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conservation genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346054/genomic-regions-in-local-endangered-sheep-encode-potentially-favorable-genes
#1
Bianca Moioli, Roberto Steri, Gennaro Catillo
The economic evaluation of farm animal genetic resources plays a key role in developing conservation programs. However, to date, the link between diversity as assessed by neutral genetic markers and the functional diversity is not yet understood. Two genome-wide comparisons, using over 44,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, identified the markers with the highest difference in allele frequency between the Alpago endangered breed and two clusters, composed of four specialized dairy sheep, and four meat breeds respectively...
March 27, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345032/agrobacterium-delivers-vire2-protein-into-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#2
Xiaoyang Li, Shen Q Pan
Agrobacterium tumefaciens can cause crown gall tumors on a wide range of host plants. As a natural genetic engineer, the bacterium can transfer both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) [transferred DNA (T-DNA)] molecules and bacterial virulence proteins into various recipient cells. Among Agrobacterium-delivered proteins, VirE2 is an ssDNA binding protein that is involved in various steps of the transformation process. However, it is not clear how plant cells receive the T-DNA or protein molecules. Using a split-green fluorescent protein approach, we monitored the VirE2 delivery process inside plant cells in real time...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344905/evolution-of-the-patellar-sesamoid-bone-in-mammals
#3
Mark E Samuels, Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson
The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade) groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344897/testing-of-microsatellite-multiplexes-for-individual-identification-of-cape-parrots-poicephalus-robustus-paternity-testing-and-monitoring-trade
#4
Willem G Coetzer, Colleen T Downs, Mike R Perrin, Sandi Willows-Munro
BACKGROUND: Illegal trade in rare wildlife species is a major threat to many parrot species around the world. Wildlife forensics plays an important role in the preservation of endangered or threatened wildlife species. Identification of illegally harvested or traded animals through DNA techniques is one of the many methods used during forensic investigations. Natural populations of the South African endemic Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus) are negatively affected by the removal of eggs and chicks for the pet trade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344191/transposition-of-insertion-sequence-is256bsu1-in-bacillus-subtilis-168-is-strictly-dependent-on-reca
#5
Motohiro Akashi, Shota Harada, Syunsuke Moki, Yuki Okouji, Kiwamu Takahashi, Shigeki Kada, Keigo Yamagami, Yasuhiko Sekine, Satoru Watanabe, Taku Chibazakura, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
We developed an insertion sequence transposition detection system called the "jumping cat assay" and applied it to the Bacillus subtilis chromosome using IS256Bsu1 derived from B. subtilis natto. The high frequency of transposition enabled us to explore host factors; combining the assay and genetic analyses revealed that recA is essential for the transposition of IS256Bsu1. Detailed analyses using various domain mutants of recA demonstrated that this essentiality is not related to the function of recA in homologous recombination...
March 24, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344106/molecular-phylogenetic-relationships-reveal-contrasting-evolutionary-patterns-in-gorgoniidae-octocorallia-in-the-eastern-pacific
#6
M M Soler-Hurtado, P J López-González, A Machordom
The description and delimitation of species in an evolutionary framework is essential for understanding patterns of biodiversity and distribution, and in the assessment of conservation strategies for natural resources. This study seeks to clarify the evolutionary history and genetic variation within and between closely related octocoral species that are fundamental to benthic marine ecosystems for harbouring a high diversity of associated fauna. For our study system, we focused on members of the Gorgoniidae family in the Eastern Pacific, particularly of the Ecuadorian littoral, a less studied marine ecosystem...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343961/protein-depletion-using-the-arabinose-promoter-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri
#7
Lilian A Lacerda, Lucia B Cavalca, Paula M M Martins, José S Govone, Maurício Bacci, Henrique Ferreira
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is a plant pathogen and the etiological agent of citrus canker, a severe disease that affects all the commercially important citrus varieties, and has worldwide distribution. Citrus canker cannot be healed, and the best method known to control the spread of X. citri in the orchards is the eradication of symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the field. However, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the main orange producing area in the world, control is evolving to an integrated management system (IMS) in which growers have to use less susceptible plants, windshields to prevent bacterial spread out and sprays of cupric bactericidal formulations...
March 23, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343628/functional-architectures-of-local-and-distal-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-multiple-human-tissues
#8
Xuanyao Liu, Hilary K Finucane, Alexander Gusev, Gaurav Bhatia, Steven Gazal, Luke O'Connor, Brendan Bulik-Sullivan, Fred A Wright, Patrick F Sullivan, Benjamin M Neale, Alkes L Price
Genetic variants that modulate gene expression levels play an important role in the etiology of human diseases and complex traits. Although large-scale eQTL mapping studies routinely identify many local eQTLs, the molecular mechanisms by which genetic variants regulate expression remain unclear, particularly for distal eQTLs, which these studies are not well powered to detect. Here, we leveraged all variants (not just those that pass stringent significance thresholds) to analyze the functional architecture of local and distal regulation of gene expression in 15 human tissues by employing an extension of stratified LD-score regression that produces robust results in simulations...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343467/successful-chimera-production-in-the-hungarian-goose-anser-anser-domestica-by-intracardiac-injection-of-blastodermal-cells-in-3-day-old-embryos
#9
Nikoletta Sztán, Bence Lázár, Nóra Bodzsár, Barbara Végi, Krisztina Liptói, Bertrand Pain, Eszter Patakiné Várkonyi
The conservation of genetic resources of avian species has become increasingly important over the past decade. The aim of the present study was to develop a genome preservation technique for the Hungarian goose Anser anser domestica. To this end, we developed a novel approach combining the simplicity of isolating a blastodermal cell suspension, which includes forming primordial germ cells (PGCs), with the efficiency of targeting future gonads by injecting these cells into the cardiac vein of the developing host embryo...
March 27, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#10
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342770/high-risk-no-gain-metabolic-performance-of-hatchery-reared-atlantic-salmon-smolts-effects-of-nest-emergence-time-hypoxia-avoidance-behaviour-and-size
#11
Malin Rosengren, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Jörgen I Johnsson, Erik Sandblom, Svante Winberg, Kristina Sundell
When animals are reared for conservational releases it is paramount to avoid reducing genetic and phenotypic variation over time. This requires an understanding of how diverging behavioural and physiological traits affect performance both in captivity and after release. In Atlantic salmon, emergence time from the spawning gravel has been linked to certain behavioural and physiological characteristics and to the concept of stress coping styles. Early emerging fry has for example been shown to be bolder and more aggressive and to have higher standard metabolic rates compared to late emerging fry...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341548/cos2-kif7-and-osm-3-kif17-regulate-onset-of-outer-segment-development-in-zebrafish-photoreceptors-through-distinct-mechanisms
#12
Tylor R Lewis, Sean R Kundinger, Amira L Pavlovich, Jonathan R Bostrom, Brian A Link, Joseph C Besharse
Zebrafish morphants of osm-3/kif17, a kinesin-2 family member and intraflagellar transport motor, have photoreceptor outer segments that are dramatically reduced in number and size. However, two genetic mutant lines, osm-3/kif17(sa0119) and osm-3/kif17(sa18340), reportedly lack any observable morphological outer segment defects. In this work, we use TALENs to generate an independent allele, osm-3/kif17(mw405), and show that both osm-3/kif17(sa0119) and osm-3/kif17(mw405) have an outer segment developmental delay in both size and density that is fully recovered by 6 days post-fertilization...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340263/myrciaria-dubia-an-amazonian-fruit-population-structure-and-its-implications-for-germplasm-conservation-and-genetic-improvement
#13
C F Nunes, T A Setotaw, M Pasqual, E A Chagas, E G Santos, D N Santos, C G B Lima, G M A Cançado
Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) is an Amazon tree that produces a tart fruit with high vitamin C content. It is probably the fruit with the highest vitamin C content among all Brazilian fruit crops and it can be used to supplement daily vitamin C dose. This property has attracted the attention of consumers and, consequently, encouraged fruit farmers to produce it. In order to identify and select potential accessions for commercial exploitation and breeding programs, M. dubia has received considerable research attention...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339605/uniparental-chicken-offsprings-derived-from-oogenesis-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells-zz-%C3%A2
#14
Chunhai Liu, Il-Kuk Chang, Kamal A Khazanehdari, Shruti Thomas, Preetha Varghese, Vijaya Baskar, Razan Alkhatib, Wenhai Li, Jörg Kinne, Michael J McGrew, Ulrich Wernery
Cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer) in avian species has proven unachievable due to the physical structure of the avian oocyte. Here, the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells with genetic sex ZZ (ZZ PGCs) was investigated in female germline chimeric chicken hosts with the aim to produce uniparental offspring. ZZ PGCs were expanded in culture and transplanted into the same and opposite sex chicken embryos which were partially sterilized using irradiation. All tested chimeric roosters (ZZ/ZZ) showed germline transmission with transmission rates of 3...
February 2, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339464/the-preservation-of-microbial-dna-in-archived-soils-of-various-genetic-types
#15
Ekaterina A Ivanova, Ilia O Korvigo, Boris F Aparin, Evgenii L Chirak, Elizaveta V Pershina, Nikolay S Romaschenko, Nikolai A Provorov, Evgeny E Andronov
This study is a comparative analysis of samples of archived (stored for over 70-90 years) and modern soils of two different genetic types-chernozem and sod-podzolic soils. We revealed a reduction in biodiversity of archived soils relative to their modern state. Particularly, long-term storage in the museum exerted a greater impact on the microbiomes of sod-podzolic soils, while chernozem samples better preserved the native community. Thus, the persistence of microbial DNA in soil is largely determined by the physico-chemical characteristics that differ across soil types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339169/gesp-a-computer-program-for-modeling-genetic-effective-population-size-inbreeding-and-divergence-in-substructured-populations
#16
Fredrik Olsson, Linda Laikre, Ola Hössjer, Nils Ryman
The genetically effective population size (Ne) is of key importance for quantifying rates of inbreeding and genetic drift, and is often used in conservation management to set targets for genetic viability. The concept was developed for single, isolated populations and the mathematical means for analyzing the expected Ne in complex, subdivided populations have previously not been available. We recently developed such analytical theory and central parts of that work have now been incorporated into a freely available software tool presented here...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338077/characterization-of-the-soluble-nsf-attachment-protein-gene-family-identifies-two-members-involved-in-additive-resistance-to-a-plant-pathogen
#17
Naoufal Lakhssassi, Shiming Liu, Sadia Bekal, Zhou Zhou, Vincent Colantonio, Kris Lambert, Abdelali Barakat, Khalid Meksem
Proteins with Tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) domains are encoded by large gene families and distributed in all plant lineages. In this study, the Soluble NSF-Attachment Protein (SNAP) subfamily of TPR containing proteins is characterized. In soybean, five members constitute the SNAP gene family: GmSNAP18, GmSNAP11, GmSNAP14, GmSNAP02, and GmSNAP09. Recently, GmSNAP18 has been reported to mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Using a population of recombinant inbred lines from resistant and susceptible parents, the divergence of the SNAP gene family is analysed over time...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337392/microsatellite-markers-for-population-studies-of-the-salt-marsh-species-juncus-roemerianus-juncaceae
#18
Hayley R Tumas, Brian M Shamblin, Mark S Woodrey, Campbell J Nairn
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Juncus roemerianus (Juncaceae) is a foundational species and ecosystem engineer of salt marshes in the Gulf of Mexico. These ecosystems provide coastal flood attenuation, nurseries for important species, and other ecosystem services, but are experiencing significant decline. Nuclear microsatellite markers were developed for J. roemerianus to study genetic diversity and population structure for conservation and restoration efforts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Illumina NextSeq high-throughput sequencing was used to develop a panel of 19 polymorphic microsatellite markers that were tested across individuals from three populations on the Gulf Coast...
March 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337389/development-of-microsatellite-markers-using-illumina-miseq-sequencing-to-characterize-ephedra-gerardiana-ephedraceae
#19
Ji De, Weidong Zhu, Tianmeng Liu, Zhe Wang, Yang Zhong
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Ephedragerardiana (Ephedraceae), occurring in the Himalayan ranges, is an important plant species used in Tibetan medicine. Due to the lack of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity, knowledge for conservation and uses of E. gerardiana resources is limited; we therefore developed microsatellite markers for use in this species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, we developed 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci suitable for E...
March 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#20
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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