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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789960/cutaneous-manifestations-of-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Cory J Pettit, Katherine Mazurek, Benjamin Kaffenberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant infections present a formidable challenge to the physician due to their varied presentation. Many of these infections begin by inoculation following skin compromise or disseminate to the skin hematogenously, making cutaneous manifestations of infection an important diagnostic clue in the immunocompromised. Quality research in this field is lacking, and this articles seeks to review the literature and present a guide to physicians in order for them to suspect certain infections by their cutaneous presentation...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789956/hepatitis-c-current-controversies-and-future-potential-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Lucy Somerville, Karen Doucette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the changing landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the context of organ transplantation. This focuses on areas of controversy and future potential in the era of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the advent of safe and highly effective DAA therapy, HCV infection is now curable in virtually all cases, including organ transplant recipients. Excellent drug tolerability and safety combined with high cure rates across all organ groups means that HCV is no longer a barrier to transplantation or its outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788538/hepatitis-e-virus-in-south-america-the-current-scenario
#3
María Belén Pisano, Maribel Martínez Wassaf, Santiago Mirazo, Anabella Fantilli, Juan Arbiza, José Debes, Viviana E Ré
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most frequent causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission worldwide. In South America the overall epidemiology has been little studied, and the burden of the disease remains largely unknown. A research of all scientific articles about HEV circulation in South America until November 2017 was carried out. Human seroprevalences of HEV varied according to the studied population: blood donors presented prevalence rates ranging from 1.8 to 9.8%, while reports from HIV-infected individuals, transplant recipients and patients on hemodialysis showed higher prevalence rates...
May 22, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#4
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783767/direct-detection-of-t-and-b-memory-lymphocytes-by-immunospot%C3%A2-assays-reveals-hcmv-exposure-that-serum-antibodies-fail-to-identify
#5
Fredrik Terlutter, Richard Caspell, Tobias M Nowacki, Alexander Lehmann, Ruliang Li, Ting Zhang, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
It is essential to identify donors who have not been infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in order to avoid transmission of HCMV to recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants. In the present study, we tested the reliability of seronegativity as an indicator for the lack of HCMV exposure in healthy human blood donors. Eighty-two HCMV seronegative individuals were identified, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in ImmunoSpot® assays for the presence of HCMV-specific T- and B-memory lymphocytes...
May 19, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780582/the-convergent-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-and-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#6
Frank Cobelens, Nico Nagelkerke, Helen Fletcher
Although several factors are known to increase the risk of tuberculosis, the occurrence of tuberculosis disease in an infected individual is difficult to predict. We hypothesize that active human cytomegalovirus infection due to recent infection, reinfection or reactivation plays an epidemiologically relevant role in the aetiology of tuberculosis by precipitating the progression from latent tuberculosis infection to disease. The most compelling support for this hypothesis comes from the striking similarity in age-sex distribution between the two infections, important because the age-sex pattern of tuberculosis disease progression has not been convincingly explained...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779634/low-pretransplant-iga-level-is-associated-with-early-post-lung-transplant-seromucous-infection
#7
Sudish C Murthy, Robin K Avery, Marie Budev, Sandeep Gupta, Gösta B Pettersson, Edward R Nowicki, Atul Mehta, Jeffrey T Chapman, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, Eugene H Blackstone
OBJECTIVES: Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. METHODS: From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778713/concluding-commentary-on-current-trends-to-enhance-the-clinical-safety-of-pediatric-transfusion-focusing-on-prevention-of-untoward-complications-of-hsc-transplantation-newer-strategies-for-improving-the-standards-of-safety-quality-of-stem-cells-expansion-for
#8
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Clinical practice and related diagnostic, development and research [DDR] strategies in pediatric transfusion and transplantation cover a broad range of multidisciplinary studies, performed by many professionals involved in this most challenging clinical field [1]. This commentary on the current position and future perspectives in pediatric transfusion field is aimed to highlight major unresolved transfusion complications in pediatric patients, namely red blood cell and platelet alloimmunisation, and new ones such as nosocomial infection, thrombosis and multi-organ failure...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775554/outcomes-and-predictors-of-early-infection-after-heart-transplantation
#9
Kendall C Shultes, Jerrica E Shuster, Scott Micek, Justin M Vader, Keki Balsara, Akinobu Itoh, Bethany R Tellor
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the incidence and outcome of early infection after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics and outcomes of OHT recipients with an early infection and to identify predictors of such infections. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included patients greater than 18 years of age who underwent OHT from February 2009 to May 2014 and had an infection within 30 days of transplantation...
May 18, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771243/breath-volatile-organic-compounds-of-lung-transplant-recipients-with-and-without-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#10
Lucas Küppers, Olaf Holz, Sven Schuchardt, Jens Gottlieb, Jan Fuge, Mark Greer, Jens Hohlfeld
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) with its clinical correlative of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the major limiting factor for long-term graft survival. Currently there are no established methods for the early diagnosis or prediction of BOS. To assess the feasibility of breath collection as a non-invasive tool and the potential of breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the early detection of BOS, we compared the breath VOC composition between transplant patients without and different stages of BOS...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770706/intestinal-transplants-review-of-normal-imaging-appearance-and-complications
#11
Bashir Hakim, Daniel T Myers, Todd R Williams, Shunji Nagai, John Bonnett
Intestinal transplant (IT) is one of the least common forms of organ transplant but is increasing both in volume of cases and number of centers performing intestinal transplants, with the busiest centers in North America and Europe. IT can be performed in isolation or as part of a multivisceral transplant (MVT). Intestinal failure either in the form of short gut syndrome or functional bowel problems is the primary indication for IT. The normal post-surgical anatomy can be variable due to both recipient anatomy in regard to amount of residual bowel and status of native vasculature as well as whether the transplant is isolated or part of an multivisceral transplant...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769027/immune-monitoring-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-the-prospective-chilsfree-cohort-study
#12
Imeke Goldschmidt, André Karch, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Frauke Mutschler, Norman Junge, Eva Doreen Pfister, Tamara Möhring, Lorenzo d'Antiga, Patrick McKiernan, Deirdre Kelly, Dominique Debray, Valérie McLin, Joanna Pawlowska, Loreto Hierro, Kerstin Daemen, Jana Keil, Christine Falk, Ulrich Baumann
BACKGROUND: Although trough levels of immunosuppressive drugs are largely used to monitor immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, there is still no established tool that allows for a validated assessment of functional degree of immunosuppression or the identification of clinically relevant over- or under-immunosuppression, depending on graft homeostasis. Reliable non-invasive markers to predict biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) do not exist. Literature data suggest that longitudinal measurements of immune markers might be predictive of BPAR, but data in children are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764228/anti-infective-chemoprophylaxis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#13
Paul J Deziel, Raymund Razonable
Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after solid organ transplantation. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Recent peer-reviewed publications on the prevention of infection after solid organ transplantation were reviewed and their significance was discussed in the context of the current recommendations for preventing infectious complications...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762684/effective-treatment-of-experimental-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection-consideration-of-favipiravir-for-use-with-infected-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
Brady T Hickerson, Jonna B Westover, Kie-Hoon Jung, Takashi Komeno, Yousuke Furuta, Brian B Gowen
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) poses a substantial risk to immunocompromised individuals. The case fatality rate in recent clusters of LCMV infection in immunosuppressed organ transplantation recipients has exceeded 70%. In the present study, we demonstrate potent antiviral activity of favipiravir against acute, disseminated LCMV infection in NZB mice. Treatment resulted in complete protection against mortality and dramatic reductions in viral loads. In contrast, ribavirin, the current antiviral of choice, was mostly ineffective...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762011/strategies-toward-organic-carbon-monoxide-prodrugs
#15
Xingyue Ji, Binghe Wang
Carbon monoxide is widely acknowledged as an important gasotransmitter in the mammalian system with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. It has also been firmly established as a potential therapeutic agent with a wide range of indications including organ transplantation, cancer, bacterial infection, and inflammation-related conditions such as colitis and sepsis. One major issue in developing CO based therapeutics is its delivery in a pharmaceutically acceptable form. Currently, there are generally five forms of deliveries: inhaled CO, photosensitive CO-releasing molecules, encapsulated CO, CO dissolved in drinks, and molecules that would release CO under physiological conditions without the need for light...
May 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755422/porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-perv-molecular-structure-and-replication-strategy-in-the-context-of-retroviral-infection-risk-of-human-cells
#16
REVIEW
Krzysztof Łopata, Emilia Wojdas, Roman Nowak, Paweł Łopata, Urszula Mazurek
The xenotransplantation of porcine tissues may help overcome the shortage of human organs for transplantation. However, there are some concerns about recipient safety because the risk of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission to human cells remains unknown. Although, to date, no PERV infections have been noted in vivo , the possibility of such infections has been confirmed in vitro . Better understanding of the structure and replication cycle of PERVs is a prerequisite for determining the risk of infection and planning PERV-detection strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754381/non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-in-thoracic-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#17
REVIEW
Mana Rao, Fernanda P Silveira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in thoracic transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous but are an uncommon cause of disease after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of infection is higher in thoracic transplant recipients than in abdominal transplant recipients, with most cases seen after lung transplantation...
May 12, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753159/defining-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-catheter-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-an-outpatient-adult-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-program
#18
Marissa K McDonald, Kathryn A Culos, Katie S Gatwood, Caleb Prow, Heidi Chen, Bipin N Savani, Michael Byrne, Adetola A Kassim, Brian G Engelhardt, Madan Jagasia, Gowri Satyanarayana
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients are at an increased risk of developing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) due to prolonged periods of myelosuppression, immunosuppression, and indwelling catheter days. CLABSIs are among the most serious complications in HCT recipients and can lead to prolonged hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, lengthy antimicrobial therapies, and increased mortality. There is a lack of data regarding the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of CLABSIs in the HCT population undergoing outpatient transplantation...
May 9, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748841/characteristics-of-pulmonary-mucormycosis-and-predictive-risk-factors-for-the-outcome
#19
Jun Feng, Xuefeng Sun
PURPOSE: Little is known about risk factors for the outcome of pulmonary mucormycosis. We summarized characteristics of this rare disease, and systemically explored risk factors for the outcome. METHODS: Ninety-two patients with pulmonary mucormycosis, including 12 patients at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and 80 patients published in 62 articles between 2006 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The median age was 47.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 2...
May 10, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748817/the-role-of-the-microbiome-for-human-health-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#20
M Hasan Mohajeri, Robert J M Brummer, Robert A Rastall, Rinse K Weersma, Hermie J M Harmsen, Marijke Faas, Manfred Eggersdorfer
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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