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Liver, clinical

Hussain Mohamad Awwad, Juergen Geisel, Rima Obeid
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andrea Szentesi, Emese Tóth, Emese Bálint, Júlia Fanczal, Tamara Madácsy, Dorottya Laczkó, Imre Ignáth, Anita Balázs, Petra Pallagi, József Maléth, Zoltán Rakonczay, Balázs Kui, Dóra Illés, Katalin Márta, Ágnes Blaskó, Alexandra Demcsák, Andrea Párniczky, Gabriella Pár, Szilárd Gódi, Dóra Mosztbacher, Ákos Szücs, Adrienn Halász, Ferenc Izbéki, Nelli Farkas, Péter Hegyi
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical investment trends in 2015 show a huge decrease of investment in gastroenterology. Since academic research usually provides the basis for industrial research and development (R&D), our aim was to understand research trends in the field of gastroenterology over the last 50 years and identify the most endangered areas. METHODS: We searched for PubMed hits for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases for the 1965-2015 period. Overall, 1,554,325 articles were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Pierre Russo, John C Magee, Robert A Anders, Kevin E Bove, Catherine Chung, Oscar W Cummings, Milton J Finegold, Laura S Finn, Grace E Kim, Mark A Lovell, Margret S Magid, Hector Melin-Aldana, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Bahig M Shehata, Larry L Wang, Frances V White, Zhen Chen, Catherine Spino
The liver biopsy guides diagnostic investigation and therapy in infants with undiagnosed cholestasis. Histologic features in the liver may also have prognostic value in the patient with biliary atresia (BA). We assessed the relative value of histologic features in 227 liver needle biopsies in discriminating between BA and other cholestatic disorders in infants enrolled in a prospective Childhood Liver Disease Research Network (ChiLDReN) cohort study by correlating histology with clinical findings in infants with and without BA...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Tessa Brabander, Jaap Teunissen, Dik Kwekkeboom
PURPOSE: Physiological uptake in the uncinate process or pancreatic head has been described with Ga-labeled PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging. In-DTPA-octreotide is the only registered radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. We studied the uptake in this region of the pancreatic head on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using In-DTPA-octreotide in a large group of patients. Furthermore, known physiological and clinical characteristics are discussed in an attempt to elucidate this phenomenon...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jeong Won Lee, Sang Hyun Hwang, Do Young Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han, Mijin Yun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of F-FDG uptake of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) for predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The study retrospectively included 166 HCC patients with PVTT and no extrahepatic metastases who underwent staging FDG PET/CT. Tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) and PVTT-to-liver uptake ratio (PLR) were measured for each patient, and the prognostic values of clinical factors, TLR, and PLR were assessed...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Pavel Sumazin, Yidong Chen, Lisa R Treviño, Stephen F Sarabia, Oliver A Hampton, Kayuri Patel, Toni-Ann Mistretta, Barry Zorman, Patrick Thompson, Andras Heczey, Sarah Comerford, David A Wheeler, Murali Chintagumpala, Rebecka Meyers, Dinesh Rakheja, Milton J Finegold, Gail Tomlinson, D Williams Parsons, Dolores López-Terrada
Despite being the most common liver cancer in children, hepatoblastoma (HB) is a rare neoplasm. Consequently, few pre-treatment tumors have been molecularly profiled and there are no validated prognostic or therapeutic biomarkers for HB patients. We report on the first large-scale effort to profile pre-treatment HBs at diagnosis. Our analysis of 88 clinically-annotated HBs revealed three risk-stratifying molecular subtypes that are characterized by differential activation of hepatic progenitor cell markers and metabolic pathways: high-risk tumors were characterized by up-regulated NFE2L2 activity, high LIN28B, HMGA2, SALL4 and AFP expression, and high coordinated expression of oncofetal proteins and stem cell markers; while low-risk tumors had low LIN28B and let-7 expression, and high HNF1A activity...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Christopher Goldring, Daniel J Antoine, Frank Bonner, Jonathan Crozier, Chris Denning, Robert J Fontana, Neil A Hanley, David C Hay, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Satu Juhila, Neil Kitteringham, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Alan Norris, Chris Pridgeon, James A Ross, Rowena Sison Young, Danilo Tagle, Belen Tornesi, Bob van de Water, Richard J Weaver, Fang Zhang, B Kevin Park
Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalised toxicology to determine inter-individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) means that no current single cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human DILI...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Mathieu Pecqueux, Isabell Liebetrau, Wiebke Werft, Hendrik Dienemann, Thomas Muley, Joachim Pfannschmidt, Benjamin Müssle, Nuh Rahbari, Sebastian Schölch, Markus W Büchler, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reissfelder, Christoph Kahlert
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with a length of 18-25 nucleotides. They can regulate tumor invasion and metastasis by changing the expression and translation of their target mRNAs. Their expression is substantially altered in colorectal cancer cells as well as in the adjacent tumor-associated stroma. Both of these compartments have a mutual influence on tumor progression. In the development of metastases, cancer cells initially interact with the host tissue. Therefore, compartment-specific expression signatures of these three locations-tumor, associated stroma, and host tissue-can provide new insights into the complex tumor biology of colorectal cancer...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aleksandra Korniluk, Joanna Kamińska, Paweł Kiszło, Halina Kemona, Violetta Dymicka-Piekarska
CONTEXT: Selectins probably participate in the interactions between platelets and other inflammatory cells in cancer invasion and metastasis formation. We assessed a potential relationship of P-, L- and E-selectin in colorectal cancer patients in relation to tumour advancement according to TNM classification, and tumour location. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 53 CRC patients and 25 healthy subjects. Plasma levels of soluble P-, L- and E-selectins were measured using the immunoenzymatic method with Quantikine kits (R&D Systems)...
October 24, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Zhao-Qing Du, Li-Na Zhang, Qiang Lu, Yi-Fan Ren, Yi Lv, Xue-Min Liu, Xu-Feng Zhang
The standard therapeutic protocols of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) have not been well established yet. We investigated the clinical characteristics, disease progression, choices of treatments and outcomes of PLA with different size. 410 cases of patients with PLA were enrolled retrospectively from 2000 to 2014, and were grouped as small abscess (≤5 cm, n = 125), large abscess (5 cm to 10 cm, n = 218) and giant abscess (>10 cm, n = 36). The most common bacteria were Klebsiella pneumonia (22%) and Escherichia coli (11%) by pus culture, and Escherichia coli (36...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Murat Gül, Naci Babat, Fatih Mehmet Uçar, Mehmet Serdar Kuyumcu, Özcan Özeke
Cardiac mass can be described as an abnormal structure within or directly contiguous to the heart. Tumors and thrombi are the most common types of cardiac masses. Intracardiac thrombi have been encountered in various clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity and mortality due to embolic events. Cardiac neoplasms are extremely rare, and are usually metastatic tumors. The major primary malignancies associated with cardiac metastases include cancers of the lung, breast, stomach, and liver, and lymphoma, leukemia, and melanoma...
October 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Martin Uhl, Stefan Schwab, Thomas Efferth
A 52-year-old male patient was treated with standard radiochemotherapy with temozolomide for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After worsening of his clinical condition, further tumor-specific treatment was unlikely to be successful, and the patient seeked help from an alternative practitioner, who administered a combination of dichloroacetate (DCA) and artesunate (ART). A few days later, the patient showed clinical and laboratory signs of liver damage and bone marrow toxicity (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). Despite successful restoration of laboratory parameters upon symptomatic treatment, the patient died 10 days after the infusion...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Brandon Yim, Elizabeth Kertowidjojo, Yue Zhang, Pruthvi Patel
Hepatic amyloidosis is a rare disease entity that results from insoluble amyloid protein deposition in the liver. The disease often presents with vague, nonspecific clinical features. Currently, there is little literature describing treatment outcomes for biopsy-proven hepatic amyloidosis and current treatment guidelines recommend that patients enroll in a clinical trial due to insufficient evidence to suggest an optimal treatment regimen. Here, we present two cases of hepatic amyloidosis at an academic medical center and describe their presentation, treatment, and outcomes...
2016: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Chaohui Xiao, Cheng Wang, Sijie Cheng, Chengcai Lai, Peirui Zhang, Zizheng Wang, Tao Zhang, Shaogeng Zhang, Rong Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common neoplasms. Little progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Studies have increasingly found that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the regulation of the occurrence and development of HCC. To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of lncRNA in HCC, the current study examined 25 lncRNAs with differing levels of expression (according to the fold change) in microarray databases. Expression of LINC RP1130-1 was found to be markedly down-regulated in 51 HCC tissues compared to matching adjacent non-tumor liver tissues...
October 24, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Chengwei Niu, Yuchen Sheng, Enyuan Zhu, Lili Ji, Zhengtao Wang
The rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn, traditionally used to treat thyroid disease and cancer in China, is reported to induce serious liver injury during clinical practice. Diosbulbin B (DB), a diterpene lactone, has been found to be the main toxic compound in D. bulbifera. The present study aims to investigate the protection of ferulic acid (FA) against DB-induced acute liver injury and its engaged mechanism. Mice were orally administered FA (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) once daily for 6 consecutive days; and then orally given DB (250 mg/kg) on the last day...
October 23, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Yuan Wang, Fuquan Chen, Man Zhao, Zhe Yang, Shuqin Zhang, Lihong Ye, Hongwei Gao, Xiaodong Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aberrant expression of miR-107 is involved in the development of several human cancers. However, the role of miR-107 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well documented. In the present study, we aim to explore the function of miR-107 in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis was applied to predict the target genes of miR-107. Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to verify the miR-107 binding sites in 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) mRNA...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kiran Gajurel, Jack T Stapleton
Hepatitis viruses are named for their primary clinical illness, inflammation of the liver. Currently, six types of viruses are designated hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, and G), although only five of these cause hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses are composed of RNA and DNA viruses from different families and with different virologic properties, some of which typically cause acute hepatitis while others cause acute and chronic hepatitis. In addition to their role in liver disease, members of this group of viruses may cause a variety of pathologic changes in the kidney and other organs, and chronic infection may lead to cirrhosis in addition to raising a variety of important issues in the management of kidney transplant recipients...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Maria Paula Henao, Timothy J Craig
Alpha-1-antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas Covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert Commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Pierre-Henri Conze, Vincent Noblet, François Rousseau, Fabrice Heitz, Vito de Blasi, Riccardo Memeo, Patrick Pessaux
PURPOSE: Toward an efficient clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we propose a classification framework dedicated to tumor necrosis rate estimation from dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scans. Based on machine learning, it requires weak interaction efforts to segment healthy, active and necrotic liver tissues. METHODS: Our contributions are two-fold. First, we apply random forest (RF) on supervoxels using multi-phase supervoxel-based features that discriminate tissues based on their dynamic in response to contrast agent injection...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Sricharani Rao Balmuri, Uthra Selvaraj, Vadivel Vinod Kumar, Savarimuthu Philip Anthony, Aristides Michael Tsatsakis, Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast, Thiagarajan Raman
Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH)2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Research
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