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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243404/molecular-viability-testing-of-viable-but-non-culturable-bacteria-induced-by-antibiotic-exposure
#1
Seunguk Lee, Sungwoo Bae
Nucleic acid amplification-based methods are limited by their inability to discriminate between viable and dead cells. To overcome this drawback, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with qPCR has been used to differentiate viable from nonviable cells in environmental samples. However, assessing bacterial physiology using PMA-qPCR remains a challenge due to its incapability of detecting metabolic activities, leading to overestimation of the viable bacteria population under an inactivation condition (e.g. antibiotic treatments)...
December 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241543/ppgpp-controls-global-gene-expression-in-light-and-in-darkness-in-s-%C3%A2-elongatus
#2
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The bacterial and plant stringent response involves production of the signaling molecules guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp), leading to global reorganization of gene expression. The function of the stringent response has been well characterized in stress conditions, but its regulatory role during unstressed growth is less studied. Here, we demonstrate that (p)ppGpp-deficient strains of S. elongatus have globally deregulated biosynthetic capacity, with increased transcription rate, translation rate, and cell size in unstressed conditions in light and impaired viability in darkness...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240896/dechorionation-and-permeabilization-of-podisus-nigrispinus-heteroptera-pentatomidae-eggs-limiting-factors-for-cryopreservation
#3
Ítala Tainy Barreto Francisco Dos Santos, Júlio César Melo Poderoso, Edson José Santana Dos Santos, Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, José Eduardo Serrão
Cryopreservation protocols have been developed for eggs of Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera; however, for Heteroptera, such as Podisus nigrispinus Dallas, 1851 (Pentatomidae), no procedures have been described yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the processes of dechorionation and permeabilization on the viability of eggs of P. nigrispinus with different embryonic ages. In the laboratory, embryos of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of age were submitted to sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, isopropyl, and hexane solutions for dechorionation and permeabilization...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239281/methods-for-expansion-of-3d-cultures-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-a-thermoresponsive-polymer
#4
Xiaoli Chen, Linda Harkness, Zhongfan Jia, Andrew Prowse, Michael Monteiro, Peter P Gray
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are viewed as promising candidates for applications in regenerative medicine and therapy due to their proliferative and pluripotent properties. However, obtaining clinically significant numbers of hPSCs remains a limiting factor and impedes their use in therapeutic applications. Conventionally, hPSCs are cultured on 2-dimensional (2D) surfaces coated with a suitable substrate, such as Matrigel™. This method, however, requires a large surface area to generate sufficient cell numbers to meet clinical needs, and is therefore impractical as a manufacturing platform for cell expansion...
December 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236340/flow-cytometry-a-versatile-technology-for-specific-quantification-and-viability-assessment-of-microorganisms-in-multi-strain-probiotic-products
#5
Camille Chiron, Thomas A Tompkins, Pierre Burguière
AIMS: Classical microbiology techniques are the gold standard for probiotic enumeration. However, these techniques are limited by parameters of time, specificity and incapacity to detect viable but non-culturable (VBNC) microorganisms and non-viable cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow cytometry as a novel method for the specific quantification of viable and non-viable probiotics in multi-strain products. METHODS AND RESULTS: Custom polyclonal antibodies were produced against five probiotic strains from different species (Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, Bifidobacterium longum ssp...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234576/comparing-postdeposition-reactions-of-electrons-and-radicals-with-pt-nanostructures-created-by-focused-electron-beam-induced-deposition
#6
Julie A Spencer, Michael Barclay, Miranda J Gallagher, Robert Winkler, Ilyas Unlu, Yung-Chien Wu, Harald Plank, Lisa McElwee-White, D Howard Fairbrother
The ability of electrons and atomic hydrogen (AH) to remove residual chlorine from PtCl2 deposits created from cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is evaluated. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements as well as thermodynamics calculations support the idea that electrons can remove chlorine from PtCl2 structures via an electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) process. It was found that the effectiveness of electrons to purify deposits greater than a few nanometers in height is compromised by the limited escape depth of the chloride ions generated in the purification step...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234096/transit-and-integration-of-extracellular-mitochondria-in-human-heart-cells
#7
Douglas B Cowan, Rouan Yao, Jerusha K Thedsanamoorthy, David Zurakowski, Pedro J Del Nido, James D McCully
Tissue ischemia adversely affects the function of mitochondria, which results in impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and compromised recovery of the affected organ. The impact of ischemia on mitochondrial function has been extensively studied in the heart because of the morbidity and mortality associated with injury to this organ. As conventional methods to preserve cardiac cell viability and contractile function following ischemia are limited in their efficacy, we developed a unique approach to protect the heart by transplanting respiration-competent mitochondria to the injured region...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#8
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223141/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-choline-transporter-like-proteins-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#9
Fumiaki Nagashima, Ryohta Nishiyama, Beniko Iwao, Yuiko Kawai, Chikanao Ishii, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Uchino, Masato Inazu
In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake in the human esophageal cancer cells. In addition, we examined the influence of various drugs on the transport of [3H]choline, and explored the possible correlation between the inhibition of choline uptake and apoptotic cell death. We found that both choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNAs and proteins were highly expressed in esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE series). CTL1 and CTL2 were located in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218442/silver-nanoparticle-conjugation-affects-antiacanthamoebic-activities-of-amphotericin-b-nystatin-and-fluconazole
#10
Ayaz Anwar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Muhammad Asim Hussain, Dania Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, killing more than 15 million people worldwide. This is despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Nanoparticles offer a promising technology to enhance drug efficacy and formation of effective vehicles for drug delivery. Here, we conjugated amphotericin B, nystatin (macrocyclic polyenes), and fluconazole (azole) with silver nanoparticles. Silver-conjugated drugs were synthesized successfully and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217540/cancer-stem-cell-suppressing-activity-of-chrysotoxine-a-bibenzyl-from-dendrobium-pulchellum
#11
Narumol Bhummaphan, Varisa Pongrakhananon, Boonchoo Sritularak, Pithi Chanvorachote
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recognized as rare populations driving cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in leading cancers. Attempts have been paid toward identifying compound that specifically targets these CSCs. Therefore, the investigations of the novel therapeutic strategies for CSCs targeting is required. The cytotoxic effects of Chrysotoxine on human NSCLC-derived H460 and H23 cells were tested by MTT assay. The Effect of Chrysotoxine suppresses CSC-like phenotypes was determined in CSC-rich populations and primary CSCs in 3D culture and Extreme limiting dilution assay...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217406/lncrna-snhg1-promotes-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-and-toxicity-by-targeting-mir-15b-5p-to-activate-siah1-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Yuan Chen, Ya-Jun Lian, Yun-Qing Ma, Chuan-Jie Wu, Ya-Ke Zheng, Nan-Chang Xie
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as aberrantly expressed in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, limited knowledge is available concerning the roles of dysregulated lncRNAs and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanism in the pathological process of PD. In this study, we found that lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) and seven in absentia homolog 1 (SIAH1) were upregulated, but microRNA-15b-5p (miR-15b-5p) was downregulated in SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with MPP+, as well as in MPTP-induced mouse model of PD...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216642/taurine-protects-mouse-spermatocytes-from-ionizing-radiation-induced-damage-through-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-signaling
#13
Wenjun Yang, Jinfeng Huang, Bang Xiao, Yan Liu, Yiqing Zhu, Fang Wang, Shuhan Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The increasing prevalence of ionizing radiation exposure has inevitably raised public concern over the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation on male reproductive system function. The detection of drug candidates to prevent reproductive system from damage caused by ionizing radiation is urgent. We aimed to investigate the protective role of taurine on the injury of mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) subjected to ionizing radiation. METHODS: mouse spermatocytes (GC-2 cells) were exposed to ionizing radiation with or without treatment of Taurine...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215082/the-myokinetic-control-interface-tracking-implanted-magnets-as-a-means-for-prosthetic-control
#14
S Tarantino, F Clemente, D Barone, M Controzzi, C Cipriani
Upper limb amputation deprives individuals of their innate ability to manipulate objects. Such disability can be restored with a robotic prosthesis linked to the brain by a human-machine interface (HMI) capable of decoding voluntary intentions, and sending motor commands to the prosthesis. Clinical or research HMIs rely on the interpretation of electrophysiological signals recorded from the muscles. However, the quest for an HMI that allows for arbitrary and physiologically appropriate control of dexterous prostheses, is far from being completed...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213181/physiology-limits-commercially-viable-photoautotrophic-production-of-microalgal-biofuels
#15
Philip Kenny, Kevin J Flynn
Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213091/nitric-oxide-mediates-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-plays-a-role-in-growth-hormone-deficiency-by-nivalenol-in-gh3-cells
#16
Deyu Huang, Luqing Cui, Pu Guo, Xijuan Xue, Qinghua Wu, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
Nivalenol (NIV), a type B trichothecenes commonly found in cereal crops, can cause growth impairment in animals. However, limited information about its mechanisms is available. Trichothecenes have been characterized as an inhibitor of protein synthesis and induce apoptosis in cells. Oxidative stress is considered an underlying mechanism. However, whether NIV can induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat pituitary cells line GH3 is unclear. The present study showed that NIV significantly reduced the viability of cells and caused oxidative stress in GH3 cells...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212207/dusp4-promotes-doxorubicin-resistance-in-gastric-cancer-through-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Xing Kang, Minhuan Li, Hao Zhu, Xiaofeng Lu, Ji Miao, Shangce Du, Xuefeng Xia, Wenxian Guan
Chemoresistance limits treatment efficacy in gastric cancer and doxorubicin resistance is common in gastric cancer cells. Dual specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) has been associated with tumor progression. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of DUSP4 regulating doxorubicin resistance in gastric cancer cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay were used to measure cell viability and proliferation in gastric cancer cells treated with doxorubicin. The expression of DUSP4, E-cadherin and Vimentin protein was detected by Western blotting...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210152/hbahp-25-attenuates-hiv-1-gp120-mediated-inflammation-and-barrier-dysfunction
#18
T Bashir, Kvr Reddy
OBJECTIVES: Development of HbAHP-25, a peptide that prevents HIV-1 entry into cells by blocking gp120-CD4 interaction, as a topical anti-HIV drug, necessitates that it is first tested for toxic or abrasive effects on genital epithelial cells and also on the vaginal microbiome. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to investigate whether: (1) HbAHP-25 has any adverse effect on growth and membrane integrity of various cell lines, and (2) HbAHP-25 neutralizes gp120 mediated insults on genital epithelial cells...
December 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208980/long-term-drug-modification-to-the-surface-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-the-avidin-biotin-complex-method
#19
Yukiya Takayama, Kosuke Kusamori, Mika Hayashi, Noriko Tanabe, Satoru Matsuura, Mari Tsujimura, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Makiya Nishikawa, Akira Yamamoto
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have various functions, making a significant contribution to tissue repair. On the other hand, the viability and function of MSCs are not lasting after an in vivo transplant, and the therapeutic effects of MSCs are limited. Although various chemical modification methods have been applied to MSCs to improve their viability and function, most of conventional drug modification methods are short-term and unstable and cause cytotoxicity. In this study, we developed a method for long-term drug modification to C3H10T1/2 cells, murine mesenchymal stem cells, without any damage, using the avidin-biotin complex method (ABC method)...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207187/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-rescues-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-doxorubicin-induced-senescence-though-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#20
Wenzheng Xia, Meng Hou
Doxorubicin (DOXO), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a commonly used anticancer drug. Despite its widespread usage, the therapeutic effects of DOXO are limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have had positive outcomes in the treatment of DOXO-induced cardiac damage; however, DOXO exerts toxic effects on MSCs, decreasing the effectiveness of MSC therapy. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes MSC survival and rejuvenation, and thus is a promising candidate to protect MSCs against DOXO-induced injury...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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