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Combined immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546756/new-developments-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-squamous-cell-lung-cancer-focus-on-afatinib
#1
REVIEW
Vera Hirsh
Until recently, few treatment options existed for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung, especially in the second-line setting following platinum-based chemotherapy. Accordingly, outcomes in this subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were generally poor. In this context, the recent availability of the checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, the anti-VEGFR2 antibody ramucirumab (combined with docetaxel), and the ErbB-family blocker afatinib for the treatment of relapsed/refractory SqCC of the lung represent major advances...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545238/epigenetic-strategies-to-boost-cancer-immunotherapies
#2
REVIEW
Maria J Barrero
Recently, immunotherapeutic approaches have shown impressive responses in a subset of cancer patients. However, the rate of success is low and a large percentage of treated patients do not experience clinical benefits. Therefore, additional strategies are needed to improve responses and select responsive patients. Emerging data suggest that epigenetic drugs can improve the responses to immunotherapy. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy and the epigenetic events that take place during immune evasion is critical to providing a rational combined use of immunotherapies and epigenetic drugs...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544814/optimization-of-liposomal-topotecan-for-use-in-treating-neuroblastoma
#3
Lina Chernov, Rebecca J Deyell, Malathi Anantha, Nancy Dos Santos, Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Marcel B Bally
The purpose of this work was to develop an optimized liposomal formulation of topotecan for use in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Drug exposure time studies were used to determine that topotecan (Hycamtin) exhibited great cytotoxic activity against SK-N-SH, IMR-32 and LAN-1 neuroblastoma human cell lines. Sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)/Chol liposomes were prepared using extrusion methods and then loaded with topotecan by pH gradient and copper-drug complexation...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544785/inhibition-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-axis-as-a-potential-targeted-therapy-of-advanced-gastric-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Li-Jun Xue, Xiao-Bei Mao, Li-Li Ren, Xiao-Yuan Chu
The whole outcome for patients with gastric carcinoma (GC) is very poor because most of them remain metastatic disease during survival even at diagnosis or after surgery. Despite many improvements in multiple strategies of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, exploration of novel alternative therapeutic targets is still warranted. Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) have been identified with significantly elevated levels in various malignancies including GC, which correlates with the survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544366/enumeration-of-wt1-specific-cd8-t-cells-for-clinical-application-using-an-mhc-streptamer-based-no-wash-single-platform-flow-cytometric-assay
#5
Sarah Matko, Madeleine Teichert, Antje Tunger, Marc Schmitz, Martin Bornhauser, Torsten Tonn, Marcus Odendahl
The advent of novel strategies to generate leukemia-associated-antigen (LAA)-specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapies creates a demand for standardized good laboratory practice (GLP)-compliant enumeration assays to provide a secure clinical environment-whether it is to identify potential donors, define therapeutic doses for transplantation, or monitor clinical success. Here, we introduce a no-wash assay based on single-platform cell enumeration and Streptamer staining to determine the Wilms' tumor antigen 1 (WT1)-specific T cell immunity in clinical samples...
May 25, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543086/allergen-immunotherapy-for-allergic-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Sangeeta Dhami, Artemisia Kakourou, Felix Asamoah, Ioana Agache, Susanne Lau, Jutel Marek, Antonella Muraro, Graham Roberts, Cezmi A Akdis, Matteo Bonini, Ozlem Cavkaytar, Breda Flood, Pawel Gajdanowicz, Kenji Izuhara, Ömer Kalayci, Ralph Mosges, Oscar Palomares, Oliver Pfaar, Sylwia Smolinska, Milena Sokolowska, Miqdad Asaria, Gopal Netuveli, Hader Zaman, Ather Akhlaq, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: To inform the development of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunonology's (EAACI) Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic asthma, we assessed the evidence on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, which involved searching nine databases. Studies were screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses...
May 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541096/combining-radiotherapy-with-immunotherapy-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#7
Evert J Van Limbergen, Dirk K De Ruysscher, Veronica Olivo Pimentel, Damiënne Marcus, Maaike Berbee, Ann Hoeben, Nicolle Rekers, Jan Theys, Ala Yaromina, Ludwig J Dubois, Philippe Lambin
The advent of immunotherapy is currently revolutionizing the field of oncology, where different drugs are used to stimulate different steps in a failing cancer immune response chain. This review gives a basic overview of the immune response against cancer, as well as the historical and current evidence on the interaction of radiotherapy with the immune system and the different forms of immunotherapy. Furthermore the review elaborates on the many open questions on how to exploit this interaction to the full extent in clinical practice...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540598/parp-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Matthew J Schiewer, Karen E Knudsen, Wm Kevin Kelly
The genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) reveals that up to 90% of patients harbor actionable mutations and >20% have somatic DNA repair gene defects (DRD). This provides the therapeutic rationale of PARP inhibition (PARPi) to achieve "synthetic lethality" in treating this fatal disease. Clinical trials with PARP inhibitors have shown significant response rates up to 88% for PCa patients having DRD like BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations. The FDA has awarded "breakthrough designation" to develop the PARPi olaparib in treating this subset of metastatic PCa patients...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540328/next-generation-of-cancer-immunotherapy-calls-for-combination
#9
EDITORIAL
Paola Cappello, Francesco Novelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Oncoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539557/prospects-for-personalized-combination-immunotherapy-for-solid-tumors-based-on-adoptive-cell-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapies
#10
Daiki Kato, Tomonori Yaguchi, Takashi Iwata, Kenji Morii, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ryohei Nishimura, Yutaka Kawakami
  Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and adoptive cell therapies (ACT) with antigen-receptor gene-engineered T cells have been shown to be successful for a limited number of patients with solid tumors. Responders to ICB therapy typically have T cell-inflamed tumors. Thus, it is important to develop strategies that convert non-T cell-inflamed tumors to T cell-inflamed tumors. Although chimeric antigen receptor transduced T (CAR-T) cell therapy targeting hematological malignancies demonstrated durable clinical responses, the success of gene-engineered T cell therapies in solid tumors is hampered by a lack of unique antigens, antigen loss in cancer cells, and the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) of solid tumors...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539555/inter-patient-and-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-the-sensitivity-to-tumor-targeted-immunity-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Tsubasa Miyauchi, Tomonori Yaguchi, Yutaka Kawakami
  Efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as PD-1 antibody for colorectal cancer remains to be proved except in microsatellite-instability-high (MSI-H) cases. While the objective response rate of MSI-H cases was 40%, that of microsatellite-stable (MSS) cases was 0%, showing that response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors varies even among the microsatellite status. Some possible mechanisms that confer each patient variation in the response to immunotherapy should be considered. We focused on the combination of inter-patient heterogeneity and intra-tumor heterogeneity as a determining factor of immune reaction...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539528/prospect-of-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma-tumor-vaccine-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-combination-therapy
#12
Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura
To date, clinical trials of various vaccine therapies using autologous tumor antigens or tumor-associated/specific antigen peptide with adjuvants have been performed to treat patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Furthermore, immune checkpoint pathway-targeted therapies including anti- programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody have been remarkably effective in other neoplasms, and various clinical trials with anti-PD-1 antibody in patients with HGG have started to date. It is possible that up-regulation of immune checkpoint molecules in tumor tissues after vaccine therapy may be one of the mechanisms of vaccine failure...
May 24, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539448/virological-control-by-the-cd4-binding-site-antibody-n6-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Boris Julg, Amarendra Pegu, Peter Abbink, Jinyan Liu, Amanda Brinkman, Katherine Molloy, Shanell Mojta, Abishek Chandrashekar, Katherine Callow, Keyun Wang, Xuejun Chen, Stephen D Schmidt, Jinghe Huang, Richard A Koup, Michael S Seaman, Brandon F Keele, John R Mascola, Mark Connors, Dan H Barouch
Passive immunotherapies against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) with maximum breadth and potency to assure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in-vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically SHIV-SF162P3 infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7 (mean 1...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537918/cryoablation-combined-with-allogenic-natural-killer-cell-immunotherapy-improves-the-curative-effect-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-cancer
#14
Mao Lin, Shuzhen Liang, Xiaohua Wang, Yinqing Liang, Mingjie Zhang, Jibing Chen, Lizhi Niu, Kecheng Xu
In this study, the clinical efficacy of cryosurgery combined with allogenic natural killer cell immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular cancer was evaluated. From October 2015 to March 2017, we enrolled 61 patients who met the enrollment criteria and divided them into two groups: 1) the simple cryoablation group (Cryo group, n = 26); and 2) the cryoablation combined with allogenic natural killer cells group (Cryo-NK group, n = 35), the safety and short-term effects were evaluated firstly, then the median progression-free survival, response rate and disease control rate were assessed...
May 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537896/5t4-oncofoetal-glycoprotein-an-old-target-for-a-novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Federica Cappuccini, Emily Pollock, Stephen Stribbling, Adrian V S Hill, Irina Redchenko
The tumour-associated antigen 5T4 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. However to date, reported 5T4-specific cellular immune responses induced by various immunisation platforms have been largely weak or non-existent. In the present study, we have evaluated a heterologous prime boost regime based on the simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing 5T4 for immunogenicity and tumour protective efficacy in a mouse cancer model. Vaccination-induced immune responses were strong, durable and attributable primarily to CD8+ T cells...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536525/immune-checkpoint-in-glioblastoma-promising-and-challenging
#16
REVIEW
Jing Huang, Fangkun Liu, Zhixiong Liu, Hui Tang, Haishan Wu, Qianni Gong, Jindong Chen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a severe malignant brain cancer with poor overall survival. Conventional intervention remains dismal to prevent recurrence and deterioration of GBM cell. Recent years have witnessed exciting breakthroughs in novel immune strategies, especially checkpoint inhibitors, some of which have become adjuvant setting after standard of care in melanoma. Several clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors are ongoing in glioblastoma and other brain carcinomas. Plus, synergistic combinations of checkpoint inhibitors with conventional therapy strategies-radiotherapy, temozolomide, bevacizumab, and corticosteroids are now being exploited and applied in clinical settings...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536390/showing-the-way-oncolytic-adenoviruses-as-chaperones-of-immunostimulatory-adjuncts
#17
REVIEW
Jing Li Huang, Christopher J LaRocca, Masato Yamamoto
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and antitumor effect. OAds can also induce a strong immune reaction due to the massive release of tumor antigens upon cytolysis and the presence of viral antigens. This review will highlight recent advances in adenoviral vectors expressing immunostimulatory effectors, such as GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), interferon-α, interleukin-12, and CD40L...
September 19, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536388/capitalizing-on-cancer-specific-replication-oncolytic-viruses-as-a-versatile-platform-for-the-enhancement-of-cancer-immunotherapy-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Donald Bastin, Scott R Walsh, Meena Al Saigh, Yonghong Wan
The past decade has seen considerable excitement in the use of biological therapies in treating neoplastic disease. In particular, cancer immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as two frontrunners in this regard with the first FDA approvals for agents in both categories being obtained in the last 5 years. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these two approaches are not mutually exclusive and that much of the therapeutic benefit obtained from the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) is in fact the result of their immunotherapeutic function...
August 24, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536354/viroimmunotherapy-for-colorectal-cancer-clinical-studies
#19
REVIEW
Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Susanne Warner
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer incidence and death. Therapies for those with unresectable or recurrent disease are not considered curative at present. More effective and less toxic therapies are desperately needed. Historically, the immune system was thought to be an enemy to oncolytic viral therapy. Thinking that oncolysis would be the only mechanism for cell death, oncolytic virologists theorized that immune clearance was a detriment to oncolysis. Recent advances in our understanding of the tumor microenvironment, and the interplay of tumor survival and a patient's immune system have called into question our understanding of both arenas...
March 10, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536351/oncolytic-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-as-a-viro-immunotherapy-defeating-cancer-with-a-hammer-and-anvil
#20
REVIEW
Michael Karl Melzer, Arturo Lopez-Martinez, Jennifer Altomonte
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment...
February 10, 2017: Biomedicines
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