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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213954/human-herpes-virus-6-infection-in-pediatric-organ-transplant-patients
#1
Elisa Ylinen, Silja Lehtinen, Timo Jahnukainen, Teemu Karlsson, Raisa Loginov, Laura Mannonen, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Hannu Jalanko
Transplant patients need lifelong immunosuppressive medication, but this reduces their defense mechanisms, making them prone to viral infections and reactivations. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection in children after pediatric solid organ transplants. Clinical findings and viral loads were compared between primary HHV-6 infections and reactivations. The study comprised 47 kidney, 25 liver, and 12 heart transplant patients who underwent surgery from 2009 to 2014...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#2
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211090/development-of-proteinuria-and-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-during-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-hep-16-2474-r1
#3
Jonathan J Hogan, Mary Ann Lim, Matthew B Palmer, Roy D Bloom, Raymond T Chung, Meghan E Sise
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) presents as proteinuric kidney disease and is associated with poor long-term renal outcomes. Here we describe three patients with solid organ transplants and normal baseline kidney function who developed FSGS during direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211039/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-epidemiological-review
#4
REVIEW
A C Green, C M Olsen
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer in white populations and its disease burden is often substantially underestimated. SCC occurs more often in men than women and increases dramatically with age; those affected often develop multiple primaries over time, which increases the burden. The main external cause is solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), with immunosuppression being the other established risk factor, shown by the high SCC rates in organ transplant recipients. Sunbed use and certain genetic disorders and medical conditions are also associated with SCC, while associations with human papillomavirus infection and high bodyweight are not established...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207190/diaporthe-soft-tissue-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-patient
#5
Robert M Rakita, Kevin D O'Brien, Lori Bourassa
Infections caused by Diaporthe species are very uncommon. We describe a heart transplant recipient 14 years post transplant who developed a soft tissue fungal infection due to a Diaporthe species that responded well to surgical excision and posaconazole therapy. The Aspergillus galactomannan index was markedly elevated, and returned to normal following treatment. Solid organ transplant patients remain at risk of infection long after transplant and should be counseled about risk avoidance. This article is protected by copyright...
February 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199780/cytomegalovirus-responsive-cd8-t-cells-expand-after-solid-organ-transplantation-in-the-absence-of-cmv-disease
#6
Lauren E Higdon, Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Sai Liu, Kenneth B Margulies, Malaya K Sahoo, Emily Blumberg, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jonathan S Maltzman
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients. Approximately 60% of adults are CMV seropositive indicating previous exposure. Following resolution of primary infection, CMV remains in a latent state. Reactivation is controlled by memory T cells in healthy individuals; transplant recipients have reduced memory T cell function due to chronic immunosuppressive therapies. In this study, CD8(+) T cell responses to CMV polypeptides IE-1 and pp65 were analyzed in sixteen CMV seropositive renal and cardiac transplant recipients longitudinally pre- and post-transplant...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197527/laryngeal-cryptococcus-a-rare-cause-of-hoarseness-in-renal-allograft-recipient
#7
Jashan Sandhu, Jasvinder Singh Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur Puri, Manish Munjal
Cryptococcosis commonly involves central nervous system and lungs in organ transplant recipients. Isolated laryngeal infection is extremely rare. We report a rare case of cryptococcus in a renal allograft recipient that clinically presented with hoarseness of voice and mimicked laryngeal carcinoma on examination.
2017: J Nephropharmacol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197380/the-influence-of-gut-decontamination-prophylactic-antibiotics-on-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-survival-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Bertrand Routy, Caroline Letendre, David Enot, Maxime Chénard-Poirier, Vikram Mehraj, Noémie Charbonneau Séguin, Khaled Guenda, Kathia Gagnon, Paul-Louis Woerther, David Ghez, Silvy Lachance
The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). High-dose conditioning regimens given prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) modulate the composition of gut microbiota and damage the gut epithelial barrier, resulting in increased systemic inflammation. We assessed whether gut decontamination with antibiotics (ATB) prior to aHSCT influenced the frequency of aGVHD and mortality in 500 patients from two Canadian centers between 2005 and 2012...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194857/hepatitis-e-risks-pigs-or-blood-that-is-the-question
#9
Richard S Tedder, Samreen Ijaz, Alan Kitchen, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Kate I Tettmar, Patricia Hewitt, Nick Andrews
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) Genotype 3 is recognized as a food-borne zoonosis in developed countries where it usually causes a mild self-limited acute hepatitis. It may cause a persistent infection in the immunosuppressed human that can progress to cirrhosis. To protect the patient from transfusion-acquired HEV infection, steps have been taken in the United Kingdom to provide for at-risk patients only components from donors screened for HEV viremia. This strategy does not protect from dietary exposure and calls into question estimation of relative risk between blood transfusion and diet...
February 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194062/performance-of-galactomannan-antigen-beta-d-glucan-and-aspergillus-lateral-flow-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#10
Gökhan Metan, Muzaffer Keklik, Gökçen Dinç, Çiğdem Pala, Afra Yıldırım, Berkay Saraymen, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Leylagül Kaynar, Bülent Eser, Mustafa Çetin
Aspergillus lateral-flow device (LFD) was recently introduced as a practical tool for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We investigated the performance of Aspergillus-LFD as a point-of-care test for the diagnosis of IA. Serum samples were collected twice weekly from patients who received intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia, or recepients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen, 1,3-beta-d-glucan and Aspergillus-LFD tests were carried out according to manufacturers' recommendations...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190435/neurologic-complications-of-transplantation
#11
R Dhar
Major neurologic morbidity, such as seizures and encephalopathy, complicates 20-30% of organ and stem cell transplantation procedures. The majority of these disorders occur in the early posttransplant period, but recipients remain at risk for opportunistic infections and other nervous system disorders for many years. These long-term risks may be increasing as acute survival increases, and a greater number of "sicker" patients are exposed to long-term immunosuppression. Drug neurotoxicity accounts for a significant proportion of complications, with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, primarily associated with calcineurin inhibitors (i...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#12
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185946/decreased-tacrolimus-plasma-concentrations-during-hcv-therapy-a-drug-drug-interaction-or-is-there-an-alternative-explanation
#13
E J Smolders, S Pape, C T M M de Kanter, A P van den Berg, J P H Drenth, D M Burger
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause severe liver cirrhosis, for which liver transplantation is the only therapy. To prevent organ rejection, transplanted patients are treated with immunosuppressive agents. We describe two transplanted patients treated with tacrolimus who were simultaneously treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for their chronic HCV infection. No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were expected between tacrolimus and the selected DAAs. However, in both patients, tacrolimus plasma concentrations decreased during HCV treatment...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185887/fatal-disseminated-rasamsonia-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-post-lung-transplantation
#14
Gina Hong, Marissa White, Noah Lechtzin, Natalie E West, Robin Avery, Heather Miller, Richard Lee, Robert J Lovari, Christian Massire, Lawrence B Blyn, Xinglun Liang, Deanna A Sutton, Jianmin Fu, Brian L Wickes, Nathan P Wiederhold, Sean X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Disseminated fungal infections are a known serious complication in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) following orthotopic lung transplantation. Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium species are among the more common causes of invasive fungal infection in this population. However, it is also important for clinicians to be aware of other emerging fungal species which may require markedly different antifungal therapies. CASE SUMMARY: We describe the first laboratory-documented case of a fatal disseminated fungal infection caused by Rasamsonia aegroticola in a 21-year-old female CF patient status post-bilateral lung transplantation, which was only identified post-mortem...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180976/-video-assisted-retroperitoneal-debridement-minimally-invasive-treatment-and-long-term-results-for-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#15
R M Eickhoff, J Steinbusch, P Seppelt, A Kroh, K Junge, C D Klink, U P Neumann, M Binnebösel
BACKGROUND: Among patients with necrotizing pancreatitis 15-20% develop infected necrosis, which entails mortality rates of up to 20%. Particularly driven by the results of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group there has been a paradigm change from open necrosectomy to step-up treatment with initial percutaneous and/or endoscopic drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive retroperitoneal debridement. AIM OF THE STUDY: Description of case series in which patients underwent video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD) including follow-up focused on quality of life...
February 8, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180057/cutaneous-alternariosis-in-a-renal-transplant-patient-successfully-treated-with-posaconazole-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Rajinder Bajwa, Amy L Wojciechowski, Chiu-Bin Hsiao
Cutaneous alternariosis is an uncommon fungal infection that most commonly presents in organ transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy. There are no clinical trials or guidelines to guide treatment of this condition, however itraconazole is the most commonly used antifungal in published cases. Here we report on a case of cutaneous alternariosis in a renal transplant recipient treated with a newer antifungal, posaconazole. A review of published reports of cutaneous alternariosis since 2008 is also discussed...
March 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178393/a-model-to-estimate-the-probability-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-infection-despite-negative-nucleic-acid-testing-among-increased-risk-organ-donors
#17
Pallavi D Annambhotla, Brian M Gurbaxani, Matthew J Kuehnert, Sridhar V Basavaraju
BACKGROUND: In 2013, guidelines were released for reducing the risk of viral bloodborne pathogen transmission through organ transplantation. Eleven criteria were described that result in a donor being designated at increased infectious risk. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk from an increased-risk donor (IRD), despite negative nucleic acid testing (NAT), likely varies based on behavior type and timing. METHODS: We developed a Monte Carlo risk model to quantify probability of HIV among IRDs...
February 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170135/diagnostic-potential-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-to-detect-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
Jameela Edathodu, Bright Varghese, Abdulrahman A Alrajhi, Mohammed Shoukri, Ahmad Nazmi, Hazem Elgamal, Hassan Aleid, Fahad Alrabiah, Aattia Ashraff, Ihab Mahmoud, Sahal Al-Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is screened by using clinical assessment, tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiography and recently by interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of QuantiFERON(®) -TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) for diagnosing LTBI in patients planned for kidney transplantation. METHODS: All adult patients with end-stage renal disease, evaluated for kidney transplantation in a referral center from August 2008 till May 2013, were enrolled, after consenting in a prospective, observational, non-interventional study...
February 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170029/a-cluster-of-fatal-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-organ-transplant-setting
#19
Dariusz Lipowski, Marta Szablowska, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Ewa Rzadkiewicz, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Anna Milecka, Wojciech Wenski, Michał Ciszek, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, Ewa Ignacak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Andrzej Horban, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168576/race-ethnicity-specific-outcomes-among-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-listed-for-liver-transplantation
#20
Joseph Ahn, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Robert J Wong
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and need for liver transplantation (LT). It is unclear if HCV-related LT outcomes vary by race/ethnicity. AIMS: We aim to evaluate ethnic disparities specifically among patients with chronic HCV in the USA. METHODS: Using data from the United Network for Organ Sharing 2003-2013 LT registry, we evaluated race/ethnicity-specific disparities in LT waitlist survival and probability of receiving LT among chronic HCV patients listed for LT...
February 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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