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Limit of viability

Łukasz Rąpała, Rafał R Starzyński, Piotr Z Trzeciak, Sebastian Dąbrowski, Małgorzata Gajewska, Piotr Jurka, Roman Smolarczyk, Anna M Duszewska
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of elevated temperature on bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs), based on the expression and localization of both heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), responsible for the cellular defence mechanism, and oviduct specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) which is the most important embryotrophic protein. BOECs were cultured alone and co-cultured with cattle embryos at control (38.5°C) and elevated temperature (41°C) for 168 h. The elevated temperature had no effect on the viability of BOECs but exerted a negative effect on embryo development...
2018: PloS One
Kazuki Nosho, Koji Yasuhara, Yuto Ikehata, Tomohiro Mii, Taichiro Ishige, Shunsuke Yajima, Makoto Hidaka, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Haruhiko Masaki
Most bacterial cells in nature exhibit extremely low colony-forming activity, despite showing various signs of viability, impeding the isolation and utilization of many bacterial resources. However, the general causes responsible for this state of low colony formation are largely unknown. Because liquid cultivation typically yields more bacterial cell cultures than traditional solid cultivation, we hypothesized that colony formation requires one or more specific gene functions that are dispensable or less important for growth in liquid media...
June 15, 2018: Microbiology
Yasmin Issop, Denisa Hathazi, Muzamil Majid Khan, Rüdiger Rudolf, Joachim Weis, Sally Spendiff, Clarke R Slater, Andreas Roos, Hanns Lochmüller
Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway which yields precursors required for protein and lipid glycosylation. Mutations in GFPT1 and other genes downstream of this pathway cause congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) characterised by fatigable muscle weakness due to impaired neurotransmission. The precise pathomechanisms at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) due to a deficiency in GFPT1 is yet to be discovered. One of the challenges we face is the viability of Gfpt1 -/- knockout mice...
June 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Roghayeh Sadeghi Erami, Karina Ovejero, Soraia Meghdadi, Marco Filice, Mehdi Amirnasr, Antonio Rodríguez-Diéguez, María Ulagares De La Orden, Santiago Gómez-Ruiz
Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (FMNPs) and functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FMSNs) were synthesized by the conjugation of magnetite and mesoporous silica with the small and fluorogenic benzothiazole ligand, that is, 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole ( hpbtz ). The synthesized fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, XRF, 13 C CP MAS NMR, BET, and TEM. The photophysical behavior of FMNPs and FMSNs in ethanol was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The modification of magnetite and silica scaffolds with the highly fluorescent benzothiazole ligand enabled the nanoparticles to be used as selective and sensitive optical probes for zinc ion detection...
June 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Xuejiao Zhang, Lei Lei, Haiyan Zhang, Siyu Zhang, Weiwei Xing, Jin Wang, Haibo Li, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing
Attention has been paid to the environmental distribution and fate of nanomedicines. However, their effects on the toxicity of environmental pollutants are lack of knowledge. In this study, the negatively charged poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLA) and positively charged polyethyleneimine-palmitate (PEI-PA) nanomicelles were synthesized and served as model drug carriers to study the interaction and combined toxicity with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). DDT exerted limited effect on the biointerfacial behavior of mPEG-PLA nanomicelles, whereas it significantly mitigated the attachment of PEI-PA nanomicelles on the model cell membrane as monitored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lokesh Karthik Narayanan, Trevor L Thompson, Rohan A Shirwaiker, Binil Starly
Biofabrication processes can affect biological quality attributes of encapsulated cells within constructs. Currently, assessment of the fabricated constructs is performed offline by subjecting the constructs to destructive assays that require staining and sectioning. This drawback limits the translation of biofabrication processes to industrial practice. In this work, we investigate the dielectric response of viable cells encapsulated in bioprinted 3D hydrogel constructs to an applied alternating electric field as a label-free non-destructive monitoring approach...
June 14, 2018: Biofabrication
Robert Hnasko, Alice V Lin, Larry Stanker, Jeffery McGarvey
Macrophage-conditioned medium (MCM) is an important cell culture supplement used to support the survival and growth of newly fused hybridoma cells. The use of macrophage cells, as a part of hybridoma technology, has proven to be an effective and inexpensive source of growth factors that promote the early survival and growth of hybridoma cells. Despite the widespread use of MCM as a hybridoma culture supplement, there is limited guidance and standardization for MCM production to achieve optimal hybridoma support...
June 14, 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Igor Kviatkovski, Hadas Mamane, Anat Lakretz, Ilana Sherman, Delila Beno-Moualem, Dror Minz
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an emerging strategy for controlling the formation of undesired biofilms in water desalination facilities using reverse osmosis (RO). However, most studies examining these pretreatments are limited as they have been conducted on single-species cultures, while biofilms are composed of multiple-species communities. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on a model community composed of six environmental isolates from a marine biofilm formed in RO seawater desalination plant...
June 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Dan Jin, Yan Wu, Cuijie Shao, Yong Gao, Deqiang Wang, Jiwei Guo
Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of all lung cancer cases, which are the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality worldwide. The clinical efficacy of available therapies for NSCLC is often limited due to the development of resistance to anticancer drugs, particularly to cisplatin (DDP). Norcantharidin (NCTD) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of many types of cancer, to which patients do not develop resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential synergistic effects of NCTD and DPP on the viability of the the DDP‑resistant NSCLC cell line, A549/DDP...
June 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
Zhengwen Zhou, Yue Zhang, Luning Lin, Jianmei Zhou
Apigenin, a flavonoid with multiple physiological and pharmacological activities, is associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to examine the roles and mechanisms of apigenin in the apoptosis of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes, which were subjected to myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cellular apoptosis were evaluated using cell counting kit‑8 assays and flow cytometry...
May 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Guanping He, Yunlong Ma, Ye Zhu, Lei Yong, Xiao Liu, Peng Wang, Chen Liang, Chenlong Yang, Zhigang Zhao, Bao Hai, Xiaoyu Pan, Zhongjun Liu, Xiaoguang Liu, Chuanbin Mao
Killing osteosarcoma cells by zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and its underlying subcellular mechanism are never studied. Here, it is found that the NPs induce cross talk between apoptosis and autophagy, which leads to osteosarcoma cell death. Specifically, the NP uptake promotes autophagy by inducing accumulation of autophagosomes along with impairment of lysosomal functions. The autophagy further causes the uptaken NPs to release zinc ions by promoting their dissolution. These intracellular zinc ions, together with those that are originally released from the extracellular NPs and flowed into the cells, collectively target and damage mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Sarah L Hulin-Curtis, James A Davies, Rachel Jones, Emma Hudson, Louise Hanna, John D Chester, Alan L Parker
Ovarian cancer is often termed a silent killer due to the late onset of symptoms. Whilst patients initially respond to chemotherapy, they rapidly develop chemo-resistance. Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are promising anti-cancer agents engineered to "hijack" the unique molecular machinery of cancer cells enabling tumour-selective viral replication. This allows spread to adjacent cells and amplification of oncolysis within the tumour. OAds represent an excellent opportunity for ovarian cancer therapy via intra-peritoneal delivery, however the efficacy of OAds thus far is limited...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
Robert Allaway, Steve P Angus, Roberta L Beauchamp, Jaishri O Blakeley, Marga Bott, Sarah S Burns, Annemarie Carlstedt, Long-Sheng Chang, Xin Chen, D Wade Clapp, Patrick A Desouza, Serkan Erdin, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, Justin Guinney, James F Gusella, Stephen J Haggarty, Gary L Johnson, Salvatore La Rosa, Helen Morrison, Alejandra M Petrilli, Scott R Plotkin, Abhishek Pratap, Vijaya Ramesh, Noah Sciaky, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Tim J Stuhlmiller, Michael E Talkowski, D Bradley Welling, Charles W Yates, Jon S Zawistowski, Wen-Ning Zhao
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a rare tumor suppressor syndrome that manifests with multiple schwannomas and meningiomas. There are no effective drug therapies for these benign tumors and conventional therapies have limited efficacy. Various model systems have been created and several drug targets have been implicated in NF2-driven tumorigenesis based on known effects of the absence of merlin, the product of the NF2 gene. We tested priority compounds based on known biology with traditional dose-concentration studies in meningioma and schwann cell systems...
2018: PloS One
Yanqing Wu, Zhouguang Wang, Pingtao Cai, Ting Jiang, Yiyang Li, Yuan Yuan, Rui Li, Sinan Khor, Yingfeng Lu, Jian Wang, Daqing Chen, Qiqiang Zeng, Ruisheng Zhong, Hongyu Zhang, Yuan Lin, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are essential for proper development, survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, because bFGF and NGF have short half-life and rapid diffusion rate, they have limited clinical efficacy. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop an effective delivery system to protect bFGF and NGF from proteolysis while maintaining their normal bioactivities. METHODS: To more efficiently deliver bFGF and NGF, we used a coacervate (synthesized with heparin and a biodegradable polycation at mass ratio of 500: 100)...
June 12, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Clarissa Hernandez Stephens, Kara S Orr, Anthony J Acton, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Robert V Considine, Sherry L Voytik-Harbin
Widespread use of pancreatic islet transplantation for treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is currently limited by requirements for long-term immunosuppression, limited donor supply, and poor long-term engraftment and function. Upon isolation from their native microenvironment, islets undergo rapid apoptosis, which is further exacerbated by poor oxygen and nutrient supply following infusion into the portal vein. Identifying alternative strategies to restore critical microenvironmental cues, while maximizing islet health and function, are needed to advance this cellular therapy...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gurpreet Kaur, Nilambra Dogra, Sandeep Singh
The alarming health issues especially the unusually high number of cancer cases in agriculture community of Bathinda district of Punjab (India) is a serious concern. There is limited knowledge about the role of gene-environment interactions in oncogenesis prevalent in this area. The aim of present study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress with CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and PON1 genetic variation in the pesticide exposed (occupationally) population of Bathinda district of Punjab (India)...
June 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Masaaki Takeuchi, Victor Chien-Chia Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocardial strain imaging has gained popularity during the last decade in various clinical scenarios. The objective of this article was to review the potential application of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) strains in patients with coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Reports on the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial deformation analysis using 2D and 3D speckle-tracking analyses to detect significant coronary stenosis at rest or during stress and to evaluate myocardial viability are limited...
June 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Prashant Chandrasekharan, Zhi Wei Tay, Xinyi Yedda Zhou, Elaine Yu, Ryan Orendorff, Daniel Hensley, Quincy Huynh, King Long Barry Fung, Caylin Colson VanHook, Patrick Goodwill, Bo Zheng, Steven Conolly
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), introduced at the beginning of the twenty-first century, is emerging as a promising diagnostic tool in addition to the current repertoire of medical imaging modalities. Using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), that are available for clinical use, MPI produces high contrast and highly sensitive tomographic images with absolute quantitation, no tissue attenuation at-depth, and there are no view limitations. The MPI signal is governed by the Brownian and Néel relaxation behavior of the particles...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jennifer Gansau, Lara Kelly, Conor Buckley
Cell delivery and leakage during injection remains a challenge for cell-based intervertebral disc regeneration strategies. Cellular microencapsulation may offer a promising approach to overcome these limitations by providing a protective niche during intradiscal injection. Electrohydrodynamic spraying (EHDS) is a versatile one-step approach for microencapsulation of cells using a high voltage electric field. The primary objective of this work was to characterise key processing parameters such as applied voltage (0, 5, 10 or 15kV), emitter needle gauge (21, 26 or 30G), alginate concentration (1, 2 or 3%) and flow rate (50, 100, 250 or 500 µl/min) to regulate the morphology of alginate microcapsules and subsequent cell viability when altering these parameters...
June 11, 2018: Biofabrication
Kumar Jayant, Isabella Reccia, Francesco Virdis, A M James Shapiro
Introduction: The success of liver transplantation has been limited by the unavailability of suitable donor livers. The current organ preservation technique, i.e., static cold storage (SCS), is not suitable for marginal organs. Alternatively, normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) promises to recreate the physiological environment and hence holds promise for the better organ preservation. The objective of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the safety, benefits, and insight into the other potential useful parameters of NMP in the liver preservation...
2018: HPB Surgery: a World Journal of Hepatic, Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery
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