. Thirty-six patients with primary hepatic carcinoma from 105th Hospital of Chinese PLA were treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and randomly divided into simple irradiation group, total glucosides from white paeony group, and control group. The levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN, PCⅢ, CIV and TGF-β1 in serum of various groups were determined by using ELISA method...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052123/successful-chemotherapy-with-modified-folfirinox-for-pancreatic-acinar-cell-carcinoma
#5
Minami Hashimoto, Takuto Hikichi, Tomohiro Suzuki, Mayumi Tai, Osamu Ichii, Nobuo Matsuhashi, Eisaku Kita, Shintaro Takahashi, Yoshinori Okubo, Hando Hakozaki, Yutaka Ejiri, Hiromasa Ohira
Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a pancreatic mass in a 67-year-old man with diabetes mellitus. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration led to the histological diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma. The clinical stage was determined to be IVb based on findings of multiple metastatic lesions in the liver and lymph nodes, as well as splenic vein infiltration. Because the patient was not a surgical candidate, he underwent chemotherapy with modified FOLFIRINOX. In the absence of any severe adverse events, 12 courses of chemotherapy were delivered, resulting in marked shrinkage of both the primary and metastatic lesions...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051991/radiation-induced-liver-injury-mimicking-liver-metastases-on-fdg-pet-ct-after-chemoradiotherapy-for-esophageal-cancer-a%C3%A2-retrospective-study-and-literature-review
#6
Francine E M Voncken, Berthe M P Aleman, Jolanda M van Dieren, Cecile Grootscholten, Ferry Lalezari, Johanna W van Sandick, Jeffrey D Steinberg, Erik Vegt
BACKGROUND: For esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), restaging using F‑18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) following nCRT can detect interval metastases, including liver metastases, in almost 10% of patients. However, in clinical practice, focal FDG liver uptake, unrelated to liver metastases, is observed after chemoradiotherapy. This radiation-induced liver injury (RILI) can potentially lead to overstaging...
October 19, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051548/gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-after-spontaneous-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-single-center-cohort-study
#7
Shang-Po Wang, Yu-Hua Huang
Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage is one of several potential complications of acute strokes. We aim to analyze its prevalence, risk factors, and association with in-hospital prognosis following SAH. A total of 1047 adult patients with a primary diagnosis of spontaneous SAH were retrospectively enrolled. We retrieved medical information from the administrative database utilizing diagnostic and procedure codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051320/combinatorial-treatment-with-mtor-inhibitors-and-streptozotocin-leads-to-synergistic-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumor-effects-in-insulinoma-cells
#8
Julien Bollard, Céline Patte, Patrick Massoma, Isabelle Goddard, Nicolas Gadot, Noura Benslama, Valérie Hervieu, Carole Ferraro-Peyret, Martine Cordier-Bussat, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Colette Roche, Thomas Walter, Cécile Vercherat
Streptozotocin (STZ)-based chemotherapy is the first-line chemotherapy recommended for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs), while targeted therapies, including mTOR inhibitors, are available in second-line treatment. Unfortunately objective response rates to both treatments are limited. Since mTOR pathway activation, commonly observed in pNETs, has been reported as one of the major mechanisms accounting for chemoresistance, we investigated the potential benefit of mTOR inhibition combined with STZ treatment in a subset of pNETs, namely insulinomas...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051313/anaemia-in-pet-rabbits-causes-severity-and-reticulocyte-response
#9
Alexandra Dettweiler, Robert Klopfleisch, Kerstin Müller
The objective of the study was to determine the causes and the severity of anaemia in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to classify anaemia and to compare the reticulocyte counts from healthy and anaemic rabbits. Over a time period of 11 years (2000-2011) a retrospective and prospective study of 223 pet rabbits was performed. Based on the clinic's own reference range for healthy pet rabbits (packed cell volume [PCV] levels 0.33-0.45 l/l), animals with a PCV level below 0.33 l/l were considered anaemic...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051147/organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-oatps-mediated-drug-drug-interaction-study-between-rosuvastatin-and-cyclosporine-a-in-chimeric-mice-with-humanized-liver
#10
Masashi Uchida, Yoriko Tajima, Masakazu Kakuni, Yutaka Kageyama, Taro Okada, Eri Sakudara, Chise Tateno, Ryoji Hayashi
The influence of transporters on the pharmacokinetics of drugs is being increasingly recognized, and DDIs via transporters may be a risk factor for adverse events. Cyclosporine A, a strong OATP-inhibitor, has been reported to increase the systemic exposure of rosuvastatin, an OATP-substrate, by 7.1-fold in clinical studies. PXB-mice are chimeric mice with humanized livers that are highly repopulated with human hepatocytes, and have been widely used for drug discovery in DMPK studies. In the present study, we examined in vivo and in vitro DDIs between rosuvastatin and cyclosporine A in PXB-mice and fresh human hepatocytes (PXB-cells) obtained from PXB-mice...
October 19, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050997/transient-elastography-to-assess-liver-stiffness-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Berrie Meijer, Charlotte K van Everdingen, Dewkoemar Ramsoekh, Catherine Stedman, Christopher M A Frampton, Chris J J Mulder, Gerd Bouma, Nanne K H de Boer, Richard B Gearry
BACKGROUND: Liver injury during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is primarily diagnosed by liver biopsy, which has a small but serious risk of severe complications. The aim of this study was to assess liver stiffness, and subsequently the prevalence and associations of liver fibrosis in IBD patients with thiopurine therapy and other clinical factors, by using transient elastography (TE). METHODS: In this prospective, international two-center study, included IBD-patients underwent TE measurements...
October 6, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050991/mycophenolate-mofetil-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-patients-with-suboptimal-outcomes-to-standard-therapy-the-tapestry-study
#12
Stuart K Roberts, Ricky Lim, Simone Strasser, Amanda Nicoll, Alessia Gazzola, Joanne Mitchell, Way Siow, Tiffany Khoo, Zaki Hamarneh, Martin Weltman, Paul Gow, Natasha Janko, Edmund Tse, Gauri Mishra, En-Hsiang Cheng, Miriam Levy, Wendy Cheng, Siddarth Sood, Richard Skoien, Jonathan Mitchell, Amany Zekry, Jacob George, Gerry MacQuillan, Alan Wigg, Katherine Stuart, William Sievert, Geoffrey McCaughan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The outcomes of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as rescue therapy for AIH patients who have a suboptimal outcome to standard therapy remain unclear. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of MMF in patients who had failed or were intolerant to corticosteroids with/without azathioprine. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of AIH patients who received MMF after an inadequate response or intolerance to standard therapy. Patients were recruited from 17 liver clinics via the Australian Liver Association Clinical Research Network...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050983/precision-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-liver-cancer-in-china
#13
Jing Fu, Hongyang Wang
Liver cancer ranks the sixth in cancer incidence and the second in tumor related mortality worldwide, with over half of the new cases and deaths occur in China. Because of difficulties in early diagnosis, rapid progression and lack of targeted drugs, the survival rate of liver cancer is extremely low. The existence of extraordinary heterogeneity has greatly limited the progress in early detection, molecular classification and targeted therapy of live cancer, owing to its varied risk factors, genetic susceptibilities, morphological diversity and microenvironmental discrepancies...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050954/the-trendy-multi-center-randomized-trial-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-trial-qa-including-automated-treatment-planning-and-benchmark-case-results
#14
Steven J M Habraken, Abdul Wahab M Sharfo, Jeroen Buijsen, Wilko F A R Verbakel, Cornelis J A Haasbeek, Michel C Öllers, Henrike Westerveld, Niek van Wieringen, Onne Reerink, Enrica Seravalli, Pètra M Braam, Markus Wendling, Thomas Lacornerie, Xavier Mirabel, Reinhilde Weytjens, Lieselotte Depuydt, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang, Oliver Riesterer, Karin Haustermans, Tom Depuydt, Roy S Dwarkasing, François E J A Willemsen, Ben J M Heijmen, Alejandra Méndez Romero
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The TRENDY trial is an international multi-center phase-II study, randomizing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients between transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with a target dose of 48-54 Gy in six fractions. The radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) program, including prospective plan feedback based on automated treatment planning, is described and results are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scans of a single patient were used as a benchmark case...
October 16, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050439/pathogenicity-and-immunosuppressive-potential-of-fowl-adenovirus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#15
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Wei Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yihong Xiao, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu
To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050339/aberrant-expression-of-oatp1b3-in-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases-and-its-clinical-implication-on-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-mri
#16
Seung Hyun Park, Honsoul Kim, Eun Kyung Kim, Hogeun Kim, Dong Kyu Choi, Yong Eun Chung, Myeong-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Choi
PURPOSE: To investigate the factors associated with hepatobiliary phase (HBP) enhancement at gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine whether HBP images could be used to predict prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM). RESULTS: Of the 96 total nodules, 65 and 31 nodules were in the mixed and clearly hypointense groups, respectively. In the 55 nodules without preoperative chemotherapy, organic anionic transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) expression was a significant factor regarding the HBP enhancement (P=0...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050338/tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-producing-antitumor-active-immunoglobulins-in-resected-hcc-prolong-patient-survival
#17
Stefan M Brunner, Timo Itzel, Christoph Rubner, Rebecca Kesselring, Eva Griesshammer, Matthias Evert, Andreas Teufel, Hans J Schlitt, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The immunological microenvironment of HCC influences patient outcome, however, the role of B cells remains unclear. This study investigated effects of local B-cell infiltration in HCC cohorts on patient survival and immunological and molecular tumor microenvironment. RESULTS: Unsupervised gene expression analysis of full cancer transcriptomes (N=2158) revealed a highly co-regulated immunological cluster in HCC that mainly contained immunoglobulin fragments...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050307/lncshrg-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-by-activating-hes6
#18
Ying-Chen Xu, Chao-Jie Liang, Dong-Xin Zhang, Guan-Qun Li, Xia Gao, Jian-Zhu Fu, Feng Xia, Jia-Jun Ji, Li-Jun Zhang, Guang-Ming Li, Ji-Xiang Wu
Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most common cancers, leads to mass mortality worldwide currently. However, the underlying mechanism of its oncogenesis remains to be elucidated. Here we identified that a long noncoding RNA, lncSHRG, was greatly upregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples. We found that lncSHRG was essential for liver cancer cell proliferation and tumor propagation in mice. In mechanism, lncSHRG recruits SATB1 to bind to HES6 promoter and initiates HES6 expression. HES6, which is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma, promotes tumor cell proliferation...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050276/a-new-donors-cyp3a5-and-recipients-cyp3a4-cluster-predicting-tacrolimus-disposition-and-new-onset-hypertension-in-chinese-liver-transplant-patients
#19
Yuan Liu, Tao Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Ling Ye, Haitao Gu, Lin Zhong, Hongcheng Sun, Chenlong Song, Zhihai Peng, Junwei Fan
AIM: The purpose of the current study was to investigate individualized therapy of tacrolimus (Tac), as well as complications after liver transplantation (LT) with the known genetic determinants and clinical factors. METHODS: In this retrospective study, two cohorts (n=170) from the China Liver Transplant Registry (CLTR) database from July 2007 to March 2015 were included. RESULTS: Both donors' CYP3A5*3 and recipients' CYP3A4*1G had a correlation with Tac pharmacokinetics at four weeks (all P<0...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050111/-a-long-term-follow-up-report-of-pediatric-relapsed-wilms-tumor-after-retreatment
#20
T Y Wang, C Pan, Y J Gao, W T Hu, Q D Ye, M Zhou, J Y Tang
Objective: To investigate the long-term efficacy and prognostic factors of pediatric relapsed Wilms tumor (WT) after retreatment. Method: Sixteen children in Shanghai Children's Medical Center with relapsed Wilms tumor were enrolled consecutively in this study between April 2006 and June 2016. All patients were diagnosed according to pathology, imaging and medical and surgical oncologist's assistance. Relapse treatment included surgical excision, chemotherapy and selective radiation therapy. The clinical features, long-term outcomes and prognostic factors of patients were analyzed retrospectively...
October 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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